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Beyond protein intake: Bushmeat as source of micronutrients in the tri-frontier region

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Presentation by Flavia Mori Sarti at the symposium, "Innovative ways for conserving the ecosystem services provided by bushmeat" in the 51th Annual Meeting ATBC 2014 in Cairns, Australia.

Presentation by Flavia Mori Sarti at the symposium, "Innovative ways for conserving the ecosystem services provided by bushmeat" in the 51th Annual Meeting ATBC 2014 in Cairns, Australia.

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  • 1. Beyond protein intake: Bushmeat as source of micronutrients in the tri- frontier region Flavia Mori Sarti
  • 2. Protein availability in tropical forests  Local sources of protein  Wild animals and insects  Seasonal scarcity  Complemented by staple foods  Manioc  Sweet potatoes  Plaintains  Low dietary intake as limitation for size and permanence of pre-contact Amazonian settlements
  • 3. Bushmeat consumption  Central role in the diets of urban and rural populations in tropical forests  Primary source of protein  Few evidences on micronutrients contribution  Diets in the Amazonian region  Lack of variety  Nutritional deficiencies  Low caloric content
  • 4. Methods  Household (Hh) food intake study  Part of wider survey on bushmeat (BM) in Amazon region  Sample selection of households according to country, location, income, and bushmeat consumption based on  Interviews among schoolchildren (16 schools)  875 interviews during dry season (September to October, 2012)  1,043 interviews during rainy season (February to March, 2013)  3 consecutive days collection of 24-hour recall (Sun-Tue) with food items weighting in June and July, 2013
  • 5. Methods  Household (Hh) food intake study  Household members converted into adult equivalent units  According to age and sex  Food intake converted into  Calories  Macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, lipids)  Micronutrients (fiber, cholesterol, vitamin C, iron, sodium, calcium)  Nutrient intake per adult equivalent compared with nutritional requirements for evaluation of populations
  • 6. Household sample characteristics Characteristics Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons n % n % n % Country Brazil 20 57% 17 57% 3 60% Bolivia 15 43% 13 43% 2 40% Income High 8 23% 7 23% 1 20% Low 27 77% 23 77% 4 80% Avg SD Avg SD Avg SD Hh members Individuals 6.5 3.1 6.4 3.3 7.0 2.3 AE Units 5.1 2.3 5.1 2.4 5.5 1.6 Obs.: Hh = household; BM Cons = bushmeat consumption; Hh members = household members; AE Units = adult equivalent units; Avg = average; SD = standard deviation.
  • 7. Results  Nutrient consumption  Caloric intake per adult barely achieves recommendations  Iron deficiency in the diets registered  Low intake of fiber, calcium, and vitamin C  Markers of healthy diets  Low consumption of fruits and vegetables  Excessive intake of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids  Nutrients related to unhealthy diets  Households that consumed bushmeat presented intake marginally higher (+20% and +25%)
