• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Gardening with Native Plants - Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest
 

Gardening with Native Plants - Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest

on

  • 789 views

Gardening with Native Plants - Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest

Gardening with Native Plants - Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest

Statistics

Views

Total Views
789
Views on SlideShare
789
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Gardening with Native Plants - Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest Gardening with Native Plants - Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest Presentation Transcript

    • CONTENTSPreface 1Introduction/Implementation 2Design/Plants 3How To Use These Plant Lists 6Plant List 1 7Urban Native Plant Community for SunPlant List 2 11Urban Native Plant Community for ShadePlant List 3 14Urban Native Plant Community forNarrow Planting AreasPlant List 4 17Grasses, Sedges and Rushes forUrban Native Plant CommunitiesPlant List 5 18Wetland and Riparian UrbanNative Plant CommunitiesPlant List 6 22Urban Native Plant ListPlant List 7 29Aggressive Native Plant List Amelanchier alnifoliaManuals available through: ServiceberryCascade Biomes, Inc.P. O. Box 22419Seattle, WA 98122-0419Phone/Fax (206) 322-0528$6.00 per copy, plus $1.50 postage and handling (U. S. Funds)3rd Printing, Copyright 1997: Anderson & Ray, Inc., P.S. and Cascade Biomes, Inc.2nd Printing, Copyright 1996: Anderson & Ray, Inc., P.S. and Cascade Biomes, Inc.1st Printing, Copyright 1995: Anderson & Ray, Inc., P.S. and Cascade Biomes, Inc.ANDERSON & R AY, INC. P.S. Landscape Architects & Planners
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesPREFACE: This manual serves two purposes.First, it lists plants included in northwest nativeplant communities for urban areas in thePacific Northwest. Second, it suggests designguidelines for use in preparing landscape plansusing Pacific Northwest native plants. Thismanual does not give specific detailedinformation about individual plants, rather itassumes that the user has an understanding ofplant identification, ecology, and plantingprocedures. For information about plant forms,sizes, and colors, other resources should beconsulted. There are several very good sourcesof information about native plants, including:Gardening with Native Plants of the Pacific Northwest,by Arthur R. Kruckeberg; Plants of the PacificNorthwest Coast, by Pojar/Mackinnon, WaysideFlowers of the Pacific Northwest; by Dr. DeeStrickler, Hortus Northwest, A Pacific NorthwestPlant Directory & Journal; and Douglasii, anewsletter published by the Washington NativePlant Society. The Washington Native PlantSociety may be contacted by writing: Washington Native Plant Society P. O. Box 28690 Seattle, WA 98118-8690Plant sketches for this manual are based onphotographs from Plants of the Pacific NorthwestCoast, by Pojar/Mackinnon. Oxalis oregana Redwood SorrelA Manual of Native Plant Communities for Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest 1
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesINTRODUCTION: This manual contains substitute a mix of successional communities at Mycorrhizae are anatomical structures resultingguidelines for the use of native plants in the the time of installation. This mix of successional from the symbiotic association between a plantplanning and creation of successful and plant communities represents a more natural root and a fungus. These fungi are the singleaesthetically pleasing urban landscape designs. plant pattern. Additionally, 0this design style most important organisms living in a symbioticFor this document, Pacific Northwest "native" also responds well to typical constraints of an relationship with living plants. Mycorrhizalplants are those species that were established in urban setting: utility infrastructure, narrow structures encourage and enhance plantthe region before European settlement. The planting strips, reflective heat from paved establishment. Mycorrhizal fungi must beplants selected for this document are endemic to surfaces, etc. The designed successional native present in the soil for optimal sustained growthall areas from northern California to British plant communities described in this manual and transplantability of most native plants.Columbia and west of the coastal mountain include trees, shrubs, groundcovers, mosses and Virtually all undisturbed topsoils containranges. This manual suggests procedures for plant-fungi associations called mycorrhizae (See mycorrhizal associations. The spores of the soilsuccessful native plant establishment based on Diagram 1). fungi needed to develop mycorrhizae willthe composition and dynamics of native plant colonize most soils or soil mixes that have beencommunities. Assembling these groups of plants in place for more than two growing seasons.into native plant communities (urban ecological Most native and ornamental plants will growplant communities) is the fundamental basis for well in mycorrhizal deficient soils as long as eachthis manual. All of the plants listed here are plant’s water, light, and nutrient requirementssuitable for cultivation by growers and nurseries. are met through irrigation, fertilization, and soil amendments. However, some native plants willPROCEDURES: Native plant community Roots not grow at all if mycorrhizal fungi are notsuccession in typical Northwest wilderness areas present.may require decades or even centuries tocomplete. Traditional urban landscape designs In our Pacific maritime climate, the summertypically represent late successional stages. drought period may last for several months or MycorrhizaeOvergrown plants will be removed and replaced filaments longer. The native plants of this area haveby new members with similar requirements, developed a complex relationship withmaintaining the original landscape design. Other mycorrhizal fungi which prevents soil fromearlier successional plant communities are wicking water away from the roots of the hostgenerally discouraged, either chemically or plant. Mycorrhizal structures benefit nativethrough the use of plant-inhibiting mulches or plants primarily by surrounding and protectingsterile soil mixes. The alternative suggested in plant roots from desiccation and improving thethis manual is to plants’ ability to take up nutrients. Diagram 1 - MycorrhizaeA Manual of Native Plant Communities for Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest 2
