The Rise of Generative Machines
Dr Carsten Sørensen
!
London School of Economics and Political Science
Department of Manag...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
1. Business
2. Machines
3. Material
4. Innovation
5. Future?
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Business
Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
19th Century
Early Modern Consumption
New Middle Class
Products
!
20th Century
Mass Consumption
Mass...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Consumption as Mutual Adjustment
Goods
Services
CustomerOwnershipEcco
CustomerRelationship
Walking i...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Listen! Engage!
Engage!!
Enrol the customer !
Insider and outsider!
Control and drift!
Abandon pure ...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
World’s Second Largest Country
1.31 billion active users (June 1st 2014)
...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Machines
Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Three Machine Ages
The Mechanical Machine Age
The Smart Machine Age
The Generative Machine Age
(Yoo,...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Age of the Mechanical Machine
• Harnessing generative potential of fire to create
market in-equilibr...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Age of the Smart Machine
• Information the new fire
• From information to strategic assets
• Dis-equ...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Digitizing
Analog signal is sampled, quantized, and turned into bit stream
Analog to digital co...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Analogue =
Tight Coupling
Distribution Technology
Storage Format
Processing Technology
Music
(T...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Digital =
Loose Coupling
Distribution Technology
(Tilson, Lyytinen, & Sørensen, 2010)
Storage F...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Convergence = Loss of Control
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Age of the Generative Machine
• The Turing/von Neumann Anything Machine (f.ex. your smartphone)
• Fl...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Material
Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
!
“The Stone Age did not end because humans ran out of stones. It
ended because it was time for a re...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Big Data
http://www.ibmbigdatahub.com/infographic/four-vs-big-data
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Big Code
http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/million-lines-of-code/
1 million iPhon...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Information Technology with Impact on Work
• Big Data
• Mobile Techno...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
SCIENTIFICALLYVIABLE
MAINSTREAMPOINT
FINANCIALLYVIABLE
METHODOLOGY
The vi...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Innovation
Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
End of Innovation or
Unbounded Opportunity?
Tyler Cowen:
Growth shaped by low-hanging fruits of youn...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Moore’s Law
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Ray Kurzweil’s Second Half of the Chessboard
Grains of Rice263
First half = 100,000
kg of rice. Indi...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSERecombinant InnovationRecombinant Innovation
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
AnotherSLAMtechnology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simultaneous_localization_and_mapping
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_printing
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Baxter
rethinkrobotics.com
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Boston Dynamics* – BigDog
* Now owned by Google
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNZPRsrwumQ
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Platforms
Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/160/tech-wars-2012-amazon-apple-google-facebook
I have lear...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Recombinant Innovation
Global systems
support identifying
good combinations,
i.e. 1 million iPhone
a...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
Future?
Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Automated Self-ServiceAutomated Self-Service
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Snow White and her 6 Luggage Eating Robots
Automation Design
Trouble-	

Shooting
Automated Self-Serv...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Products Platforms
Noun Verb
Things Experiences
Creativity Generativity
Craftsmanship Procrastinated...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
20th Century
• Luxury products for next to nothing
• Mass Product Encounters
• Standardise, Streamli...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Innovation Challenges
• Constructing people/customers/citizens from
numbers, equations and code
• So...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Warm Services - Cold Technology
158000 SiriYouTube videos
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
1. Nostalgist
2. Telesurgeon
3. Rewilder
4. Garbage Designer
5. Simplicity Expert
6. Healthcare Navi...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
The Future of Work
• Intensification of Work
• Flexible working
• Juggling...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
© Dr Carsten Sørensen © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
digitalinfrastructures.org
London
tourist sight
Digital
Infrastructure
Is...
© Dr Carsten Sørensen
Anderson, C. (2009): In the Next Industrial Revolution, Atoms Are the
New Bits. Wired Magazine. http...
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Carsten Sorensen - Big data: de la investigación científica a la gestión empresarial

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El 3 de julio de 2014, organizamos en la Fundación Ramón Areces una jornada con el lema 'Big Data: de la investigación científica a la gestión empresarial'. En ella estudiamos los retos y oportunidades del Big data en las ciencias sociales, en la economía y en la gestión empresarial. Entre otros ponentes, acudieron expertos de la London School of Economics, BBVA, Deloite, Universidades de Valencia y Oviedo, el Centro Nacional de Supercomputación...

