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Presentation on Factors Influencing Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia - A Pilot Study

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This slide deck was presented during Annual Summit on Business and Entrepreneurial Studies on 17-Oct-2011. It depicted what were some of the factors that had influenced project team effectiveness. …

This slide deck was presented during Annual Summit on Business and Entrepreneurial Studies on 17-Oct-2011. It depicted what were some of the factors that had influenced project team effectiveness. Despite the pilot study was using convenient sample of 37, but later larger random sample of 133 shows the similar results (see last slide). We can infer from this study that the results can generalize to the entire population of PMI Malaysia Chapter.

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  • 1. Factors Influencing Project Team Effectiveness asPerceived by Project Managers in Malaysia – A Pilot Study FUNG Han Ping ITIL v3 Expert, ITIL v2 Mgr, CISSP, PMP IBM Malaysia, Global Technology Services 17-Oct-2011
  • 2. Overview1. Introduction2. Research Problem3. Research Objectives, Questions & Knowledge Contribution4. Literature Review5. Conceptual Framework6. Hypotheses7. Research Methodology8. Pilot Study Findings9. Discussion10. Conclusion11. Q&A10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 2
  • 3. 1. Introduction – Operational Definitions1. Project Team Effectiveness – project manager or leader’s perception on team members’ performance in task completion, goal achievement, empowerment, information sharing & team’s ability to create & sustain a good working environment (Bourgault et al., 2008)2. Leadership Roles – collection of 8 roles including facilitator, mentor, innovator, broker, producer, director, coordinator & monitor that an effective project manager or leader can demonstrate appropriately in a complex & rapid changing environment (Denison et al., 1995)3. Team Building & Participation – process of helping a team of individuals bound with a shared goal to participate & work interdependently with other team members in completing a project (PMI, 2008)4. Team Shared Mental Models – shared knowledge about team members’ characteristics & team interaction patterns that enable team members to adapt & coordinate with other team members in completing a task (Cannon-Bowers et al., 1993) 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 3
  • 4. 1. Introduction – Conceptual Framework Proposed Framework to evaluate Factors influencing Project Team Effectiveness underpinned on Cohen & Bailey’s (1997) Team Effectiveness Framework Bailey’10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 4
  • 5. 2. Research Problem Today many organizations achieving their business objectives through project(s) which consists of various team members managing by project manager(s) Because project performance through team is more effective than individual performance as team outcomes exceed the sum of individual outputs Benefits studying project team effectiveness (Hoevemeyer, 1993):1. Improve job productivity & morale among project team members2. Frees up project manager from micro-manage day to day details – more time focusing on other works3. Enable team work within & between teams so that entire organization can function more effectively4. Improve service quality & customer satisfaction Literature review shows lack of research on project team effectiveness & factors influencing project team effectiveness in Malaysia Problem statement is lack of understanding and empirical results on what are the factors influencing project team effectiveness in multi-ethnical & multi-cultural Malaysia context10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 5
  • 6. 2. Research Problem Factors Influencing Proposed Project Team Research Effectiveness Area Research Project Team Benefits of Project Gap Effectiveness Team Effectiveness 1. Improve job productivity & morale (Hoevemeyer, 1993) 2. Frees up busy time of project manager 3. Enable organization functions more effectively 4. Improve service quality & customer satisfaction (Hoevemeyer, 1993)10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 6
  • 7. 3. Research Objectives, Questions & Knowledge Contribution Research Objective: 1. Evaluate factors that can influence project team effectiveness as perceived by project managers in Malaysia Research Questions: 1. What are the factors influencing project team effectiveness? 2. Which is the most significant predictor for project team effectiveness? Contribution to Knowledge: 1. Provide understanding on what & how team factors can positively influence project team effectiveness in Malaysian context 2. Encourage management & project managers to demonstrate more of their leadership roles, plan & organize more team building activities and motivate their team members to participate – once they are done, team shared mental models increased which will improve project team effectiveness 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 7
