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Native Plants for Landscaping - Virginia Native Plant Society
 

Native Plants for Landscaping - Virginia Native Plant Society

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Native Plants for Landscaping - Virginia Native Plant Society

Native Plants for Landscaping - Virginia Native Plant Society

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    Native Plants for Landscaping - Virginia Native Plant Society Native Plants for Landscaping - Virginia Native Plant Society Presentation Transcript

    • What are natives? well under a variety of conditions. Many of the recommendedAbout the Native Plants for Conservation, species are well-suited to more than one of these categories. Native species evolved within specificRestoration and Landscaping Project regions and dispersed throughoutThis project is a collaboration between the Virginia Depart- For more information, refer to field guides and publications their range without known humanment of Conservation and Recreation and the Virginia Native on local natural history for color, shape, height, bloom timesPlant Society. VNPS chapters across the state helped to fund involvement. They form the primary and specific wildlife value of the plants that grow in yourthe 2011 update to this brochure. component of the living landscape region. Visit a nearby park, natural area preserve, forest or Native and provide food and shelter forThe following partners have provided valuable assistance wildlife management area to learn about common plant native animal species. Nativethroughout the life of this project: associations, spatial groupings and habitat conditions. plants co-evolved with native For specific recommendations and advice about project The Nature Conservancy – Virginia Chapter • Virginia animals over many thousands design, consult a landscape or garden design specialist with Tech Department of Horticulture • Virginia Department of to millions of years and have experience in native plants. Agriculture and Consumer Services • Virginia Department formed complex and interdependent relationships. Our native fauna depend on native flora to Plants of Environmental Quality, Coastal Zone Management Program • Virginia Department of Forestry • Virginia provide food and cover. Many animals require specific plants What are non-native plants? Department of Game and Inland Fisheries • Virginia for their survival. Sometimes referred to as “exotic,” “alien,” or “non- Department of Transportation indigenous,” non-native plants are species introduced, intentionally or accidentally, into a new region by humans. Benefits of native plants Over time, many plants and animals have expanded their Using native species in landscaping reduces the expense ranges slowly and without human assistance. As people of maintaining cultivated landscapes and minimizes the began cultivating plants, they brought beneficial and favored likelihood of introducing new invasive species. It may species along when they moved into new regions or traded for Conservation, provide a few unexpected benefits as well. with people in distant lands. Humans thus became a new Restoration & Landscaping Native plants often require less water, fertilizer and pesticide, thus adding fewer chemicals to the landscape pathway, enabling many species to move into new locations. and maintaining water quality in nearby rivers and What are invasive plants? streams. Fewer inputs mean time and money saved for Invasive plants are introduced species that cause health, the gardener. economic or ecological damage in their new range. More Native plants increase the presence of desirable wildlife, than 30,000 species of plants have been introduced to such as birds and butterflies, and provide sanctuaries for the United States since the time of Columbus. Most were these animals as they journey between summer and winter introduced intentionally, and many provide great benefits habitats. The natural habitat you create with native plants to society as agricultural crops and landscape ornamentals. can become an outdoor classroom for children, or a place Some were introduced accidentally, for example, in shipFor more information for you to find peace and quiet after a busy day. ballast, in packing material and as seed contaminants. OfVirginia Department of Conservation and Recreation these introduced species, fewer than 3,000 have naturalized Native plants evoke a strong sense of place and regionalNatural Heritage Program and become established in the United States outside character. For example, live oak and magnolia trees are804-786-7951 cultivation. Of the 3,500 plant species in Virginia, more than strongly associated with the Deep South. Redwood treeswww.