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Transcript of "Carsten Sorensen - Big data: de la investigación científica a la gestión empresarial"

  1. 1. The Rise of Generative Machines Dr Carsten Sørensen ! London School of Economics and Political Science Department of Management Information Systems and Innovation Group ! c.sorensen@lse.ac.uk carstensorensen.com ! digitalinfrastructures.org enterprisemobilitybook.com mobility.lse.ac.uk
  2. 2. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE 1. Business 2. Machines 3. Material 4. Innovation 5. Future?
  3. 3. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Business Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
  4. 4. © Dr Carsten Sørensen 19th Century Early Modern Consumption New Middle Class Products ! 20th Century Mass Consumption Mass Society Products and Services ! 21st Century New Society of Individuals Individuated Consumption Support / Honest relationships Excitement / Experiences Business Innovation (Zuboff&Maxmin,2003) Service Relationships Product transactions Hand-crafted engagement
  5. 5. © Dr Carsten Sørensen
  6. 6. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Consumption as Mutual Adjustment Goods Services CustomerOwnershipEcco CustomerRelationship Walking in shoes until they fit CustomerInteractionShoes Managing own account Hybrids Lloyds Bank CustomerTitle 1984 remotely wiped Buying books Amazon Service Books Kindle Goods Mutual Adjustment Service Mutual Adjustment Hybrid Mutual Adjustment
  7. 7. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Listen! Engage! Engage!! Enrol the customer ! Insider and outsider! Control and drift! Abandon pure profit perspective! Embrace shared purpose! ex: threadless.com t-shirt design Listen!! Automate the customer-service relationship! Constant adjustments automated data creation! Privacy and convenience! Service-push and customer-pull! ex: top-up my travel card for London Underground
  8. 8. © Dr Carsten Sørensen © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE World’s Second Largest Country 1.31 billion active users (June 1st 2014) 50% of users log on any given day Average 49min Only survives by constant user engagement! India 2011 1.21 billion citizens China 2012 1.35 billion USA 2014 318 million European Union 2013 505 million
  9. 9. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Machines Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
  10. 10. © Dr Carsten Sørensen
  11. 11. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Three Machine Ages The Mechanical Machine Age The Smart Machine Age The Generative Machine Age (Yoo, 2013)
  12. 12. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Age of the Mechanical Machine • Harnessing generative potential of fire to create market in-equilibrium through automation. • Capital intensiveness creates capital markets • Vertical integration to to ensure maximum utilisation • Diversification to ensure utility of investment • Management logic: Economies of size and scope • Technology means of control through communication • Scientific management of work • Professionalisation of graphic design for marketing • Industrial design (Yoo, 2013)Babbage’s Difference Engine - Science Museum London
  13. 13. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Age of the Smart Machine • Information the new fire • From information to strategic assets • Dis-equilibrium through information management • Managerial challenge: Managing complexity and information overload • Management logic: Modularisation allowing coordinated distribution • Design hierarchies • Networks and distributed organisations • Outsourcing and virtualisation • Global value networks - designed in USA, made in China, customer support in India (Yoo, 2013)IBM 360 control room
  14. 14. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Digitizing Analog signal is sampled, quantized, and turned into bit stream Analog to digital conversion Analog signal reconstructed from bit stream Digital to analog conversion
  15. 15. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Analogue = Tight Coupling Distribution Technology Storage Format Processing Technology Music (Tilson, Lyytinen, & Sørensen, 2010)
  16. 16. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Digital = Loose Coupling Distribution Technology (Tilson, Lyytinen, & Sørensen, 2010) Storage Formats Processing Technology Music
  17. 17. © Dr Carsten Sørensen © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Convergence = Loss of Control
  18. 18. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Age of the Generative Machine • The Turing/von Neumann Anything Machine (f.ex. your smartphone) • Flexibly reprogrammable machine is the new fire • Digital technology intensively interconnected • From looking at the interface to residing “within the machine” • Procrastinated binding and generativity (Apps and services even Steve Jobs could not have imagined) • Separation of form and function of reprogrammable universal machine • Separation of contents and media • Globally distributed contribution of innovation • Deconstruction of products and industries (Tower Records and Blockbusters anyone?) (Yoo, 2013)(http://workshop.chromeexperiments.com/machines/)
  19. 19. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Material Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
  20. 20. © Dr Carsten Sørensen ! “The Stone Age did not end because humans ran out of stones. It ended because it was time for a re-think about how we live.” William McDonough — Architect Stoneage Ironage Bronzeage Plastic Digital ... there are known knowns; there are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns; that is to say, there are things that we now know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns – there are things we do not know we don't know. Donald Rumsfeld — United States Secretary of Defense.