  • 8. 4. Literature Review Project Team Effectiveness – Cohen & Bailey (1997), Gladstein (1984) etc. Cohen & Bailey’s (1997) Team Effectiveness Framework serves as underpinning theoretical framework for this study Design Factors e.g. Supervision is mapped to current study’s Leadership Roles as supervision is a form of leadership duty that project manager needs to cover to ensure project is progressing onto the right direction (Pinto, 2007) Group Processes are mapped to current study’s Team Building & Participation as group/team processes are team events & behaviors that can transform a team & organization resources into team performance (Gladstein, 1984) – other team processes include conflict, communication, cooperation, collaboration & interaction that impact team effectiveness (Cohen & Bailey, 1997)Cohen & Bailey’s (1997) Team Effectiveness Bailey’Framework Group Psychosocial Traits are mapped to current study’s Team Shared Mental Models 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 8
  • 9. 4. Literature Review Leadership Roles - Webber (2002), Yukl (2002), PMI (2008), Denison et al. (1995), Quinn (1988) etc.Project team needs leadership to resolve project Leadershipproblems like low team trust & cohesion, Roles Modeldisintegration & negative performance due to (Quinn,functional heterogeneity or diversity & multiple 1988)reporting relationships (Webber, 2002)Behavioral Complexity Leadership (BCL) theoryexplains effective leaders will equip & performvarious leadership roles & opposing behaviorssimultaneously when confronting complex & fastchanging environments (Denison et al., 1995)Lack of study on whether BCL influence ProjectTeam Effectiveness, Team Shared Mental Models& Team Building & Participation in Malaysia 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 9
  • 10. 4. Literature Review Team Building & Participation – PMI (2008), Cook et al. (1997), Guiney (2009), Schermerhorn et al. (2008) etc.Team building is “process of helping a group ofindividuals, bound by a common sense of purpose,to work interdependently with each other, theleader, external stakeholders & the organization” organization”(PMI, 2008 p. 418)Team building activities (Guiney, 2009) include: Planning with project team Building commitment among team members Developing strong communication channels Empowering team members Manage conflict Conducting team building sessions Stimulating enthusiasmDespite implementing team building activities,team members participation is crucial Team Building Process (Schermerhorn et al., (Schermerhorn(Schermerhorn et al., 2008) 2008)Lack of research on how team building &participation will affect team shared mentalmodels & project team effectiveness in Malaysia 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 10
  • 11. 4. Literature Review Team Shared Mental Models – McShane & Von Glinow (2008), Rouse & Morris (1986), Mathieu et al. (2000), Hsu et al. (2007) etc.Mental model is an internal cognitive view Team SMMformed in an individual’s mind after what s/he & Task SMMhad perceived from the external world e.g. a (Lee, 2007)house, accident or process like caterpillardevelopment to a butterfly (McShane & VonGlinow, 2008)Mental model is a mechanism that an individualis capable to produce understanding of asystem’s purpose, system’s form, explanation onhow the system is working, the system’s currentstates & prediction on its future states (Rouse &Morris, 1986)Task Shared Mental Models are excluded fromthis study as they are task related knowledgeonly relevant to specific job or task which is verydomain specific & its contents are most stable &will decrease the need for project team membersto interact openly (Mathieu et al., 2000)Shared mental models do affect teameffectiveness, team commitment & teamperformance in non-MY setting (Carley, 1997;Heffner, 1998; Kraiger & Wenzel, 1997, Mathieuet al., 2000 etc) Process of DevelopingTeam building do influence team shared mental a SMMmodels in non-MY setting (Hsu et al., 2007) (Lee, 2007) 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 11
  • 12. 4. Literature Review – Operational Definitions1. Project Team Effectiveness – project manager or leader’s perception on team members’ performance in task completion, goal achievement, empowerment, information sharing & team’s ability to create & sustain a good working environment (Bourgault et al., 2008)2. Leadership Roles – collection of 8 roles including facilitator, mentor, innovator, broker, producer, director, coordinator & monitor that an effective project manager or leader can demonstrate appropriately in a complex & rapid changing environment (Denison et al., 1995)3. Team Building & Participation – process of helping a team of individuals bound with a shared goal to participate & work interdependently with other team members in completing a project (PMI, 2008)4. Team Shared Mental Models – shared knowledge about team members’ characteristics & team interaction patterns that enable team members to adapt & coordinate with other team members in completing a task (Cannon-Bowers et al., 1993) 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 12