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/nativeplants.shtml 800 have been introduced since the founding of Jamestown. characterize the Pacific Northwest. Saguaro cacti call to The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation mind the deserts of the Southwest. currently lists more than 100 of these species as invasive.For a list of nurseries that propagatenative species, contact: In the United States, invasive species cause an estimated Buying and growing native plantsVirginia Native Plant Society $120 billion in annual economic losses, including costs to More gardeners today are discovering the benefits of400 Blandy Farm Lane, Unit 2 manage their effects. Annual costs and damages arising native plants and requesting them atBoyce, VA 22620 from invasive plants alone are estimated at $34 billion.540-837-1600 | vnpsofc@shentel.net their local garden centers. Because ofwww.vnps.org this increased demand, retailers are offering an ever-widening selection of Native plants vs. invasive plants vigorous, nursery-propagated natives. Invasive plants have competitive advantages that allowFor a list of nurseries in a particular them to disrupt native plant communities and the wildliferegion of Virginia, contact: Once you’ve found a good vendor for dependent on them. For example, kudzu (Pueraria montana)The Virginia Nursery and Landscape Association native plants, the next step is choosing grows very rapidly and overtops forest canopy, thus shading383 Coal Hollow Road appropriate plants for a project. One other plant species from the sunlight necessary for theirChristiansburg, VA 24073 of the greatest benefits of designing survival. A tall invasive wetland grass, common reed540-382-0943 | vnla@verizon.net with native plants is their adaptation to (Phragmites australis ssp. australis), invades and dominatesTo search for species in VNLA member catalogs, visit: local conditions. However, it is important marshes, reducing native plant diversity and sometimeswww.vnla.org/search.asp to select plants with growth requirements eliminating virtually all other species. that best match conditions in the area to be planted. Invasive species can marginalize or even cause the loss ofIllustrations courtesy of native species. With their natural host plants gone, manyThe Flora of Virginia Project. If you’re planning a project usingIllustrators: Lara Gastinger, Roy Fuller insects disappear. And since insects are an essential part of native plant species, use the list in thisand Michael Terry. To learn more, visit: the diet of many birds, the effects on the food web become brochure to learn which plants grow inwww.floraofvirginia.org far reaching. Habitats with a high occurrence of invasive your region of Virginia. Next, study the plants become a kind of “green desert.” Although green and Virginia Piedmont Region minimum light and moisture requirements healthy in appearance, far fewer native species of plants and for each species, noting that some plants grow animals are found in such radically altered places. 9/2011
    • Scientific Name Common Name Uses Light Moisture Scientific Name Common Name Uses Light Moisture W H C D S P F L M H W H C D S P F L M H Dichanthelium clandestinum deer-tongue • • • • • • • •Virginia Herbs Dichanthelium commutatum variable panicgrass • • • • • • • Achillea millefolium common yarrow • • • • Dulichium arundinaceum dwarf bamboo • • • • • • Ageratina altissima white snakeroot • • • • Elymus hystrix bottlebrush grass • • • • • • • Amsonia tabernaemontana blue star • • • • • Elymus virginicus Virginia wild rye • • • • • •Piedmont Anemone quinquefolia wood anemone • • • • • Juncus canadensis Canada rush • • • • • • Anemonella thalictroides rue anemone • • • Juncus effusus soft rush • • • • • • Antennaria neglecta field pussytoes • • • • • • Leersia oryzoides rice cutgrass • • • • • • Aquilegia canadensis wild columbine • • • • • •Region Panicum virgatum switch grass • • • • • • • • Arisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the-pulpit • • • Saccharum giganteum giant plumegrass • • • • • • • Aruncus dioicus goatsbeard • • • • Schizachyrium scoparium little bluestem • • • • • • • • Asarum canadense+ wild ginger • • • • Scirpus cyperinus woolgrass bulrush • • • • • • •Rocky falls and rapids Asclepias incarnata swamp milkweed • • • • • • Sorghastrum nutans Indian grass • • • • • • • • Asclepias syriaca+ common milkweed • • • • • Sparganium americanum American bur-reed • • • • •on the Potomac, Asclepias tuberosa butterfly weed • • • • • Tridens flavus redtop • • • • • • • • Baptisia australis* blue wild indigo • • • • • Tripsacum dactyloides gama grass • • • • • • • •Rappahannock and James Baptisia tinctoria yellow wild-indigo • • • • • Typha latifolia broad-leaved cattail • • • • •rivers mark a transition Bidens cernua+ nodding beggar-ticks • • • • • • • • Chamaecrista fasciculata+ partridge pea • • • • Vinesfrom the softer sediments Chelone glabra white turtlehead • • • • • Bignonia capreolata crossvine • • • • • • Chrysogonum virginianum green and gold • • • • Campsis radicans trumpet creeper • • • • •of the Coastal Plain to Chrysopsis mariana Maryland golden aster • • • • • • Celastrus scandens climbing bittersweet • • • • • • Cimicifuga racemosa black cohosh • • • • Clematis virginiana virgin’s bower • • • •the resistant bedrock Clitoria mariana Maryland butterfly pea • • • • • Lonicera sempervirens trumpet honeysuckle • • • • Conoclinium coelestinum blue mistflower • • • • • • Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper • • • • • •underlying the Piedmont. Coreopsis lanceolata longstalk coreopsis • • • Passiflora incarnata Purple passionflower • • • • • • Coreopsis tinctoria golden tickseed • • • • •Moving west, the rolling Coreopsis tripteris tall coreopsis • • • • • Shrubs & Small Treeshills of Virginia’s Piedmont Coreopsis verticillata threadleaf coreopsis • • • • • Alnus serrulata hazel alder • • • • • • • Delphinium tricorne dwarf larkspur • • • • Aronia arbutifolia red chokeberry • • • • • •Plateau steadily climb Desmodium paniculatum narrow-leaf tick trefoil • • • • Aronia melanocarpa black chokeberry • • • • • • • Dicentra cucullaria Dutchman’s breeches • • • Castanea pumila Allegheny chinkapin • • • • • • •from the fall line to the Dicentra eximia wild bleeding heart • • • • Ceanothus americanus New Jersey tea • • • • • • Doellingeria umbellata flat-top white aster • • • • • • Cephalanthus occidentalis buttonbush • • • • •foothills of the Blue Ridge Equisetum hyemale horsetail • • • • • • Cornus amomum silky dogwood • • • • • • Eupatoriadelphus fistulosus Joe-pye weed • • • • • • • Crataegus crus-galli cockspur hawthorn • • • • • • •Mountains, which form Eupatorium perfoliatum common boneset • • • • • Eubotrys racemosa fetterbush • • • • • Eurybia divaricata white wood aster • • • • • • • Euonymus americanus American strawberry-bush • • • •the western boundary Geranium maculatum wild geranium • • • • • Gaultheria procumbens wintergreen • • • • • •of the Piedmont. The Gillenia trifoliata bowman’s root • • • • Gaylussacia baccata black huckleberry • • • • • • • Helenium autumnale sneezeweed • • • • • • Hamamelis virginiana witch hazel • • • • • •hills of the Piedmont Helianthus angustifolius narrow-leaf sunflower • • • • • • • Hydrangea arborescens wild hydrangea • • • • Helianthus decapetalus ten-petaled sunflower • • • • • • Hypericum prolificum shrubby St. Johnswort • • • • •become steeper to the Helianthus divaricatus woodland sunflower • • • • • Ilex decidua deciduous holly • • • • • • Heliopsis helianthoides oxeye sunflower • • • • • • • Ilex verticillata winterberry • • • • • • •west, where monadnocks Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa round-lobed hepatica • • • • Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel • • • • • • Heuchera americana alumroot • • • Lindera benzoin spicebush • • • • •— remnants of ancient Hibiscus moscheutos Eastern rosemallow • • • • • Physocarpus opulifolius ninebark • • • • • • • • Iris cristata dwarf crested iris • • • • Rhododendron catawbiense Catawba rhododendron • • • • •mountains — rise above Iris virginica Virginia blue flag • • • • • Rhododendron maximum great rhododendron • • • • • • •the farms and forests. Lespedeza capitata round-head bush clover • • • • Rhododendron periclymenoides pinxter flower • • • • • • Liatris pilosa var. pilosa grass-leaf blazing star • • • • • • • Rhododendron viscosum swamp azalea • • • • • •The Piedmont is known Liatris squarrosa plains blazing star • • • • • • Rhus aromatica fragrant sumac • • • • Lilium canadense Canada lily • • • • • Rhus copallinum winged sumac • • • • • •for moderately fertile but Lilium superbum Turk’s cap lily • • • • • Rosa carolina pasture rose • • • • • • Lobelia cardinalis cardinal flower • • • • • • Rubus allegheniensis Alleghany blackberry • • • • •highly eroded clay soils Lobelia siphilitica great blue lobelia • • • • • • Salix humilis prairie willow • • • • Lupinus perennis lupine • • • • Salix sericea silky willow • • • • •that formed from deeply Maianthemum racemosum false Solomon’s seal • • • • • Sambucus canadensis common elderberry • • • • • • Mertensia virginica Virginia bluebells • • • • • • Staphylea trifolia bladdernut • • •weathered bedrock. Most Mimulus ringens monkeyflower • • • • Vaccinium corymbosum highbush blueberry • • • • • • • • •of this land was converted Monarda fistulosa wild bergamot • • • • • • • Vaccinium stamineum deerberry • • • • Monarda punctata Horse-mint • • • • Viburnum dentatum Southern arrow-wood viburnum • • • • • • •to farmland during Nymphaea odorata American water lily • • • • • Viburnum nudum possum-haw viburnum • • • • • Oenothera fruticosa sundrops • • • • • • Viburnum prunifolium black-haw viburnum • • • • • •European settlement. Opuntia humifusa Eastern prickly-pear • • • • • Packera aurea+ golden ragwort • • • • • • Medium TreesToday, however, mixed Peltandra virginica arrow arum • • • • • • Amelanchier arborea downy serviceberry • • • • • • Penstemon canescens gray beardtongue • • • Amelanchier canadensis Canada serviceberry • • • • • •pine-oak-hickory forests Penstemon digitalis foxglove beardtongue • • • • • • • Aralia spinosa devil’s walkingstick • • • • Penstemon laevigatus smooth beardtongue • • • • • Asimina triloba paw paw • • • • • •arising from abandoned Phlox divaricata woodland phlox • • • • • Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam • • • • • Phlox paniculata summer phlox • • • • • Cercis canadensis Eastern redbud • • • • •farmlands are found Phlox subulata moss phlox • • • • Chionanthus virginicus fringetree • • • •throughout the region. Physostegia virginiana+ obedient plant • • • • • Cornus alternifolia alternate-leaf dogwood • • • • • • • Podophyllum peltatum+ mayapple • • • • • • Cornus florida flowering dogwood • • • • • • • Polemonium reptans Jacob’s ladder • • • • Crataegus viridis green hawthorn • • • • • • • Polygonatum biflorum Solomon’s seal • • • • • Ilex opaca American holly • • • • • Pontederia cordata pickerel weed • • • • • Magnolia virginiana sweetbay magnolia • • • • • • Pycnanthemum incanum hoary mountain mint • • • • Morus rubra red mulberry • • • • • • Pycnanthemum tenuifolium narrow-leaved mountain mint • • • • • • • Ostrya virginiana Eastern hop-hornbeam • • • • Rhexia virginica Virginia meadow-beauty • • • • Prunus americana American wild plum • • • • Rudbeckia fulgida early coneflower • • • • • • Rhus glabra smooth sumac • • • • • • Rudbeckia hirta black eyed Susan • • • • • • Rhus typhina staghorn sumac • • • • • Rudbeckia laciniata cut-leaved coneflower • • • • • • Salix nigra black willow • • • • • Rudbeckia triloba three-lobed coneflower • • • • • • Large Trees Sagittaria latifolia broadleaf arrowhead • • • • • Salvia lyrata+ lyre-leaf sage • • • • Acer negundo ash-leaf maple • • • • Sanguinaria canadensis bloodroot • • • Acer rubrum red maple • • • • • Saururus cernuus lizard’s tail • • • • • Acer saccharum sugar maple • • • • • • Saxifraga virginiensis early saxifrage • • • • • • Aesculus flava yellow buckeye • • • Sedum ternatum wild stonecrop • • • • Betula lenta sweet birch • • • • • • Senna marilandica Maryland wild senna • • • • • Betula nigra river birch • • • • • • Silene virginica fire