Beyond protein intake: Bushmeat as
source of micronutrients in the tri-
frontier region
Flavia Mori Sarti
Protein availability in tropical forests
 Local sources of protein
 Wild animals and insects
 Seasonal scarcity
 Compl...
Bushmeat consumption
 Central role in the diets of urban and rural
populations in tropical forests
 Primary source of pr...
Methods
 Household (Hh) food intake study
 Part of wider survey on bushmeat (BM) in Amazon region
 Sample selection of ...
Methods
 Household (Hh) food intake study
 Household members converted into adult equivalent units
 According to age an...
Household sample characteristics
Characteristics
Total
Hh without BM
Cons
Hh with BM Cons
n % n % n %
Country
Brazil 20 57...
Results
 Nutrient consumption
 Caloric intake per adult barely achieves recommendations
 Iron deficiency in the diets r...
Nutrient intake per day per adult (1/2)
Nutrient
Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons
DRI
Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Avg ...
Nutrient intake per day per adult (1/2)
Nutrient
Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons
DRI
Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Avg ...
Nutrient intake per day per adult (1/2)
Nutrient
Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons
DRI
Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Avg ...
Nutrient intake per day per adult (2/2)
Nutrient
Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons
DRI
Avg SD % Avg SD % Avg SD %
P...
Nutrient intake per day per adult (2/2)
Nutrient
Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons
DRI
Avg SD % Avg SD % Avg SD %
P...
Nutrient intake per day per adult (2/2)
Nutrient
Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons
DRI
Avg SD % Avg SD % Avg SD %
P...
Results
 Nutrient consumption
 Carbohydrate, protein and iron in households that did not
consume bushmeat
 Higher intak...
Results
 Bushmeat consumption
 Registered in seven meals at five households
 Represents
 32% of usual caloric intake
...
Contribution from bushmeat (1/2)
Nutrient
Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in
Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg
Calor...
Contribution from bushmeat (1/2)
Nutrient
Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in
Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg
Calor...
Contribution from bushmeat (2/2)
Nutrient
Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in
Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg
Prote...
Contribution from bushmeat (2/2)
Nutrient
Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in
Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg
Prote...
Discussion
 Bushmeat consumption seems to be gradually
substituted by
 Other protein sources
 Food items that present l...
Thank you!
flamori@usp.br
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Beyond protein intake: Bushmeat as source of micronutrients in the tri-frontier region

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Presentation by Flavia Mori Sarti at the symposium, "Innovative ways for conserving the ecosystem services provided by bushmeat" in the 51th Annual Meeting ATBC 2014 in Cairns, Australia.

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Beyond protein intake: Bushmeat as source of micronutrients in the tri-frontier region

  1. 1. Beyond protein intake: Bushmeat as source of micronutrients in the tri- frontier region Flavia Mori Sarti
  2. 2. Protein availability in tropical forests  Local sources of protein  Wild animals and insects  Seasonal scarcity  Complemented by staple foods  Manioc  Sweet potatoes  Plaintains  Low dietary intake as limitation for size and permanence of pre-contact Amazonian settlements
  3. 3. Bushmeat consumption  Central role in the diets of urban and rural populations in tropical forests  Primary source of protein  Few evidences on micronutrients contribution  Diets in the Amazonian region  Lack of variety  Nutritional deficiencies  Low caloric content
  4. 4. Methods  Household (Hh) food intake study  Part of wider survey on bushmeat (BM) in Amazon region  Sample selection of households according to country, location, income, and bushmeat consumption based on  Interviews among schoolchildren (16 schools)  875 interviews during dry season (September to October, 2012)  1,043 interviews during rainy season (February to March, 2013)  3 consecutive days collection of 24-hour recall (Sun-Tue) with food items weighting in June and July, 2013
  5. 5. Methods  Household (Hh) food intake study  Household members converted into adult equivalent units  According to age and sex  Food intake converted into  Calories  Macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, lipids)  Micronutrients (fiber, cholesterol, vitamin C, iron, sodium, calcium)  Nutrient intake per adult equivalent compared with nutritional requirements for evaluation of populations
  6. 6. Household sample characteristics Characteristics Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons n % n % n % Country Brazil 20 57% 17 57% 3 60% Bolivia 15 43% 13 43% 2 40% Income High 8 23% 7 23% 1 20% Low 27 77% 23 77% 4 80% Avg SD Avg SD Avg SD Hh members Individuals 6.5 3.1 6.4 3.3 7.0 2.3 AE Units 5.1 2.3 5.1 2.4 5.5 1.6 Obs.: Hh = household; BM Cons = bushmeat consumption; Hh members = household members; AE Units = adult equivalent units; Avg = average; SD = standard deviation.