  • 13. 5. Conceptual Framework H1 + Team Building & Participation H5 + H2 +Leadership H4 + Project Team Roles Effectiveness H3 + H6 + Team Shared Mental Models H7 M(TBP-TSMM-PTE)10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 13
  • 14. 5. Conceptual Framework Proposed Framework to evaluate Factors influencing Project Team Effectiveness underpinned on Cohen & Bailey’s (1997) Team Effectiveness Framework Bailey’10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 14
  • 15. 5. Conceptual Framework - Epistemology Proposed FrameworkProposed framework based on underpinning Cohen & Bailey’s (1997) Team Effectiveness Framework Bailey’Team Effectiveness is substituted with Project Team EffectivenessSupervision of Organization Context within Design Factors is substituted with Leadership Roles withTeam Processes are substituted with Team Building & ParticipationShared Mental Models of Group Psychosocial Traits are substituted with Team Shared Mental ModelsEven though Group Processes are correlated with Group Psychosocial Traits in Cohen & Bailey’s (1997) Team Bailey’Effectiveness Framework, a study by Hsu et al. (2007) indicated Team Building only one directional influencingTeam Shared Mental Models. Hence, in this study Team Building & Participation will only influence Team Models.Shared Mental Models, not the other way round. round.Environmental factors like turbulence & industry characteristics are not adopted as this study covers projectsfrom different industries and in different project phases 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 15
  • 16. 6. HypothesesH1 – Leadership Roles will positively influence Project TeamEffectivenessH2 – Leadership Roles will positively influence Team Building &ParticipationH3 – Leadership Roles will positively influence Team Shared MentalModelsH4 – Team Building & Participation will positively influence Team SharedMental ModelsH5 – Team Building & Participation will positively influence Project TeamEffectivenessH6 – Team Shared Mental Models will positively influence Project TeamEffectivenessH7 – Team Shared Mental Models will mediate the relationship betweenTeam Building & Participation and Project Team Effectiveness10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 16
  • 17. 7. Research Methodology Approach – Cross Sectional Quantitative Research with Online Survey Method based on deductive research questions Sampling & Data Collection: Initial plan was to randomly select 500 project managers / team leaders via SPSS v17 from PMI MY Chapter so that 500 emails could send out with online survey hyperlink But for pilot study, purposive sampling was used by soliciting AeU part-time students who are in the roles of project managers / team leaders to fill up the online survey Reasons getting project managers / team leaders’ responses: 1. Bias view from team members in which they attribute negative project outcome to external factors while attributing success to themselves (Standing et al., 2006) 2. Team members do not have vested interest in project team effectiveness compares to project manager / team leader in which the latter normally adopt more balanced view which attribute success to external factors & only partially to themselves, while they also attribute significant personal responsibility for project team failure or negative outcome (Standing et al., 2006) 3. Collecting data fr previous project team members is not feasible as they have disbanded, not contactable or busy involve in other projects (Webber, 2002) 3-waves mailing is used & survey complete in 4 weeks10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 17
  • 18. 7. Research MethodologyQuestionnaire: Respondents were asked to refer to one project they had completed recently disregard outcome was positive or negative in filling up the online survey Total 72 questions (58 research + 14 Demographic) all with 5-point Likert scale Team Effectiveness (20 questions) – adapted fr Hoevemeyer (1993) Leadership Roles (16 questions) – adapted fr Denison et al. (1995) Team Building & Participation (12 questions) – adapted fr Hsu et al. (2007), Carew & Carew (1990) & Law (1992) Team Shared Mental Models (10 questions) – adapted fr Millward & Jeffries (2001)Data Analysis: SPSS v17 Normality Test, Descriptive Statistics, Cronbach Alpha Reliability Test, Validity Test, Pearson r Correlation Test, Multiple Regression Analysis, AMOS v18 Path Analysis10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 18