pink • • • • • Carya cordiformis bitternut hickory • • • • • • Silphium perfoliatum cup plant • • • • • • Carya glabra pignut hickory • • • • • • Solidago caesia bluestem goldenrod • • • • • • Carya ovata shagbark hickory • • • • Solidago odora sweet goldenrod • • • • • • Carya tomentosa mockernut hickory • • • • • Solidago pinetorum+ pineywoods goldenrod • • • • • Diospyros virginiana persimmon • • • • • • • • Solidago puberula downy goldenrod • • • • • Fagus grandifolia American beech • • • • • • Solidago rugosa+ rough-stemmed goldenrod • • • • • Fraxinus americana white ash • • • • •Recommended Uses Symphyotrichum concolor Eastern silvery aster • • • • • Fraxinus pensylvanica green ash • • • • • • Symphyotrichum cordifolium heart-leaved aster • • • • • Juglans nigra black walnut • • • • •W = Wildlife Juniperus virginiana Eastern red cedar • • • • • • Symphyotrichum pilosum frost aster • • • • •H = Horticulture & landscaping Thalictrum dioicum early meadowrue • • • Liquidambar styraciflua sweetgum • • • • • • •C = Conservation & restoration Tiarella cordifolia foamflower • • • Liriodendron tulipifera tulip poplar • • • • • Tradescantia virginiana+ Virginia spiderwort • • • • • • Nyssa sylvatica black gum • • • • • •D = Domestic livestock forage Trillium grandiflorum white trillium • • • Oxydendrum arboreum sourwood • • • Verbena hastata blue vervain • • • • • • Pinus echinata shortleaf pine • • • • Vernonia noveboracensis New York ironweed • • • • • • Pinus rigida pitch pine • • • •Minimum Light Pinus strobus white pine • • • • • Viola cucullata marsh blue violet • • • • • •Requirements Viola pedata bird’s foot violet • • • • • Pinus taeda loblolly pine • • • • • •S = Shade Viola pubescens yellow violet • • • • • • Pinus virginiana Virginia pine • • • Yucca filamentosa common yucca • • • • Platanus occidentalis sycamore • • • • •P = Partial sun Prunus serotina wild black cherry • • • • •F = Full sun Ferns & Fern Allies Quercus alba white oak • • • • • • Adiantum pedatum maidenhair fern • • • • Quercus bicolor swamp white oak • • • • • Asplenium platyneuron ebony spleenwort • • • • Quercus coccinea scarlet oak • • • • •Moisture Requirements Athyrium asplenioides Southern ladyfern • • • • • Quercus falcata Southern red oak • • • • • • •L = Low moisture Botrychium virginianum rattlesnake fern • • • • • Quercus ilicifolia bear oak • • • • Dennstaedtia punctilobula+ hay-scented fern • • • • • Quercus michauxii swamp chestnut oak • • • • •M = Moderate moisture Dryopteris intermedia evergreen wood-fern • • • • • • • Quercus muehlenbergii chinkapin oak • • • •H = High moisture Dryopteris marginalis marginal shield-fern • • • • • Quercus palustris pin oak • • • • • • • Onoclea sensibilis+ sensitive fern • • • • • • Quercus phellos willow oak • • • • • • • Osmunda cinnamomea cinnamon fern • • • • • • Quercus prinus chestnut oak • • • • •Some species are marked Osmunda regalis royal fern • • • • • Quercus rubra Northern red oak • • • • • • •with the following footnote Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern • • • • Quercus stellata post oak • • • • • Thelypteris palustris marsh fern • • • • • Quercus velutina black oak • • • • •symbols: Robinia pseudoacacia black locust • • • • Grasses, Sedges & Rushes Sassafras albidum sassafras • • • • •+ May be aggressive in a Agrostis perennans autumn bentgrass • • • • • • • Tilia americana American basswood • • • garden setting Andropogon gerardii big bluestem • • • • • • • • Tsuga canadensis Eastern hemlock • • • • • • Andropogon glomeratus bushy bluestem • • • • • •* Due to the rarity and sensi- Andropogon virginicus broomsedge • • • • • • • Arundinaria tecta switch cane • • • • • • • tivity of habitat in Virginia, Carex crinita long hair sedge • • • • • • • these species are recom- Carex lurida sallow sedge • • • • • • mended for horticultural use Carex pensylvanica Pennsylvania sedge • • • • • • • Carex plantaginea plantain-leaved sedge • • • • only. Planting these species Carex stricta tussock sedge • • • • • • in natural areas could be Chasmanthium latifolium+ river oats, spanglegrass • • • • • • Danthonia sericea silky oatgrass • • • • • • detrimental to the survival Danthonia spicata poverty oatgrass • • • • • • • of native populations.