  • 8. Nutrient intake per day per adult (1/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Calories (Kcal) 1,762.62 656.26 -39.2% 1,727.85 654.63 -40.4% 1,971.25 700.22 -32.0% 2,900.00 Fiber (g) 14.75 8.94 -61.2% 15.10 9.06 -60.3% 12.66 8.77 -66.7% 38.00 Calcium (mg) 410.61 207.74 -68.4% 408.70 191.45 -68.6% 422.09 317.63 -67.5% 1,300.00 Iron (mg) 8.00 6.13 -55.5% 6.59 3.02 -63.4% 16.51 12.17 -8.3% 18.00 Sodium (mg) 3,712.46 2,039.93 642.5% 3,672.46 1,955.06 634.5% 3,952.46 2,752.37 690.5% 500.00 Vitamin C (mg) 20.12 20.02 -77.6% 20.77 21.20 -76.9% 16.26 11.23 -81.9% 90.00 Cholesterol (mg) 374.65 175.19 24.9% 364.11 155.87 21.4% 437.88 280.90 46.0% 300.00
  • 9. Nutrient intake per day per adult (1/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Calories (Kcal) 1,762.62 656.26 -39.2% 1,727.85 654.63 -40.4% 1,971.25 700.22 -32.0% 2,900.00 Fiber (g) 14.75 8.94 -61.2% 15.10 9.06 -60.3% 12.66 8.77 -66.7% 38.00 Calcium (mg) 410.61 207.74 -68.4% 408.70 191.45 -68.6% 422.09 317.63 -67.5% 1,300.00 Iron (mg) 8.00 6.13 -55.5% 6.59 3.02 -63.4% 16.51 12.17 -8.3% 18.00 Sodium (mg) 3,712.46 2,039.93 642.5% 3,672.46 1,955.06 634.5% 3,952.46 2,752.37 690.5% 500.00 Vitamin C (mg) 20.12 20.02 -77.6% 20.77 21.20 -76.9% 16.26 11.23 -81.9% 90.00 Cholesterol (mg) 374.65 175.19 24.9% 364.11 155.87 21.4% 437.88 280.90 46.0% 300.00
  • 10. Nutrient intake per day per adult (1/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Calories (Kcal) 1,762.62 656.26 -39.2% 1,727.85 654.63 -40.4% 1,971.25 700.22 -32.0% 2,900.00 Fiber (g) 14.75 8.94 -61.2% 15.10 9.06 -60.3% 12.66 8.77 -66.7% 38.00 Calcium (mg) 410.61 207.74 -68.4% 408.70 191.45 -68.6% 422.09 317.63 -67.5% 1,300.00 Iron (mg) 8.00 6.13 -55.5% 6.59 3.02 -63.4% 16.51 12.17 -8.3% 18.00 Sodium (mg) 3,712.46 2,039.93 642.5% 3,672.46 1,955.06 634.5% 3,952.46 2,752.37 690.5% 500.00 Vitamin C (mg) 20.12 20.02 -77.6% 20.77 21.20 -76.9% 16.26 11.23 -81.9% 90.00 Cholesterol (mg) 374.65 175.19 24.9% 364.11 155.87 21.4% 437.88 280.90 46.0% 300.00
  • 11. Nutrient intake per day per adult (2/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD % Avg SD % Avg SD % Protein (g) 95.93 50.61 21.8% 89.97 41.43 20.8% 131.72 86.38 26.7% 10-15% Lipids (g) 60.22 31.01 30.7% 57.75 31.93 30.1% 75.01 21.53 34.2% 15-30% Carbohydrates (g) 206.51 102.65 46.9% 209.59 104.40 48.5% 188.00 100.20 38.1% 55-75% Saturated FA (g) 15.96 7.82 8.2% 15.41 7.84 8.0% 19.28 7.57 8.8% <10% Monounsaturated FA (g) 18.97 10.44 18.2% 18.44 10.88 17.7% 22.18 7.30 20.5% >6% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 16.62 9.57 15.62 9.53 22.64 8.17 Obs.: BM Cons = bushmeat consumption; Avg = average intake; SD = standard deviation;Adeq = adequacy in relation to nutritional recommendations; DRI = Dietary Reference Intakes; FA = fatty acids.
  • 12. Nutrient intake per day per adult (2/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD % Avg SD % Avg SD % Protein (g) 95.93 50.61 21.8% 89.97 41.43 20.8% 131.72 86.38 26.7% 10-15% Lipids (g) 60.22 31.01 30.7% 57.75 31.93 30.1% 75.01 21.53 34.2% 15-30% Carbohydrates (g) 206.51 102.65 46.9% 209.59 104.40 48.5% 188.00 100.20 38.1% 55-75% Saturated FA (g) 15.96 7.82 8.2% 15.41 7.84 8.0% 19.28 7.57 8.8% <10% Monounsaturated FA (g) 18.97 10.44 18.2% 18.44 10.88 17.7% 22.18 7.30 20.5% >6% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 16.62 9.57 15.62 9.53 22.64 8.17 Obs.: BM Cons = bushmeat consumption; Avg = average intake; SD = standard deviation;Adeq = adequacy in relation to nutritional recommendations; DRI = Dietary Reference Intakes; FA = fatty acids.