  7. 7. Results  Nutrient consumption  Caloric intake per adult barely achieves recommendations  Iron deficiency in the diets registered  Low intake of fiber, calcium, and vitamin C  Markers of healthy diets  Low consumption of fruits and vegetables  Excessive intake of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids  Nutrients related to unhealthy diets  Households that consumed bushmeat presented intake marginally higher (+20% and +25%)
  8. 8. Nutrient intake per day per adult (1/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Calories (Kcal) 1,762.62 656.26 -39.2% 1,727.85 654.63 -40.4% 1,971.25 700.22 -32.0% 2,900.00 Fiber (g) 14.75 8.94 -61.2% 15.10 9.06 -60.3% 12.66 8.77 -66.7% 38.00 Calcium (mg) 410.61 207.74 -68.4% 408.70 191.45 -68.6% 422.09 317.63 -67.5% 1,300.00 Iron (mg) 8.00 6.13 -55.5% 6.59 3.02 -63.4% 16.51 12.17 -8.3% 18.00 Sodium (mg) 3,712.46 2,039.93 642.5% 3,672.46 1,955.06 634.5% 3,952.46 2,752.37 690.5% 500.00 Vitamin C (mg) 20.12 20.02 -77.6% 20.77 21.20 -76.9% 16.26 11.23 -81.9% 90.00 Cholesterol (mg) 374.65 175.19 24.9% 364.11 155.87 21.4% 437.88 280.90 46.0% 300.00
  9. 9. Nutrient intake per day per adult (1/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Calories (Kcal) 1,762.62 656.26 -39.2% 1,727.85 654.63 -40.4% 1,971.25 700.22 -32.0% 2,900.00 Fiber (g) 14.75 8.94 -61.2% 15.10 9.06 -60.3% 12.66 8.77 -66.7% 38.00 Calcium (mg) 410.61 207.74 -68.4% 408.70 191.45 -68.6% 422.09 317.63 -67.5% 1,300.00 Iron (mg) 8.00 6.13 -55.5% 6.59 3.02 -63.4% 16.51 12.17 -8.3% 18.00 Sodium (mg) 3,712.46 2,039.93 642.5% 3,672.46 1,955.06 634.5% 3,952.46 2,752.37 690.5% 500.00 Vitamin C (mg) 20.12 20.02 -77.6% 20.77 21.20 -76.9% 16.26 11.23 -81.9% 90.00 Cholesterol (mg) 374.65 175.19 24.9% 364.11 155.87 21.4% 437.88 280.90 46.0% 300.00
  10. 10. Nutrient intake per day per adult (1/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Avg SD Adeq Calories (Kcal) 1,762.62 656.26 -39.2% 1,727.85 654.63 -40.4% 1,971.25 700.22 -32.0% 2,900.00 Fiber (g) 14.75 8.94 -61.2% 15.10 9.06 -60.3% 12.66 8.77 -66.7% 38.00 Calcium (mg) 410.61 207.74 -68.4% 408.70 191.45 -68.6% 422.09 317.63 -67.5% 1,300.00 Iron (mg) 8.00 6.13 -55.5% 6.59 3.02 -63.4% 16.51 12.17 -8.3% 18.00 Sodium (mg) 3,712.46 2,039.93 642.5% 3,672.46 1,955.06 634.5% 3,952.46 2,752.37 690.5% 500.00 Vitamin C (mg) 20.12 20.02 -77.6% 20.77 21.20 -76.9% 16.26 11.23 -81.9% 90.00 Cholesterol (mg) 374.65 175.19 24.9% 364.11 155.87 21.4% 437.88 280.90 46.0% 300.00
  11. 11. Nutrient intake per day per adult (2/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD % Avg SD % Avg SD % Protein (g) 95.93 50.61 21.8% 89.97 41.43 20.8% 131.72 86.38 26.7% 10-15% Lipids (g) 60.22 31.01 30.7% 57.75 31.93 30.1% 75.01 21.53 34.2% 15-30% Carbohydrates (g) 206.51 102.65 46.9% 209.59 104.40 48.5% 188.00 100.20 38.1% 55-75% Saturated FA (g) 15.96 7.82 8.2% 15.41 7.84 8.0% 19.28 7.57 8.8% <10% Monounsaturated FA (g) 18.97 10.44 18.2% 18.44 10.88 17.7% 22.18 7.30 20.5% >6% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 16.62 9.57 15.62 9.53 22.64 8.17 Obs.: BM Cons = bushmeat consumption; Avg = average intake; SD = standard deviation;Adeq = adequacy in relation to nutritional recommendations; DRI = Dietary Reference Intakes; FA = fatty acids.
  12. 12. Nutrient intake per day per adult (2/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD % Avg SD % Avg SD % Protein (g) 95.93 50.61 21.8% 89.97 41.43 20.8% 131.72 86.38 26.7% 10-15% Lipids (g) 60.22 31.01 30.7% 57.75 31.93 30.1% 75.01 21.53 34.2% 15-30% Carbohydrates (g) 206.51 102.65 46.9% 209.59 104.40 48.5% 188.00 100.20 38.1% 55-75% Saturated FA (g) 15.96 7.82 8.2% 15.41 7.84 8.0% 19.28 7.57 8.8% <10% Monounsaturated FA (g) 18.97 10.44 18.2% 18.44 10.88 17.7% 22.18 7.30 20.5% >6% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 16.62 9.57 15.62 9.53 22.64 8.17 Obs.: BM Cons = bushmeat consumption; Avg = average intake; SD = standard deviation;Adeq = adequacy in relation to nutritional recommendations; DRI = Dietary Reference Intakes; FA = fatty acids.