  21. 21. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Big Data http://www.ibmbigdatahub.com/infographic/four-vs-big-data
  22. 22. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Big Code http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/million-lines-of-code/ 1 million iPhone apps, 1 million Android apps = 100 billion lines Average iPhone app = 50.000 lines of code Control software for US military drone = 3.5 million lines US Army Future Combat System (aborted) = 63 million lines Average high-end car = 100 million lines Windows 3.1 (1992) = 2.5 million lines Hubble Space Telescope = 2 million lines Windows NT 3.1 (1993) = 4.5 million lines HD DVD Player Xbox = 4.5 million lines World of Warcraft Server = 5.5 million lines Google Chrome = 6.5 million lines Windows NT 4 (1996) = 11 million lines MySQL= 12 million lines Boing 787 Flight Software = 14 million lines F35 Fighter jet = 23 million lines Microsoft Office 2013 = 44 million lines Large Hadron Collider = 50 million lines Facebook = 61 million lines MacOS X 4.1 Tiger = 85 million lines USA heathcare.gov website 2013 = 500 million lines
  23. 23. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Information Technology with Impact on Work • Big Data • Mobile Technologies • Ubiquitous Computing • Wearable Computing • Cloud Computing • Self-Service Platforms • Machine-to-Machine Technologies Human Interaction Social Media • Collective Intelligence • Task- & Click Working • Gamification • Internet of Things
  24. 24. © Dr Carsten Sørensen © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE SCIENTIFICALLYVIABLE MAINSTREAMPOINT FINANCIALLYVIABLE METHODOLOGY The views contained in Policy Horizons Canada documents DESIGN RESEARCH PERMALINK SABY SUPPORT CREDITSDESIGN&RESEARCH REALIZATION TIMELINE DIGITALANDCOMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGIES INTERFACESNETWORKINGELECTRONICS ENERGYTECHNOLOGIES ELECTRICITYGENERATIONSMARTGRIDSTORAGESELF-ASSEMBLINGFUNCTIONALNEXT-GENERATION NANOTECHNOLOGYANDMATERIALSSCIENCE Computers that can both sense and react to their environment. Devices will have information about the circumstances under which they operate, and based on rules and sensor inputs, react accordingly. Context-aware devices may also learn assumptions about the user's current situation. Much like Google’s Glass project, these allow contextual information to be overlaid on the Tileable and interactive screen-wallpapers are expected to dominate all types of surfaces for domestic and professional uses. Wrap-around screens recruit the peripheral vision and create a truly immersive experience. A set of technologies which allow a person to feel as if they were present, to give the appearance A fully immersive Virtual Reality environment to which the user connects through direct brain Massive Open Online Courses are a type of online course aimed at large-scale participation and open access via the web. phase of mobile telecommunications standards as well as a proposed single global standard. Wireless Gigabit will deliver up to 6 Gbps [6,000 Mbps] connections between devices in interior spaces. This will enable wireless displays, much like Wi-Fi did for wireless networking. A quasi-stationary aircraft that provides means of delivering networking to a large area while low-orbit regional communication satellites. Electronic money that acts as alternative currency. Currently, alternative digital currencies are not produced by government-endorsed central banks nor necessarily backed by national with real goods and services; not being limited to circulation within online games. The assignment of physical and online tasks traditionally performed by human agents to an autonomous software agent. A set of printing methods used to create electrical devices on various substrates. Electrically functional or optical inks are deposited on the material, creating active or passive devices, such decorative and animated posters, and active clothing that do not require high performance. it retains memory without power. It is a new material that promises computers two orders of A system of many tiny micro-electromechanical systems such as sensors, robots, or other devices, that can detect, for example, light, temperature, vibration, magnetism, or chemicals. Small-scale robots able to re-position solar panels depending on weather conditions. More New biofuel technologies, such as cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel from microalgae, promise to A form of hydropower that converts tidal energy into electricity. Currently used in small scale, with the potential for great expansion. Glass with integrated solar cells which converts IR and some visible light into electricity. This means that the power for an entire building can be supplemented using the roof and façade areas. implosion process to conditions of high density and temperature. are for 50 MW capacity in the near future. organisms to produce new fuels by unconventional means. Examples include direct production use. in order to generate power. Thorium can be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, allowing it to be used to produce nuclear fuel require enrichment. of such a system is much higher collection rates than what is possible on earth. In space, Electrical meters that record consumption of electric energy in real time while communicating the information back to the utility for monitoring and