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesMycorrhizal structures can store and make inoculated soil is incorporated into interdependencies with other plants andavailable to native plants up to seven times the thetransplanting container, or 3) a liquid organisms. When plants are salvaged, thesemoisture that would otherwise be available. The mycorrhizal solution be applied to the soil at the relationships are severely impacted. Thus, it isfibrous root-like structure of mycorrhizae also time of planting. Native mosses, companion preferable to use nursery-grown plantseffectively extend the host plant’s root plants, and pioneer plants, all of which provide a whenever possible. Long term plant survival ispenetration into the soil. In the urban living mulch, are also very important for more likely when container-grown plants areenvironment, mycorrhizal fungi are brought to a successful native plant establishment. These used.new planting site by: 1) inoculum on the plants’ plants buffer the impact of rain on the soil, holdroots, 2) direct application to the planting soil at water in a sponge-like fashion, slow run-off, DESIGN: Preparing a design is more subject-the site, or 3) bringing in salvaged soil from a minimize erosion, shield soil, plant roots, and ive than the process of assembling the necessarynative soil site which already contains a variety small seedlings from the sun, and stabilize the landscaping elements (including plants, soil,of mycorrhizal fungi. Container soil should be plant community’s microclimate, specifically water and supplemental nutrients) on site.inoculated at the time of propagation to ensure moderating it at the air-soil interface. Designing with native plants leaves plenty ofoptimal establishment of container grown native room for individual artistic expression.plants. Inoculation is the least expensive way to Salvaged plants should be obtained only through However, the process of native planting designensure that mycorrhizal organisms will be programs like King Countys Native Plant requires inspection of any nearby undisturbedtransported to the planting site. Plants are Salvage Program. Make sure any nursery which native plant com-munity. Existing woodlands,inoculated by dipping young plants in a water attempts to sell salvaged plants obtains them etc., yield many clues for plan composition, andsolution that contains mycorrhizal fungi spores. only through a recognized plant salvage plant community patterns that will be useful forThe cost for this method can be as low as program. Make sure the plant salvager digs and developing a landscape plan. Purposeful order in$10.00 per 5,000 plants. transplants in a manner which minimizes stress the design of a native plant community plan is as on the plants. Many plants are salvaged and important as functional considerations likeTo assure successful establishment of native handled improperly, and these cannot survive screening and buffering. To develop anplants, the installer must ensure that either: for long. attractive plan, the designer should consider that1) mycorrhizae are present in the soil; or 2) that the plant community will evolve over time. Thethe native plant communities receive the same (Exercise caution when using salvaged designer, installer, client, and gardener shoulddegree of care (irrigation, soil amendments and northwest native plants) understand that parts of the new plantfertilizer) usually given to ornamental plants. community will thrive initially, while otherThe successful use of salvaged plants will require Nursery-grown plants thrive more readily than portions of the design will change as the plantsthat: 1) a substantial amount of their original soil plants dug in the wild. Salvaged or dug plants adapt and adjust to site conditions. The guidingis taken up with the rootball, 2) mycorrhizae experience extreme shock when moved. In a design principle for developing a native plant natural setting plants will develop large root community is the clump-gap mosaic (see systems and important Diagram 2).A Manual of Native Plant Communities for Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest 3