  13. 13. Nutrient intake per day per adult (2/2) Nutrient Total Hh without BM Cons Hh with BM Cons DRI Avg SD % Avg SD % Avg SD % Protein (g) 95.93 50.61 21.8% 89.97 41.43 20.8% 131.72 86.38 26.7% 10-15% Lipids (g) 60.22 31.01 30.7% 57.75 31.93 30.1% 75.01 21.53 34.2% 15-30% Carbohydrates (g) 206.51 102.65 46.9% 209.59 104.40 48.5% 188.00 100.20 38.1% 55-75% Saturated FA (g) 15.96 7.82 8.2% 15.41 7.84 8.0% 19.28 7.57 8.8% <10% Monounsaturated FA (g) 18.97 10.44 18.2% 18.44 10.88 17.7% 22.18 7.30 20.5% >6% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 16.62 9.57 15.62 9.53 22.64 8.17 Obs.: BM Cons = bushmeat consumption; Avg = average intake; SD = standard deviation;Adeq = adequacy in relation to nutritional recommendations; DRI = Dietary Reference Intakes; FA = fatty acids.
  14. 14. Results  Nutrient consumption  Carbohydrate, protein and iron in households that did not consume bushmeat  Higher intake of carbohydrates (+12%)  Lower intake of protein (-32%) and iron (-60%)  Food consumption  Manioc flour reported in 69 of the 302 meals registered  Protein sources in households without BM consumption  Chicken (40), fish (39), eggs (34), and processed meat (32)  Meat (18) and pork (6) were the least mentioned
  15. 15. Results  Bushmeat consumption  Registered in seven meals at five households  Represents  32% of usual caloric intake  72% of protein intake  Main food source of iron  73% of cholesterol  38% of saturated fatty acids
  16. 16. Contribution from bushmeat (1/2) Nutrient Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg Calories (Kcal) 1,971.25 700.22 628.25 571.34 28.5% 31.8% Fiber (g) 12.66 8.77 0.00 0.00 0.0% 0.0% Calcium (mg) 422.09 317.63 55.49 62.80 18.4% 19.5% Iron (mg) 16.51 12.17 25.65 28.32 74.1% 139.9% Sodium (mg) 3,952.46 2,752.37 175.86 164.63 6.1% 5.1% Vitamin C (mg) 16.26 11.23 6.01 9.47 30.8% 41.1% Cholesterol (mg) 437.88 280.90 317.94 323.98 59.6% 72.8%
  17. 17. Contribution from bushmeat (1/2) Nutrient Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg Calories (Kcal) 1,971.25 700.22 628.25 571.34 28.5% 31.8% Fiber (g) 12.66 8.77 0.00 0.00 0.0% 0.0% Calcium (mg) 422.09 317.63 55.49 62.80 18.4% 19.5% Iron (mg) 16.51 12.17 25.65 28.32 74.1% 139.9% Sodium (mg) 3,952.46 2,752.37 175.86 164.63 6.1% 5.1% Vitamin C (mg) 16.26 11.23 6.01 9.47 30.8% 41.1% Cholesterol (mg) 437.88 280.90 317.94 323.98 59.6% 72.8%
  18. 18. Contribution from bushmeat (2/2) Nutrient Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg Protein (g) 131.72 86.38 96.22 94.51 59.5% 71.4% Lipids (g) 75.01 21.53 24.04 20.63 30.6% 34.0% Carbohydrates (g) 188.00 100.20 0.22 0.59 0.2% 0.1% Saturated FA (g) 19.28 7.57 6.86 6.20 35.0% 38.4% Monounsaturated FA (g) 22.18 7.30 7.44 6.52 32.8% 35.5% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 22.64 8.17 3.99 3.97 16.7% 20.9%
  19. 19. Contribution from bushmeat (2/2) Nutrient Hh without BM Cons BM Cons Nutr value of BM in Avg SD Avg SD Day 3 Day Avg Protein (g) 131.72 86.38 96.22 94.51 59.5% 71.4% Lipids (g) 75.01 21.53 24.04 20.63 30.6% 34.0% Carbohydrates (g) 188.00 100.20 0.22 0.59 0.2% 0.1% Saturated FA (g) 19.28 7.57 6.86 6.20 35.0% 38.4% Monounsaturated FA (g) 22.18 7.30 7.44 6.52 32.8% 35.5% Polyunsaturated FA (g) 22.64 8.17 3.99 3.97 16.7% 20.9%
  20. 20. Discussion  Bushmeat consumption seems to be gradually substituted by  Other protein sources  Food items that present lower protein and iron contents  Evidences supported by results of other studies  Manioc flour continues as staple food  Nutrition transition in Amazon region  Poorer diets  Susceptible to anaemia and chronic health problems
  21. 21. Thank you! flamori@usp.br
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