billing purposes. Can be used for remote load-balancing such as disabling non-essential devices at peak usage. Speculative global energy & power infrastructure and set of standards which can be used interchangeably. Could theoretically mimic characteristics of the Internet in channeling heat, global demand. Hypothetic evolution of existing power grids, transporting and storing hydrogen instead of electricity. Could be used in combination with various kinds of energy transformation methods, produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied. They inherently displace the need for natural gas turbines, and are ideally used for stationary power generation Advances in materials technology is enabling the advance of high energy Li-air batteries which batteries could dramatically extend electric vehicle range. Often accumulated from active solar collector or from combined heat and power plants, and transferred to insulated repositories for use later in various applications, such as space heating, domestic or process water heating. A class of smart materials that have the structurally incorporated ability to repair damage caused by mechanical usage over time. The inspiration comes from biological systems, which intrinsically correct damage caused by normal usage could lower production costs of a number caused by degradation, as well as prevent costs incurred by material failure. Machines that manipulate individual atoms with organism-like self-replicating abilities. These bottom-up, atomically precise 3D printers would be able to carefully create sequences of DNA, RNA or protein. themselves, without external direction. Such materials could potentially heal themselves and grow/contract on cue. A proposed system in which nanomachines would combine reactive molecules via mechanosynthesis to build larger, atomically precise parts. These, in turn, would be assembled that remain atomically precise. enhance or replace natural functions in the body. Already used to a small degree, future applications, infrastructure monitoring, smart solar power management, public safety, improving ultrasonic sensors, and even shielding structures from earthquakes. A substance composed of pure carbon with atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern and include: Components with higher strength to weight ratios, lower cost solar cells, lower cost display screens in mobile devices, storing hydrogen for fuel cell powered cars, medical sensors, faster charging batteries, ultracapacitors, chemical sensors and many others. Devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale. NEMS typically integrate transistor-like nanoelectronics with mechanical actuators, pumps, or motors, and may thereby form physical, biological, and chemical sensors. When stretched, auxetic materials become thicker perpendicular to the applied force. This applications such as body armor, packing material, knee and elbow pads, robust shock absorbing material, and sponge mops. A synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with a gas. The result is a solid with extremely low density and thermal include improved thermal insulation, chemical absorber for cleaning up spills, electrochemical supercapacitors and shock absorption. Thermally activated bimetals would allow for panes of glass capable of becoming shades when exposed to the sun, self-regulating energy consumption throughout the day. controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, electric or 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 Context-awarecomputing Annotated-realityglasses Wall-sizedscreens Telepresence Immersivemulti-userVR MOOCs 5G WiGig High-altitudestratosphericplatforms Digitalcurrencies Botsourcing Printedelectronics Memristors Smartdustsensors Solarpanelpositioningrobots Second-generationbiofuels Tidalturbines Photovoltaictransparentglass Inertialconfinementfusion Micro-nuclearreactors Third-generationbiofuels MicroStirlingengines Thoriumreactor Space-basedsolarpower First-generationsmartgrid Distributedgeneration Smartenergynetwork Hydrogenenergystorage&transport Fuelcells Lithium-airbatteries Thermalstorage Self-healingmaterials Controlledself-assembly Large-scaleself-assemblingmaterials Nanofactories Biomaterials Meta-materials Graphene Nanoelectricmechanicalsystems Superomniphobicmaterials Auxeticmaterials Aerogel Thermo-bimetals Smartmaterials NEUROTECHNOLOGYANDCOGNITIVETECHNOLOGIESHEALTHTECHNOLOGIESAGRICULTURALTECHNOLOGIES ENGINEERINGAUTOMATIONFOODSENSORSDIAGNOSTICSTREATMENTSAUGMENTATIONNEURALINTERFACESEXTENDEDCOGNITIONNEURALNETWORKCOMPUTING The use of sociometric sensors coupled with neural networked computers to statistically increasingly possible. has the capacity to successfully understand the photo of, for example, a cat, based on thousands of cat pictures. Software applications with the capacity of discerning and predicting likely future needs for whomever is being served. Intelligently scheduling meetings, sorting email and selectively notifying the user are potential usages.etworked computers to statistically determine the Neural devices capable of substituting motor, sensory or cognitive modalities that might have been damaged as a result of an injury or a disease. Applications include neural enhancements, advanced cognitive features and extended physiological senses. change. With an increase in technology and improved understanding of the nervous system, the