    • Urban Native Plant Communities succession (and native plant community communities over time. The following listed composition) can be steered by: 1) shaping the plant communities include native plants that, topography to channel or impound water, 2) with appropriate planting procedures, should building berms to improve drainage, 3) changing have a high probability for successful growth in the solar orientation, and 4) placing rocks, logs most urban conditions. Using these plant lists and snags to create plant micro-habitats. You assumes a general acceptance and knowledge of can facilitate this successional pattern by the site grading practices. Avoid uniform arrangement of trees, large shrubs, and mass topography – even small variations in the plantings. The vision for garden aesthetics topography will allow for the establishment of a should allow for changes in, and evolution of, more diverse plant community (See Diagram 3). the plantDiagram 2 - Clump-Gap Mosaic Plant numerous small Shade by larger plants throughout the site. trees at theThis principle requires adherence to the rule of time of planting willdiversity. Placement of plants in a clump-gap improvemosaic requires clumping individuals of one conditions forspecies together, then placing individuals of that The use of larger shrubs shade lovingsame species away from the first group. As the and trees at the time of plants, helpingprocess is repeated with different species, a planting modifies wind them grow and and shade patterns tomosaic pattern is formed. This pattern allows thrive. shelter young plants.plants with specific growth requirements to finda suitable home within the plant community andeither flourish or eventually disappear. Theoverlapping mosaic pattern improves the Vary topography to capture water which willchances of developing a sustainable, multi-tiered sustain plants requiring more moisture.covering of the ground. The path of Boulders modify plant growing conditions by absorbing then radiating heat, and by collecting water at their edges. Diagram 3 - Concepts for Increasing Plant DiversityA Manual of Native Plant Communities for Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest 4
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesBoth plant quantity and size are important in imprinting are best for large areas. Native plant grow so vigorously that they will monopolize thedeveloping a successful native plant community. seed mixes are best sown in the fall to take garden. The most prevalent weedy species toLarge plants tend to be harder to establish than advantage of our winter and spring rains. remove and avoid include Scotch Broom,small ones. However, it is important to use Another important part of encouraging the Himalayan Blackberry, English Holly, andsome larger plants to create a skeletal structure diversity of a native plant community is the English Ivy. Other species are also problematic,to modify environmental conditions for the new exclusion of certain weedy species. When and research for design should exploreplant community. Smaller plants should be designing a native plant community, be very problematic weedy species in any given area.placed in less conspicuous places in the garden cautious that the species used are not going towhere they may thrive when environmentalconditions improve. Many native plants have the Sun loving plants areability to remain almost completely dormant present throughout site.under inappropriate growing conditions. Shade lovingBecause cost is usually a major consideration in plants are alsoa planting design, the use of a greater number of present.small plants and seeds is generally preferable toplanting a few large individuals. This practicewill also improve the chances of developing asuccessful and diverse ecological plantcommunity that is well-adapted to a site (See Site at Time of PlantingDiagram 4).Establishing a diverse native plant community Shade loving plantswill usually require the use of a seed mix. thrive in interior.Traditional methods for applying seed includehydroseeding, hand and mechanical Sun loving plantsbroadcasting, and land imprinting. Of these thrive on edges.methods, the direct application of seed to thesoil is preferred. Land imprinting is a seedapplication method that applies seed andmycorrhizae directly to the prepared soil withoutusing a mulch or tacifier. Broadcast seeding issuitable for smaller projects, while hydroseeding, Site a Few Growing Seasons Latermechanical sowing, and land Diagram 4 - Plants Adapt to Changing Environmental ConditionsA Manual of Native Plant Communities for Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest 5
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesHOW TO USE THE PLANT LISTS: The aggressive and may virtually take over a smallfollowing plants are recommended for use in site. Plants in this list are important inurban landscapes. The first list is for plants that restoration projects but should only be useddo well in sunny conditions. Many of these with a full understanding of their potentialplants will also do well in partial shade impacts. These lists are not all-inclusive, andconditions, and those are so noted. The second therefore the use of other native plants islist is for plants which prefer more shade, and encouraged.conversely, some of these plants will also dowell in sunnier locations. There is overlapbetween the two situations since many nativeplants adapt to a variety of lighting conditions.Plants given a “Highly Adaptable” rating inthe Re ma rk s column will thrive in manydifferent conditions. Plants given an“Adaptable” rating have a special need orrequirement in order to do well, or they maysimply exist marginally within a certain plantcommunity until conditions change to theirfavor. The “Requires” rating is for plants thatrequire specific conditions to survive; theseshould be used with care and consideration. Thethird list includes plants recommended for usein very narrow planting areas. The fourth listincludes grasses, sedges, and rushes; this list isincluded for use in meadow/grasslandrestoration projects or for designers who have aspecial interest in this plant group. The fifth listincludes plants for wetland and riparian areas.The sixth list contains all plants recommendedin the manual, which nurseries should grow andmake available to the public. Finally, the seventhlist contains plants that, although native, can bevery Blechnum spicant Deer FernA Manual of Native Plant Communities for Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest 6
