Membrane technology summer school set_2011

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Membrane technology summer school set_2011

  1. 1. 1st SUMMER SCHOOL Barcelona 26-30 September 2011MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY IN WATER TREATMENT Dr. Xavier Martinez Environmental Technology Department Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic irene.jubany@ctm.com.es
  2. 2. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration SOME EXAMPLESMembrane: Selective barrier between two phases
  3. 3. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration Història A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY Ionic Membranes 20001700 1800 1900 Pore Model Scientific Knowledge Osmosis Electroosmosis Dialysis Irreversible t hermodynamics Diffusion Membrane potentials Membrane equilibrium Osmotic pressure Electrolyte transport Electrodialysis Gas Separation Hemodyalisis Development of processes Nanofiltration Reverse Osmosis M. Mulder. Basic Principles of Membrane Ultrafiltration Technology. Ed. Kluwer Academic. 1997 Microfiltration
  4. 4. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration DEFINITIONSMembrane: Selective barrier between two phases A B A AA BB B B B A A B B A A A B B B A A B Disorder (Entropy) ↑ Order (Entropy) ↓ W > ΔG = ΔH - T ΔS Energy
  5. 5. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration WHERE DOES THE ENERGY COME FROM?Hydraulic pressureConcentrationTemperatureElectric potential
  6. 6. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration CHARACTERISTICS Membrana: Selective barrier between two phases Cf Cp Permeability (l·s-1·m-2bar-1) feed Cf Cp permeate Cp Selectivity 1 Cf σ = 0 : Non-selective membrane Cc 0 < σ < 1 : Solute transport concentrate σ = 1 : Ideal membrane Recovery (%)High Permebility ΔP↓High Selectivity σ↑
  7. 7. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration WHERE DOES THE ENERGY COME FROM? Hydraulic Concentració Temperature Electric Potential pressure Microfiltration Pervaporation Thermosmosis Electrodyalisis Ultrafiltration Gas Separation Membrane Distillation Electrosmosis Nanofiltration Vapor Permeation Membrane ElectrolysisReverse Osmosis Dialysis
  8. 8. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration PRESSURE DRIVEN MEMBRANE PROCESSES AA A A A A ΔP Microfiltration Ultrafiltration NanofiltrationReverse Osmosis
  9. 9. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration PRESSURE DRIVEN MEMBRANE PROCESSESMicrofiltration < 2 bar Particles Particle SizeUltrafiltration 1 – 10 bar Macromolecules Particle SizeNanofiltration 5 – 20 bar Charged solutes, Solubility organic matter Diffusivity Electrical Charge Na+, Cl-, ...Reverse Osmosis 10 – 60 bar ...
  10. 10. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration FILTRATION CONFIGURATIONSConcentration Polarization Feed Permeate Feed Permeate Backflush Concentrate Concentrate
  11. 11. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration MODULE GEOMETRIESFLAT SHEETTUBULAR
  12. 12. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration MODULE GEOMETRIES HOLLOW FIBERSPIRAL WOUND
  13. 13. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration MICROFILTRATION· Retains large suspended solids· Retains bacteria· Passes some suspended solids and all dissolved material· Pore ranges from 0.1 micron to 3 micron
  14. 14. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration ULTRAFILTRATION· Retains oils, particulate matter, bacteria and suspended solids largemacromolecules and proteins· Passes most surfactants, water, acid and alkaline compounds· Pore sizes ranging from 0.005 – 0.1 micron; 1K – 500K MWCO· Permeate is clear (non-turbid) solution void of suspended solids
  15. 15. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration MF UF MEMBRANE MATERIALSPOLIMERIC PS, HPS, PVDF, CA, PA, ...CERAMIC TiO2, Al2O3 , ZrO2, SiO2 Durability ↑ Robustness: T, chemicals, pH ↑ Cost ↑
  16. 16. 1st Summer SchoolGroundwater Restoration MF UF MODULES
  17. 17. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration MF/UF IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENTSolids Removal
  18. 18. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration MF/UF IN WASTEWATER TREATMENTMembrane Biorreactors (MBR)
  19. 19. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration MF/UF IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT Membrane Biorreactors (MBR) BOD < 2 mg/L TSS < 0.5 mg/L NH3-N < 0.5 mg/L Turbidity < 0.2 NTU Fecal Coliform < 10 CFU/100 mLWASTEWATER REGENERATION