  • 13. Nutrient intake per day per adult (2/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD % Avg SD % Avg SD % Protein (g) 95.93 50.61 21.8% 89.97 41.43 20.8% 131.72 86.38 26.7% 10-15% Lipids (g) 60.22 31.01 30.7% 57.75 31.93 30.1% 75.01 21.53 34.2% 15-30% Carbohydrates (g) 206.51 102.65 46.9% 209.59 104.40 48.5% 188.00 100.20 38.1% 55-75% Saturated FA (g) 15.96 7.82 8.2% 15.41 7.84 8.0% 19.28 7.57 8.8% <10% Monounsaturated FA (g) 18.97 10.44 18.2% 18.44 10.88 17.7% 22.18 7.30 20.5% >6% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 16.62 9.57 15.62 9.53 22.64 8.17 Obs.: BM Cons = bushmeat consumption; Avg = average intake; SD = standard deviation;Adeq = adequacy in relation to nutritional recommendations; DRI = Dietary Reference Intakes; FA = fatty acids.
  • 14. Results  Nutrient consumption  Carbohydrate, protein and iron in households that did not consume bushmeat  Higher intake of carbohydrates (+12%)  Lower intake of protein (-32%) and iron (-60%)  Food consumption  Manioc flour reported in 69 of the 302 meals registered  Protein sources in households without BM consumption  Chicken (40), fish (39), eggs (34), and processed meat (32)  Meat (18) and pork (6) were the least mentioned
  • 15. Results  Bushmeat consumption  Registered in seven meals at five households  Represents  32% of usual caloric intake  72% of protein intake  Main food source of iron  73% of cholesterol  38% of saturated fatty acids
  • 16. Contribution from bushmeat (1/2) Nutrient Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg Calories (Kcal) 1,971.25 700.22 628.25 571.34 28.5% 31.8% Fiber (g) 12.66 8.77 0.00 0.00 0.0% 0.0% Calcium (mg) 422.09 317.63 55.49 62.80 18.4% 19.5% Iron (mg) 16.51 12.17 25.65 28.32 74.1% 139.9% Sodium (mg) 3,952.46 2,752.37 175.86 164.63 6.1% 5.1% Vitamin C (mg) 16.26 11.23 6.01 9.47 30.8% 41.1% Cholesterol (mg) 437.88 280.90 317.94 323.98 59.6% 72.8%
  • 17. Contribution from bushmeat (1/2) Nutrient Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg Calories (Kcal) 1,971.25 700.22 628.25 571.34 28.5% 31.8% Fiber (g) 12.66 8.77 0.00 0.00 0.0% 0.0% Calcium (mg) 422.09 317.63 55.49 62.80 18.4% 19.5% Iron (mg) 16.51 12.17 25.65 28.32 74.1% 139.9% Sodium (mg) 3,952.46 2,752.37 175.86 164.63 6.1% 5.1% Vitamin C (mg) 16.26 11.23 6.01 9.47 30.8% 41.1% Cholesterol (mg) 437.88 280.90 317.94 323.98 59.6% 72.8%
  • 18. Contribution from bushmeat (2/2) Nutrient Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg Protein (g) 131.72 86.38 96.22 94.51 59.5% 71.4% Lipids (g) 75.01 21.53 24.04 20.63 30.6% 34.0% Carbohydrates (g) 188.00 100.20 0.22 0.59 0.2% 0.1% Saturated FA (g) 19.28 7.57 6.86 6.20 35.0% 38.4% Monounsaturated FA (g) 22.18 7.30 7.44 6.52 32.8% 35.5% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 22.64 8.17 3.99 3.97 16.7% 20.9%
  • 19. Contribution from bushmeat (2/2) Nutrient Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg Protein (g) 131.72 86.38 96.22 94.51 59.5% 71.4% Lipids (g) 75.01 21.53 24.04 20.63 30.6% 34.0% Carbohydrates (g) 188.00 100.20 0.22 0.59 0.2% 0.1% Saturated FA (g) 19.28 7.57 6.86 6.20 35.0% 38.4% Monounsaturated FA (g) 22.18 7.30 7.44 6.52 32.8% 35.5% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 22.64 8.17 3.99 3.97 16.7% 20.9%
  • 20. Discussion  Bushmeat consumption seems to be gradually substituted by  Other protein sources  Food items that present lower protein and iron contents  Evidences supported by results of other studies  Manioc flour continues as staple food  Nutrition transition in Amazon region  Poorer diets  Susceptible to anaemia and chronic health problems
  • 21. Thank you! flamori@usp.br