transduction is due to change in capacitance. Can be used to remotely improve alertness, awareness in soldiers, etc. Biofeedback using real-time EEG or fMRI to illustrate brain activity, often with a goal of controlling the central nervous actions. The hypothetical implementation of brain interfaces that translate thoughts, sensations or impulses into digital signal, converting the data back into the recipient's brain to enable a certain response from both ends. Loosely interpreted as telepathy, brain interfaces would be able to transmit information from one person so another without any mediation other than the internet, allowing the brain on the receiving end to perform behavioural tasks without training. living tissue, even within freely moving mammals and other animals, with the temporal Hypothetical interfaces to be used for assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions and communicate thoughts and intentions to the Internet. brain using electromagnetic induction to induce weak electric currents using a rapidly changing discomfort, allowing the functioning and interconnections of the brain to be studied. The next generation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging involves increasing the spatial Electroencephalography remains the most feasible practice of executing and implementing brain to brain interfaces. It represents the best temporal-resolution tool for getting a picture of the brain Engineered replacement organs for humans that perform better than their natural counterparts. The idea is based on the principle that the brain evolved to handle one construction of reality, yet now can overlay multiple local and remote experiences simultaneously, creating new cognitive intelligence amplifying system of tools. Information retrieved from the brain would then be used organisms and diseases. Microscopic technological structures that extract biometric information from an organism to terms of personal biometry, bionic implants represent great tools to empower preventive organisms/functions mechanically or chemically. The main objective of this technology applied to medicine is to enhance the human body's capabilities or treat malfunctions with robots functions. Breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation with stem cells, molecular repair, and organ replacement through complete rejuvenation to a youthful condition. The direct manipulation of an embryo/fetus genome using biotechnology. The use of a combination of cells, engineering, material methods, suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. The term is closely associated with applications that repair or replace portions of or whole tissues. A hypothetical handheld portable scanning device to be used by consumers to self-diagnose medical conditions within seconds and take basic vital measurements. A common view is that it will be a general-purpose tool similar in functionality to a Swiss Army Knife to take health A techno-progressive cultural and intellectual movement which advocates for open access to genetic information and defends the potential of truly democratic technological development. Biohacking can also refer to managing one's own biology using a combination of medical, nutritional and electronic techniques. This may include the use of nootropics and/or cybernetic devices for recording biometric data. Devices that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to down to less than picoliters. They represent safer platforms for chemical, radioactive or biological studies. The use of biometrics to telecommunications and telecommunications for remote biometric vaccines. Can be used for monitoring vibrations and material conditions in buildings, bridges, factories, farms and other infrastructure. Coupled with an intelligent network, such sensors could feed crucial information back to maintenance crews or robots. about the livestock in real time. application equipment of correct amounts needed. Optical sensors or drones are able to identify Allows mechanical devices such as tractors to warn mechanics that a failure is likely to occur soon. Intra-tractor communication can be used as a rudimentary “farm swarm” platform. Fundamental additions to the automated farm, these sensors would enable a real time understanding of current farm, forest or body of water conditions. complete, living animal. Several current research projects are growing in vitro meat experimentally, although no meat has yet been produced for public consumption. The creation of entirely new strains of food animals and plants in order to better address designed food would be engineered from the ground up. microscopic sensors, which together would monitor, predict, cultivate and extract crops from the land with practically no human intervention. Small-scale implementations are already on the preserving resources at ever larger scales. Further understanding of crop variability, geolocated weather data and precise sensors should allow improved automated decision-making and complementary planting techniques. Also known as agbots, these are used to automate agricultural processes, such as harvesting, fruit picking, ploughing, soil maintenance, weeding, planting, irrigation, etc. improvements are suggested algorithmically. Building on existing geolocation technologies, future swath control could save on seed, A natural extension of urban agriculture, vertical farms would cultivate plant or animal life advantages are numerous, including year-round crop production, protection from weather, support urban food autonomy and reduced transport costs. biotechnology, with the ultimate goals of being able to design, build and remediate engineered biological systems that process information, manipulate chemicals, fabricate materials and structures, produce energy, provide food, and maintain and enhance human health and the environment. Ecosystems that do not rely on matter exchange outside the system. Such closed ecosystems would theoretically transform waste products into oxygen, food and water in order to support life-forms inhabiting the system. Such systems already exist in small scales, but existing technological limitations prevent them from scaling. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Predictivecrimeprevention Predictivegroupsentimentanalysis Neuralnetworkimagerecognition Emotiontracking Proactivesoftwareagents Neuroprosthetics Next-generationneuropharmacology Micromachinedultrasonictransducers Neuralbiofeedback Brain-to-braininterfaces Optogeneticimplantsinhumans Next-genBCI Transcranialmagneticstimulation High-resolutionfMRI EEGBrain-to-computerinterfaces Enhancedorgans Biologicallyextendedsenses Machine-augmentedcognition BionicImplants Medicalnanobots Anti-agingdrugs Prenatalgenemanipulation Epigenetictherapy Organprinting Personalizedmedicine MedicalTricorder Biohacking Labsonchips Biometricsensors Infrastructuralhealthsensors Livestockbiometrics Cropsensors Equipmenttelematics Air&soilsensors Invitromeat Geneticallydesignedfood Roboticfarmswarms Precisionagriculture Agriculturalrobots Rapiditerationselectivebreeding Variablerateswathcontrol Verticalfarming Syntheticbiology Closedecologicalsystems 2015 2020 2025 2015 2020 2025 INTERFACES NETWORKING ELECTRONICS ELECTRICITYGENERATION SMARTGRID STORAGE SELF-ASSEMBLING FUNCTIONAL NEXT-GENERATION ENGINEERING AUTOMATION FOOD SENSORS DIAGNOSTICS TREATMENTS AUGMENTATION N EURALINTERFACES EXTENDEDCOGNITION NEURALNETWORKCOMPUTING DIGITALANDCOMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGIES NEUROTECHNOLOGYANDCOGNITIVETECHNOLOGIES ENERGYTECHNOLOGIES NANOTECHNOLOGYANDMATERIALSSCIENCE AGRICULTURALTECHNOLOGIES HEALTHTECHNOLOGIES 88 87 86 85 84 83 81 80 82 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 60 59 57 53 52 49 48 47 46 45 51 50 56 55 54 58 63 62 61 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 34 33 29 28 25 24 23 22 21 2019 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 27 26 32 31 30 35 @envisioning_io www.envisioning.io www.horizons.gc.ca in MetaScan 3: Emerging Technologies ENVISIONING EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES http://envisioning.io/horizons/
  25. 25. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Innovation Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
  26. 26. © Dr Carsten Sørensen End of Innovation or Unbounded Opportunity? Tyler Cowen: Growth shaped by low-hanging fruits of young, energetic people emigrating to a new continent and to industries relying heavily on new technology ! Erik Brynjolfsson & Andrew McAfee: Recombinant innovation allows for computational bounty through global distribution and scaling of locating beneficial recombinations
  27. 27. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Moore’s Law
  28. 28. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Ray Kurzweil’s Second Half of the Chessboard Grains of Rice263 First half = 100,000 kg of rice. India's annual rice output is about 1,200,000 times that amount Second half = 461,168,602,000 metric tons - 100 tons of rice, which would be a heap of rice larger than Mount Everest. This is around 1,000 times the global production of rice in 2010 262261260259258257256
  29. 29. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSERecombinant InnovationRecombinant Innovation
  30. 30. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE AnotherSLAMtechnology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simultaneous_localization_and_mapping
  31. 31. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_printing
  32. 32. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Baxter rethinkrobotics.com
  33. 33. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Boston Dynamics* – BigDog * Now owned by Google http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNZPRsrwumQ
  34. 34. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Platforms Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
  35. 35. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/160/tech-wars-2012-amazon-apple-google-facebook I have learned that we are standing on a burning platform. And, we have more than one explosion - we have multiple points of scorching heat that are fueling a blazing fire around us. [...] Apple disrupted the market by redefining the smartphone and attracting developers to a closed, but very powerful ecosystem. In 2008, Apple's market share in the $300+ price range was 25 percent; by 2010 it escalated to 61 percent. [...]Apple demonstrated that if designed well, consumers would buy a high-priced phone with a great experience and developers would build applications. They changed the game, and today, Apple owns the high-end range. Nokia CEO Stephen Elop http://www.engadget.com/2011/02/08/nokia-ceo-stephen- elop-rallies-troops-in-brutally-honest-burnin/ Disruptive Platform Innovation Where’s Nokia?