  20. 20. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONSPeriodical backwashes: water or airChemical enhanced backwashes (CEB) HClO HCl NaOHCleaning in place
  21. 21. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration NANOFILTRATION• Retains divalent salts and organics• Passes monovalent salts, water, acid and alkaline compounds• Pore sizes ranging between UF and RO
  22. 22. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration REVERSE OSMOSIS• Retains salts and organics• Passes essentially only water• Passes molecules in the range of 5 Angstroms (0.0005 micron)or 100 MWCO
  23. 23. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration MEMBRANE MATERIALS· Cellullose acetate· Polyamide Selective Barrier Poliamide Polysulfone Polyester Support 20 μm
  24. 24. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration REQUIREMENTSChlorine < 0.1 ppm → Sodium metabisulfitepH 2-11SDI < 5Scaling and fouling prevention Antiscalant addition: SHMP, organophosphonates, polyacrylates Scale control: CaCO3, CaSO4, SrSO4, BaSO4, …Media filtration: sand, antrhaciteUF/MF 20 μmCartridge MF
  25. 25. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT Remove contaminants: pesticides, DBP precursors, color, inorganic contaminants... Remove hardness: Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-... Brackish water desalination 17500 m3/d 85 % Recovery Feed pressure: 10 bar 0.35 kWh/m3 = 0.015 €/m3 9120 Membrane modulesB Cyna. Two years of nanofiltration at the Méry-sur-Oise plant, France. Desalination (2002) 147:69-75
  26. 26. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration PERFORMANCE ORGANIC MATTER + Chlorine ↔ THMs Lab Scale Pilot Scale (Membrane Selection) (Membrane Performance) 160 4000 140 3500 Feed 120 3000 Permeate TOC (ppm C) 100 2500PFTHM 80 2000 60 1500 40 1000 20 500 0 0 06/06/2011 25/08/2011 07/04/2011 27/04/2011 17/05/2011 26/06/2011 16/07/2011 05/08/2011 14/09/2011 04/10/2011 RW UF E1.1 E1.2 E2
  27. 27. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration SEAWATER DESALINATIONLlobregat desalination plant60 hm3/yearConversion: 45%Pressure 50-80 bar4 kWh/m3 = 0.21 €/m3
  28. 28. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL Hydraulic Concentració Temperature Electric Potential pressure Microfiltration Pervaporation Thermosmosis Electrodyalisis Ultrafiltration Gas Separation Membrane Distillation Electrosmosis Nanofiltration Vapor Permeation Membrane ElectrolysisReverse Osmosis Dialysis
  29. 29. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSALElectrodialysis: Electrically driven membrane process used to demineralize brackish waterIon exchange membranes: Anionic or cationic
  30. 30. 1st Summer School Groundwater RestorationELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL
  31. 31. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL Llobregat drinking water treatment plant Objective: THM reduction 0.2 hm3/day 345000 membranes > 90 % recovery Salt rejection 60-80% 0,8 kWh/m3 = 0.2 €/m3F Valero. Desalination of brackish river water using Electrodialysis Reversal(EDR). Control of the THMs formation in the Barcelona (NE Spain) area.Desalination (2010) 253.
  32. 32. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration NEW PROCESSES FORWARD OSMOSIS Draw solution Membrane High solubility High rejectionMcGinnis R., Elimelech M. (2007).Energy requirements of ammonia– High osmotic pressure Chemical Stabilitycarbon dioxide forward osmosis Easily recovered Concentrationdesalination. polarisation
  33. 33. 1st Summer School Groundwater Restoration NEW PROCESSES CARBON NANOTUBES MEMBRANES CN vs FILMTEC SW30HR-380 maximal pore density 2.5 × 1011 pores per cm2 size salt flow rate improveme flow rate improveme rejection nt nt (5,5) 100% 45.2 682 0.16 2.42 (6,6) 100% 78.8 1189 0.27 4.21 (7,7) 95% 119.5 1801 0.42 6.39 (8,8) 58% 182.9 2759 0.65 9.76 Membranes High fluxes (x4 NF) Increase selectivityCorry B. Designing Carbon Nanotube High rejections Lower production costsMembranes for Efficient Water Desalination.The Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2008) Lower hydrofobicity
  34. 34. 1st Summer School Groundwater RestorationTHANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ?

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