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesPLANT LIST 1 SUNNY PLACESFull Sun, Partial Sun, 6’ minimum planting width TREE CANOPY PLANT LIST 1 (SUNNY PLACES) BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS Aesculus californica California Buckeye Adaptable, prefers well drained soils Arbutus menziesii Madrone Requires, coarse, well drained soils, transplant seedlings only Betula papyrifera Paper Birch Adaptable, prefers moist, well drained soils Calocedrus decurrens Incense Cedar Adaptable, prefers moist to wet soils Castanopsis chrysophylla Chinquapin Adaptable, prefers well drained soils in full sun Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Alaska Yellow Cedar Adaptable, prefers moist to wet soils Cornus nuttallii Pacific Dogwood Adaptable, prefers partial sun and moist soils Fraxinus latifolia Oregon Ash Adaptable, prefers highly organic moist soils Juglans hindsii California Black Walnut Highly Adaptable Pinus contorta Shore Pine, Lodgepole Pine Highly Adaptable *Caution -- Aggressive Pinus monticola Western White Pine Requires, well drained soils Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa Pine Adaptable, prefers well drained soils in full sun Populus tremuloides Quaking Aspen Adaptable, prefers well drained soils in full sun – Note: See list 7 Prunus emarginata Bitter Cherry Highly Adaptable Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Highly Adaptable Quercus chrysolepis Canyon Live Oak Adaptable, prefers well drained soils Quercus garryana Garry Oak, Oregon White Oak Adaptable, prefers well drained soils Quercus kelloggii California Black Oak Adaptable, prefers well drained soils Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra Pacific Willow Requires, moist to wet soils Salix scouleriana Scouler’s Willow Adaptable, prefers moist soil in full sun, forms thickets Thuja plicata Western Red Cedar Adaptable, prefers moist to wet soils UNDERSTORY LAYER PLANT LIST 1 (SUNNY PLACES) BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS Acer circinatum Vine Maple Highly Adaptable, prefers some shade Acer glabrum Rocky Mountain Maple Highly Adaptable Amelanchier alnifolia Western Serviceberry Highly Adaptable Ceanothus velutinus Snowbrush Adaptable, prefers full sun Corylus cornuta Western Beaked Hazel Highly Adaptable Crataegus douglasii Black Hawthorn Highly AdaptableA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 7
    • Garrya elliptica Silk-tassel Adaptable, prefers well drained soils Holodiscus discolor Oceanspray Highly Adaptable Myrica californica California Wax Myrtle Highly Adaptable Philadelphus lewisii Mock-orange Highly Adaptable Ribes divaricatum Wild Gooseberry Highly Adaptable Ribes menziesii Prickly Gooseberry Highly Adaptable Ribes sanguineum Red Currant Highly Adaptable Rubus spectabilis Salmonberry Adaptable, prefers moist soils Salix sitchensis Sitka Willow Adaptable, needs moist soil in full sun, forms thickets Sambucus racemosa Red Elderberry Highly Adaptable Sambucus cerulea Blue Elderberry Highly Adaptable Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry Highly Adaptable, thicket-forming Symphoricarpos mollis Creeping Snowberry Adaptable, prefers partial sun. Vaccinium ovatum Evergreen Huckleberry Adaptable, prefers partial sun Vaccinium parvifolium Red Huckleberry Requires, humus-rich soils or decaying wood Viburnum edule Highbush Cranberry Adaptable, prefers moist well drained soils SHRUB/SUBSHRUB LAYER PLANT LIST 1 (SUNNY PLACES) BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS Aquilegia formosa Western Columbine Adaptable, prefers partial sun Arctostaphylos columbiana Hairy Manzanita Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils Brodiaea coronaria Harvest Brodiaea Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils Camassia quamash Camas Adaptable, prefers moist, well drained soils Ceanothus velutinus Snowbrush Highly Adaptable Eriophyllum lanatum Oregon Sunshine Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils Erythronium oregonum Fawn Lily Requires, humus-rich soils Fritillaria lanceolata Chocolate Lily Requires, moist, well drained soils Gaultheria shallon Salal Highly Adaptable Heuchera micrantha Coral Bells Adaptable, prefers partial sun and moist soils Iris tenax Oregon Iris Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils Kalmiopsis leachiana Kalmiopsis Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained, humus soils Leucothoe davisiae Western Leucothoe Adaptable, prefers partial sun and moist soils Lonicera ciliosa Orange Honeysuckle Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape Adaptable, prefers partial sun Pachystima (Paxistima) myrsinites Oregon Box Highly Adaptable Polystichum munitum Sword Fern Highly Adaptable Rosa gymnocarpa Dwarf Rose Highly AdaptableA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 8