  • 19. 8. Pilot Study FindingsDescriptive Statistics: Among sample of 37 respondents, 86% are male & 62% of them aged btw 31 & 50 More than half (58%) have 5 to 20 years of project management experience, 80% holds a Master & Doctorate degrees 37% of respondents are in firms with > 500 employees, 74% are project managers & team leaders More than half of the projects completed were in construction, education, government & ICT industries and cost more than RM5m each 75% of projects completed less than 2 years & each project has average 20 team members10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 19
  • 20. 8. Pilot Study Findings10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 20
  • 21. 8. Pilot Study Findings Path Analysis Result4 conditions required to support TSMM as a mediator (Baron & Kenny, 1986) Condition 1 – TBP exerts significant influence on TSMM Condition 2 – TSMM exerts significant influence on PTE Condition 3 – TBP exerts significant influence on PTE Condition 4 – TBP exerts reduction of or insignificance of influence on PTE with inclusion of TSMM 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 21
  • 22. Explanation: 9. Discussion 1. When project manager is demonstrating more of his/her Leadership Roles, this will lead to higher Team Building & Participation and increased Team Shared Mental Models – these 2 direct effects are supporting the same findings of Cohen & Bailey’s (1997) study 2. Team Shared Mental Models are affected by Team Building & Participation – this direct effect also support same findings of previous studies (Cohen & Bailey, 1997; Hsu et al., 2007) 3. Intervention of both Team Building & Participation and Team Shared Mental Models can improve Project Team Effectiveness – supporting similar finding of Cohen & Bailey’s (1997) study 4. Insignificant relationship btw Leadership Roles & Project Team Effectiveness suggest Leadership Roles alone will not impact Project Team Effectiveness directly (but rather intervened by both Team Building & Participation, and Team Shared Mental Models) – different from what Cohen & Bailey’s (1997) study had stated, this may due to the fact that project team effectiveness is dependent on outcomes of project manager’s leadership roles rather than his or her leadership alone10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 22
  • 23. 9. Discussion (cont’d) Lesson Learnt: 1. Project team members only perform more effectively based on outcome of project manager’s leadership roles that they can experience e.g. team building activities devised, how project manager encourage their participation & how much project manager leads the team to share the common knowledge about their characteristics & interaction patterns. 2. Team building activities & team members participation provide useful intervention for project manager to build an effective project team as these activities can improve communication, clarify team objectives, promote mutual supportiveness, enable problem & conflict resolution, and facilitate team empowerment. 3. Improved team shared mental models due to its 2 antecedents promote common shared knowledge among team members that can make the team more committed, improved decision making & perform more effectively Answering Research Questions: 1. What are the factors influencing project team effectiveness? → Only Team Building & Participation, and Team Shared Mental Models 2. Which is the most significant predictor for project team effectiveness? → Team Shared Mental Models (regression weight of 0.72 vs Team Building & Participation 0.47)10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 23
  • 24. Conclusion: 10. Conclusion Based on purposive sample of 37, this empirical study confirmed that project manager’s leadership roles alone can’t improve project team effectiveness but rather his/her leadership roles can influence both team building & participation, and team shared mental models in which these 2 intervening variables can significantly & directly improve project team effectiveness Limitation & Future Recommendation: 1. Lack of random sample – need more for future actual study 2. Survey only include project managers / team leaders – involve project team members in future study 3. Included both leadership roles (internal & external focus) – future study can focus on internal leadership roles which is more people & process management oriented (evaluate whether leadership roles can directly influence project team effectiveness) 4. Only team building & participation is assessed – future study can include other team processes like team information processing, team dynamics, team empowerment, team trust etc.10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 24
  • 25. 11. Questions & Answers? hpfung2001@yahoo.com10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 25
  • 26. Backup10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 26
  • 27. AMOS Path Analysis Results N = 133 N = 37 10/15/2011 FUNG Han Ping 27

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