  36. 36. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Recombinant Innovation Global systems support identifying good combinations, i.e. 1 million iPhone apps and 1 million Android apps.
  37. 37. © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE Future? Business Machines Material Innovation Future?Platforms
  38. 38. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Automated Self-ServiceAutomated Self-Service
  39. 39. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Snow White and her 6 Luggage Eating Robots Automation Design Trouble- Shooting Automated Self-ServiceAutomated Self-Service
  40. 40. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Products Platforms Noun Verb Things Experiences Creativity Generativity Craftsmanship Procrastinated Binding (Yoo, 2013) The Age of the Generative Machine Encounters Relationships
  41. 41. © Dr Carsten Sørensen 20th Century • Luxury products for next to nothing • Mass Product Encounters • Standardise, Streamline • Relationships through transactions • Intimacy through remote anonymous connections • Scientific management of blue-collar work • IT supporting people A New Deal? 21st Century • Individualised quality services for next to nothing • Listen! Engage! • Intimacy, support and personalised service through automation and self-service • Warm relationships through cold technology • Codifying relationships • Scientific management of information work • Global recombinant innovation • People supporting IT
  42. 42. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Innovation Challenges • Constructing people/customers/citizens from numbers, equations and code • Solving privacy bottleneck by flipping the relationship from Customer Relationship Management (VRM) to customer-controlled Vendor Relationship Management (VRM) - Privacy By Design • To forget and innovate despite of what truths the numbers and engaged communities of current users tell • Organic management of highly distributed production of code and data • Maintain open middleware- and infrastructure standards for generative and distributed collaboration and proprietary platforms (f.ex. for Internet of Things)
  43. 43. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Warm Services - Cold Technology 158000 SiriYouTube videos
  44. 44. © Dr Carsten Sørensen 1. Nostalgist 2. Telesurgeon 3. Rewilder 4. Garbage Designer 5. Simplicity Expert 6. Healthcare Navigator 7. End of Life Therapist 8. Gamification Designer 9. Robot Counsellor 10.Media Remixer 10 Crazy Jobs That Will Exist in the Future http://mashable.com/2014/04/28/jobs-of-the-future/?utm_cid=mash-com-fb-main-link
  45. 45. © Dr Carsten Sørensen© Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE The Future of Work • Intensification of Work • Flexible working • Juggling multiple jobs • Fremium work • Polarisation of skills and work • Digital natives and an aging workforce • 90% (?) scrap around for a full-time job or 10% (?) chased by all to join • Fixed position or hyperspecialisation? • Managing output • Increased individualisation of more intensive collaboration • Increased flexibility and increased structure • More & less responsibility • Greater control & more controlled
  46. 46. © Dr Carsten Sørensen © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE
  47. 47. © Dr Carsten Sørensen © Dr Carsten Sørensen, LSE digitalinfrastructures.org London tourist sight Digital Infrastructure Issue 10 x 3 Minute YouTube Videos