    • Rosa nutkana Nootka Rose Highly Adaptable Rubus parviflorus Thimbleberry Highly Adaptable, thicket-forming, no thorns Sisyrinchium douglasii Douglas Blue-eyed-grass Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry Highly Adaptable, forms thickets GROUNDCOVER LAYER PLANT LIST 1 (SUNNY PLACES) BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/COVERAGE Antennaria microphylla Rosy Pussytoes Adaptable, prefers well drained soils, 5% Antennaria neglecta Field Pussytoes Highly Adaptable, 5% Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Kinnikinnik (Bearberry) Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils, 10% Armeria maritima Sea Pink Requires, dry well drained soils, 10% Ceanothus prostratus Mahala Mat Requires, dry well drained soils, 10% Fragaria chiloensis Coastal Strawberry Adaptable, prefers well drained soils, total of this genus, 25% Fragaria vesca Woodland Strawberry Adaptable, prefers partial shade, total of this genus 25% Gaultheria shallon Salal Highly Adaptable, 10% Linnaea borealis Twinflower Adaptable, prefers humus-rich soils, 5% Phlox diffusa Spreading Phlox Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils, 5% Poitentilla anserina ssp. pacifica Silverweed Highly Adaptable, 10% Sedum divergens Spreading Stonecrop Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils, 5% Sedum lanceolatum Lance-leaved Stonecrop Highly Adaptable, 5% Sedum oreganum Oregon Stonecrop Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils, 5% Sedum spathulifolium Broad-leaved Stonecrop Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soils, 5% Viola adunca Violet Adaptable, prefers partial sun, 5%A Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 9
    • LIVE MULCHES AND PIONEERSPLANT LIST 1 (SUNNY PLACES)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/COVERAGENative topsoil mix with live mycorrhizae, Upper 6 inches of existing undisturbed native topsoil fromincludes mosses salvage site; limit soil stockpiling to one growing season, 2” minimum depth; 100% cover Assorted Native Mosses Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverCalliergonella cuspidata Spear Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverCeratodon purpureus Red Roof Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverPolytrichum piliferum Haircap Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverRhacomitrium canescens Roadside Rock Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverLathyrus polyphyllus Leafy Peavine Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seed, 10%Lupinus polyphyllus Lupine Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seed, 20%Penstemon cardwellii Cardwell’s Penstemon Pioneer, seed, total of this genus-20%Penstemon davidsonii Davidson’s Penstemon Pioneer, seed, total of this genus-20%Penstemon species Other Native Penstemon Pioneer, seed, total of this genus-20%Satureja douglasii Yerba Buena Pioneer, seed, 10%Trifolium wormskjoldii Springbank Clover Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seed, 30%Note: Propagation of mosses can be achieved by mixing live mossplant segments in a blender with buttermilk. Pour blended mixture onsoil during rainy season.A Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 10
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesPLANT LIST 2 SHADY PLACESShade, Partial Shade, 6’ minimum planting width (no supplemental watering needed after establishment)TREE CANOPYPLANT LIST 2 (SHADY PLACES)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSCornus nuttallii Pacific Dogwood Highly AdaptablePrunus emarginata Bitter Cherry Highly AdaptablePseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Highly AdaptableTaxus brevifolia Pacific Yew Highly Adaptable, slow growingThuja plicata Western Red Cedar Highly AdaptableTsuga heterophylla Western Hemlock Highly Adaptable, very shade tolerantUNDERSTORY LAYERPLANT LIST 2 (SHADY PLACES)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAcer circinatum Vine Maple Highly AdaptableCornus (sericea) stolonifera Red-osier Dogwood Highly Adaptable, thicket-formingCorylus cornuta Western Beaked Hazel Adaptable, prefers partial shadeLithocarpus densiflorus Tan Oak Highly AdaptableMyrica californica California Wax Myrtle Highly AdaptableOemleria (Osmoronia) cerasiformis Indian Plum, Osoberry Adaptable, prefers partial shadeRhamnus pushiana Cascara Highly AdaptableRhododendron macrophyllum Pacific Rhododendron Highly AdaptableRibes divaricatum Wild Gooseberry Highly AdaptableRibes sanguineum Red Currant Adaptable, prefers partial shadeRibes menziesii Prickly Gooseberry Highly AdaptableRubus parviflorus Thimbleberry Highly AdaptableRubus spectabilis Salmonberry Adaptable, prefers moist soilsSalix scouleriana Scouler’s Willow Adaptable, prefers partial shade, forms thicketsSambucus racemosa Red Elderberry Adaptable, prefers partial shadeSambucus cerulea Blue Elderberry Adaptable, prefers partial shadeVaccinium ovatum Evergreen Huckleberry Highly AdaptableVaccinium parvifolium Red Huckleberry Requires, humus-rich soils or decaying woodSHRUB/SUBSHRUB LAYERPLANT LIST 2 (SHADY PLACES)A Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 11
    • BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAchlys triphylla Vanilla Leaf Highly AdaptableAdiantum pedatum Maidenhair Fern Requires, moist soilsAquilegia formosa Western Columbine Highly AdaptableAsarum caudatum Wild Ginger Requires, moist, humus-rich soilsBlechnum spicant Deer Fern Adaptable, prefers moist soilsChimaphila umbellata Pipsissewa Requires, humus-rich soilsDicentra formosa Bleeding Heart Adaptable, prefers moist soilsDryopteris austriaca Shield Fern Adaptable, prefers partial shadeErythronium revolutum Fawn Lily Adaptable, prefers moist soilsGaultheria ovatifolia Oregon Winterberry Adaptable, prefers moist soils and partial shadeGaultheria shallon Salal Highly AdaptableGymnocarpium dryopteris Oak Fern Highly AdaptableHydrophyllum tenuipes Pacific Waterleaf Requires, moist, humus-rich soilsLeucothoe davisiae Western Leucothoe Adaptable, prefers partial shade and moist soilsLonicera ciliosa Orange Honeysuckle Highly AdaptableLonicera hispidula Hairy Honeysuckle Highly AdaptableMahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape Highly AdaptableMahonia (Berberis) nervosa Low Oregon Grape, Longleaf Mahonia Highly AdaptablePachystima (Paxistima) myrsinites Oregon Box Adaptable, prefers partial shadePolystichum munitum Sword Fern Highly AdaptableSmilacina racemosa False Solomon’s Seal Adaptable, prefers shadeSymphoricarpos albus Snowberry Highly Adaptable, forms thicketsTellima grandiflora Fringecup Adaptable, prefers partial shade and moist soilsTiarella trifoliata Foamflower Adaptable, prefers partial shade and moist soilsTolmiea menziesii Piggyback Plant, Youth on Age Adaptable, prefers moist soilsTrientalis latifolia Star Flower Adaptable, prefers partial shadeTrillium species Trillium Requires, moist soils in springViburnum edule Highbush Cranberry Adaptable, prefers moist, well drained soilsA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 12
    • GROUNDCOVER LAYERPLANT LIST 2 (SHADY PLACES)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/COVERAGEAngelica genuflexa Kneeling Angelica Adaptable, prefers partial shade, 10%Arunca sylvester Goat’sbeard Adaptable, prefers partial shade, 5%Cornus canadensis Bunchberry Highly Adaptable, 10%Fragaria vesca Woodland Strawberry Highly Adaptable, 15%Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry Highly Adaptable, 10%Linnaea borealis Twinflower Highly Adaptable, 5%Mahonia (Berberis) repens Creeping Oregon Grape Adaptable, prefers partial shade, 10%Maianthemum dilatatum False Lily-Of-The-Valley Adaptable, prefers moist to wet soils, 10%Oxalis oregana Oxalis, Wood Sorrel Adaptable, prefers moist soils, 10%Poitentilla anserina ssp. pacifica Silverweed Highly Adaptable, 10%Vancouveria hexandra Inside-Out Flower Adaptable, prefers moist soils, 20%Viola glabella Violet Highly Adaptable, total of this genus-10%Viola sempervirens Evergreen Violet Requires, moist soils, total of this genus-10%LIVE MULCHES AND PIONEERSPLANT LIST 2 (SHADY PLACES)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/COVERAGENative topsoil mix with live mycorrhizae, Upper 6 inches of existing undisturbed native topsoil from salvage site;includes mosses limit stockpiling to one growing season, 2” depth; 100% cover Assorted Native Mosses Taken from salvage site/obtained from nurseryCalliergonella cuspidata Spear Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nurseryCeratodon purpureus Red Roof Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nurseryPolytrichum piliferum Haircap Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nurseryRhacomitrium canescens Roadside Rock Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nurseryLathyrus polyphyllus Leafy Peavine Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seedLycopodium species Clubmoss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nurserySatureja douglasii Yerba Buena Pioneer, seedTrifolium wormskjoldii Springbank Clover Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seedNote: Propagation of mosses can be achieved by mixing live mossplant segments in a blender with buttermilk. Pour blended mixture onsoil during rainy season.A Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 13
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesPLANT LIST 3 NARROW PLANTING AREASNarrow planting areas and all light exposures (no supplemental watering after establishment)TREE CANOPYPLANT LIST 3 (NARROW PLANTING AREAS)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSBetula papyrifera Paper Birch Adaptable, prefers moist well drained soilsCalocedrus decurrens Incense Cedar Adaptable, prefers moist to wet soilsCornus nuttallii Pacific Dogwood Highly AdaptablePinus monticola Western White Pine Requires, good drainagePrunus emarginata Bitter Cherry Highly AdaptableQuercus kelloggii California Black Oak Requires, deep, well drained soilsThuja plicata Western Red Cedar Adaptable, prefers moist soilsUNDERSTORY LAYERPLANT LIST 3 (NARROW PLANTING AREAS)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAcer circinatum Vine Maple Highly AdaptableAmelanchier alnifolia Serviceberry Highly AdaptableCercis occidentalis Western Redbud Requires, good drainageCornus (sericea) stolonifera Red-osier Dogwood Adaptable, prefers moist soilsCorylus cornuta Western Beaked Hazel Highly AdaptableGarrya elliptica Silk-tassel Adaptable, prefers well drained soilsLithocarpus densiflorus Tan Oak Adaptable, prefers partial shadeMyrica californica California Wax Myrtle Adaptable, prefers peat or sandy soilsOemleria (Osmaronia) cerasiformis Indian Plum Requires, partial shadePachystima (Paxistima) myrsinites Oregon Box Adaptable, prefers partial shadeRhamnus purshiana Cascara Adaptable, prefers partial shade and moist soilsRhododendron macrophyllum Pacific Rhododendron Adaptable, prefers partial shadeRibes sanguineum Red Currant Adaptable, prefers partial shadeSheperdia canadensis Canadian Buffalo-berry Adaptable, prefers full sunA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 14
    • SHRUB/SUBSHRUB LAYERPLANT LIST 3 (NARROW PLANTING AREAS)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAquilegia formosa Western Columbine Highly AdaptableBlechnum spicant Deer Fern Adaptable, prefers partial shade and moist soilsGaultheria shallon Salal Highly AdaptableIris tenax Oregon Iris Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soilsLonicera ciliosa Orange Honeysuckle Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soilsLeucothoe davisiae Western Leucothoe Adaptable, prefers partial shade and moist soilsMahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape Highly AdaptableMahonia (Berberis) nervosa Low Oregon Grape, Longleaf Mahonia Highly AdaptablePachystima (Paxistima) myrsinites Oregon Box Highly AdaptablePolystichum munitum Sword Fern Highly AdaptableRosa gymnocarpa Dwarf Rose Highly AdaptableRosa nutkana Nootka Rose Highly AdaptableSymphoricarpos albus Snowberry Highly Adaptable, forms thicketsVaccinium ovatum Evergreen Huckleberry Highly AdaptableGROUNDCOVER LAYERPLANT LIST 3 (NARROW PLANTING AREAS)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAntennaria neglecta Field Pussytoes Highly AdaptableArctostaphylos uva-ursi Kinnikinnik (Bearberry) Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soilsCornus canadensis Bunchberry Highly AdaptableFragaria chiloensis Coastal Strawberry Highly Adaptable, prefers sandy soilsFragaria vesca Woodland Strawberry Highly Adaptable, prefers partial shadeFragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry Highly AdaptableLinnaea borealis Twinflower Highly AdaptablePoitentilla anserina ssp. pacifica Silverweed Highly Adaptable, 10%Sedum lanceolatum Lance-leaved Stonecrop Highly AdaptableSedum oreganum Oregon Stonecrop Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soilsSedum spathulifolium Broad-leaved Sedum Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soilsViola adunca Violet Adaptable, prefers partial shadeLIVE MULCHES AND PIONEERSPLANT LIST 3 (NARROW PLANTING AREAS)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/COVERAGEA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 15
    • Native topsoil mix with live mycorrhizae, Upper 6 inches of existing undisturbed native topsoil fromincludes mosses salvage site; limit soil stockpiling to one growing season, 2” depth minimum; 100% coverAssorted Native Mosses Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverCalliergonella cuspidata Spear Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverCeratodon purpureus Red Roof Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverLycopodium species Clubmoss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverPolytrichum piliferum Haircap Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverRacomitrium canescens Roadside Rock Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverLathyrus polyphyllus Leafy Peavine Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seed, 10%Lupinus polyphyllus Lupine Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seed, 10%Penstemon cardwellii Cardwell’s Penstemon Pioneer, seed, total of this genus-20%Penstemon davidsonii Davidson’s Penstemon Pioneer, seed, total of this genus-20%Penstemon species Other Native Penstemon Pioneer, seed, total of this genus-20%Satureja douglasii Yerba Buena Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seed, 30%Trifolium wormskjoldii Springbank Clover Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seed, 30%Note: Propagation of mosses can be achieved by mixing live mossplant segments in a blender with buttermilk. Pour blended mixture onsoil during rainy season.A Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 16
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesPLANT LIST 4 GRASSES, SEDGES, AND RUSHESFull Sun, Partial Sun. The following list includes plants which are easily confused with other non-nativegrasses. These plants should be used with due consideration for grass growth characteristics.GRASSES, SEDGES, AND RUSHESPLANT LIST 4 (GRASSES, SEDGES, AND RUSHES)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAgropyron spicatum Bluebunch Wheatgrass Highly AdaptableAgrostis scabra or Agrostis idahoensis Bentgrass Adaptable, prefers partial shade and well drained soilsBromus sitchensis Alaska Brome (grass) Highly AdaptableBromus vulgaris Columbia Brome (grass) Adaptable, prefers partial shadeCarex brevicaulis Short-stemmed Sedge Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soilsCarex canescens Grey Sedge Adaptable, prefers moist to wet soilsCarex microptera Small Winged Sedge Highly AdaptableCarex nigricans Black Alpine Sedge Highly AdaptableCarex obnupta Slough Sedge Highly AdaptableCarex pensylvanica Long-stoloned Sedge Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soilsCinna latifolia Wood Reedgrass Highly AdaptableDanthonia intermedia Timber Oatgrass Highly AdaptableDeschampsia cespitosa Tufted Hairgrass Highly AdaptableElymus glaucus Blue Wildrye (grass) Highly AdaptableFestuca idahoensis Idaho Fescue (grass) Highly AdaptableFestuca rubra Red Fescue (grass) Highly AdaptableJuncus balticus Baltic Rush Requires, moist to wet soilsJuncus ensifolius Daggerleaf Rush Requires, moist to wet soilsLuzula multiflora Wood-Rush Highly AdaptableMelica subulata Alaska Oniongrass Highly AdaptablePoa howellii Howell’s Bluegrass Highly AdaptablePoa macrantha Seashore Bluegrass Requires, sandy soilsScirpus americanus American Bulrush Requires, moist to wet soilsScirpus microcarpus Small-flowered Bulrush Requires, moist to wet soilsA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 17
    • Urban Native Plant CommunitiesPLANT LIST 5 WETLAND AREASPlants for fresh water wetland and riparian restoration. Includes plants commonly found in the upland portions ofwetland areas.WETLAND EMERGENTS/WATER EDGESPLANT LIST 5 (WETLAND AREAS, AREAS OF STANDING WATER, YEAR-ROUND OR SEASONALLY)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAlisma plantago-aquatica Water Plantain Adaptable, prefers moist soils or standing waterCaltha palustris Marsh Marigold Requires, standing or moving waterCarex canescens Grey Sedge Adaptable, prefers moist soils or standing waterCarex microptera Small Winged Sedge Adaptable, prefers water edgesCarex obnupta Slough Sedge Highly Adaptable, standing water to drier soil.Eleocharis palustris Common Spike-rush Adaptable, moist to wet soils, standing waterGlyceria borealis Western Managrass Adaptable, prefers water edgesLysichiton americanum Skunk Cabbage Requires, moist soils, standing or moving waterNuphar polysepalum Yellow Pond-lily Requires, standing waterOenanthe sarmentosa Water Parsley Requires, saturated soilsPolygonum amphibium Water Smartweed Requires, standing or slow moving waterPotamogeton gramineus Grass-leaved Pondweed Requires, standing waterPotamogeton natans Floating-leaved Pondweed Requires, standing