  48. 48. © Dr Carsten Sørensen Anderson, C. (2009): In the Next Industrial Revolution, Atoms Are the New Bits. Wired Magazine. http://www.wired.com/magazine/ 2010/01/ff_newrevolution/all/1 Ayers, I. (2007): Super Crunchers: How Anything Can Be Predicted. London: John Murray. Barabási, A.-L. (2002): Linked: The New Science of Networks. Perseus. Brynjolfsson, E. & McAfee, A. (2011) Race Against The Machine. Digital Frontier Press. Brynjolfsson, E. & McAfee, A. (2014) The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies. W. W. Norton & Company. Bøtter, J. & L. Kolind (2012): Unboss. Copenhagen: Jyllands- Postens Forlag. http://unboss.com Carr, N. G. (2008): The Big Switch: Rewiring the World From Edison to Google. W. W. Norton & Co. Ciborra and Associates, C. U. (2000): From Control to Drift: The Dynamics of Corporate Information Infrastructures. OUP. Cowen, T. (2011) The great stagnation: How America ate all the low- hanging fruit of modern history, got sick, and will (eventually) feel better. Penguin. Friedman, T. L. (2005): The World is Flat: The Globalized World i the Twenty-First Century. London: Penguin. Holmberg, L. & L. Mathiassen (2001): Survival Patterns in Fast- Moving Software Organizations. IEEE Software, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 51-55. Howe, J. (2008): Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business. New York: Crown Business. Howker, E. & Malik, S. (2013) Jilted Generation: How Britain has Bankrupted its Youth. Icon. Leadbeater, C. (2008): We-think: The Power of Mass Creativity. Profile Books Ltd. Levy, F. & R.J. Murnane (2004): The New Division of Labour: How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market. Princeton University Press. Libert, B. & J. Spector (2007): We are Smarter Than Me: How to Unleash the Power of Crowds in Your Business. Wharton School Publishing. O'Reilly III, C. A. & M. L. Tushman (2004): The Ambidextrous Organization. Harvard Business Review, pp. 74-81. Pardilla, C. (2012): Distraction-free dining in Los Angeles, http:// www.bbc.com/travel/blog/20120823-distraction-free-dining-in- los-angeles. Pearlson, K. & C. Saunders (2001): There's No Place Like Home: Managing Telecommuting Paradoxes. The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005), vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 117-128. Pillar, F. T. (2012): Featured Research: Collaborating with Customer Communities: Lessons from the Lego Group. Mass Customization & Open Innovation News. Scarbrough, H. (1995): Blackboxes, Hostages and Prisoners. Organization Studies, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 991-1019. Shirky, C. (2010): Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age. London: Allen Lane. Sørensen, C. & R. Gear (2007): Innovating with ICT: The Executive Challenge. LSE - PA Consulting Group Report. http:// stuff.carstensorensen.com/SorensenGear2007.pdf Sørensen, C., D. Elton, & R. Gear (2010): Listen! Engage! Be! Open for Innovation with Information Technology. LSE Enterprise - PA Consulting Group Report. http://stuff.carstensorensen.com/ mobility/SorensenGearElton2010.pdf Sørensen, C. (2011) Enterprise Mobility: Tiny Technology with Global Impact on Work. Palgrave. http://enterprisemobilitybook.com Sørensen, C. & Pillans, G. (2012) The Future of Work. The Corporate Research Forum. http://www.crforum.co.uk Tapscott, D. & A. D. Williams (2007): Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. Atlantic Books. Cowen, T. (2011) The great stagnation: How America ate all the low- hanging fruit of modern history, got sick, and will (eventually) feel better. Penguin. Vargo, S. L. & Lusch, R. F. (2004) Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1): 1-17. Yoo, Y. (2010): Computing in Everyday Life: A Call for Research on Experiential Computing MIS Quarterly, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 213-231. Yoo, Y. (2013) The Table Has Turned: How can IS field contribute to the technology and innovation management? Journal of the AIS, 14(227-236). YouTube (2011): Steve Jobs Resolves a Customer Complaint, http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mf1EEzshhVE. Zuboff, S. (1988) In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books. Zuboff, S. & J. Maxmin (2002): The Support Economy: Why Corporations are Failing Individuals and the Next Episode of Capitalism. London: Penguin

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