waterRanunculus aquatilis White Water-buttercup Requires, standing waterSagittaria latifolia Wapato, Arrowhead Requires, saturated soils or standing waterScirpus acutus Hardstem Bulrush Adaptable, moist to wet soils, standing waterScirpus microcarpus Small-Fruited Bulrush Adaptable, moist to wet soils, standing waterSparganium angustifolium Narrow-leaved Bur-reed Requires, standing or slow moving waterTypha angustifolia Narrow-leaved Cattail Requires, standing or moving waterTREE CANOPY.PLANT LIST 5 (WETLAND AREAS, AREAS OF STANDING WATER, YEAR-ROUND OR SEASONALLY)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSBetula papyrifera Paper Birch Adaptable, prefers moist well drained soilsFraxinus latifolia Oregon Ash Adaptable, prefers moist soilsPicea sitchensis Sitka Spruce AdaptablePopulus tremuloides Quaking Aspen AdaptablePopulus trichocarpa Black cottonwood Highly AdaptablePrunus emarginata Bitter Cherry Highly AdaptablePseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Adaptable, prefers partial shadeA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 18
    • Salix alba ssp. ralva White Willow Adaptable, prefers saturated soilsSalix alba ssp. vitellina Golden Willow Adaptable, prefers saturated soilsSalix hookeriana Hooker’s Willow Adaptable, prefers moist soil or standing water in full sunSalix lucida ssp. lasiandra Pacific Willow Adaptable, prefers saturated soilsSalix scouleriana Scouler’s Willow Adaptable, prefers partial shade, forms thicketsSalix sitchensis Sitka Willow Adaptable, prefers partial shade, forms thicketsTaxus brevifolia Pacific Yew Highly Adaptable, slow growingThuja plicata Western Red Cedar Highly AdaptableTsuga heterophylla Western Hemlock Highly Adaptable, very shade tolerantUNDERSTORY LAYERPLANT LIST 5 (WETLAND AREAS, AREAS OF STANDING WATER, YEAR-ROUND OR SEASONALLYBOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAcer circinatum Vine Maple Highly AdaptableAlnus crispa ssp. sinuata Sitka alder Adaptable, prefers moist soilsAmelanchier alnifolia Serviceberry Adaptable, prefers full sunCornus (sericea) stolonifera Red-osier Dogwood Adaptable, prefers moist soilsCorylus cornuta Western Beaked Hazel Adaptable, prefers partial shadeCrataegus douglasii Black Hawthorn Adaptable, prefers full sunMyrica californica California Wax Myrtle Adaptable, prefers full sunMyrica gale Sweet Gale Adaptable, saturated soils, standing water, prefers full sunMalus fusca Pacific Crab Apple Adaptable, prefers moist, well drained soilsOemleria (Osmaronia) cerasiformis Indian Plum Highly AdaptableRibes divaricatum Wild Gooseberry Highly AdaptableRibes sanguineum Red Currant Adaptable, prefers partial shadeRubus parviflorus Thimbleberry Highly AdaptableRubus spectabilis Salmonberry Adaptable, prefers moist soilsSambucus racemosa Red Elderberry Highly AdaptableSymphoricarpos albus Snowberry Highly Adaptable, forms thicketsVaccinium ovatum Evergreen Huckleberry Highly AdaptableVaccinium parvifolium Red Huckleberry Requires, humus-rich soils and decaying woodViburnum edule Highbush Cranberry Adaptable, prefers moist, well drained soilsSHRUB/SUBSHRUB LAYERPLANT LIST 5 (WETLAND AREAS, AREAS OF STANDING WATER, YEAR-ROUND OR SEASONALLY)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAchlys triphylla Vanilla Leaf Requires, moist soils and shadeAdiantum pedatum Maidenhair Fern Requires, moist soilsA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 19
    • Aquilegia formosa Western Columbine Highly AdaptableAsarum caudatum Wild Ginger Requires, moist, humus-rich soilsBlechnum spicant Deer Fern Requires, moist soilsCorydalis scouleri Scouler Corydalis Requires moist soils, partial shadeDicentra formosa Bleeding Heart Adaptable, prefers moist soilsDryopteris austriaca Shield Fern Adaptable, prefers partial shadeErythronium revolutum Fawn Lily Adaptable, prefers moist soilsGaultheria ovatifolia Oregon Winterberry Adaptable, prefers moist soils and partial shadeGaultheria shallon Salal Highly AdaptableGymnocarpium dryopteris Oak Fern Highly AdaptableLeucothoe davisiae Western Leucothoe Adaptable, prefers partial shade and moist soilsMahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape Highly AdaptableMahonia (Berberis) nervosa Low Oregon Grape, Longleaf Mahonia Highly AdaptablePachystima (Paxistima) myrsinites Oregon Box Adaptable, prefers partial shadePolystichum munitum Sword Fern Highly AdaptableRosa gymnocarpa Dwarf Rose Highly AdaptableRosa nutkana Nootka Rose Highly AdaptableSmilacina racemosa False Solomon’s Seal Adaptable, prefers moist soilsTrientalis latifolia Star Flower Adaptable, prefers partial shadeVeronica beccabunga ssp. americana American Brooklime Requires moist soilGROUNDCOVER LAYERPLANT LIST 5 (WETLAND AREAS, AREAS OF STANDING WATER, YEAR-ROUND OR SEASONALLY)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSArctostaphylos uva-ursi Kinnikinnik (Bearberry) Adaptable, prefers dry, well drained soilsCornus canadensis Bunchberry Highly AdaptableFragaria vesca Woodland Strawberry Highly Adaptable, prefers partial shadeFragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry Highly AdaptableLinnaea borealis Twinflower Highly AdaptableMahonia (Berberis) repens Creeping Oregon Grape Adaptable, prefers partial shadeMaianthemum dilatatum False Lily-Of-The-Valley Requires, moist to wet soilsOenanthe sarmentosa Water Parsley Adaptable, prefers moist soilsOxalis oregana Oxalis, Wood Sorrel Adaptable, prefers moist soilsPoitentilla anserina ssp. pacifica Silverweed Highly AdaptableSedum lanceolatum Lance-leaved Stonecrop Highly AdaptableTiarella trifoliata Foamflower Requires moist soils, partial shadeVancouveria hexandra Inside-Out Flower Adaptable, prefers moist soilsViola adunca Violet Adaptable, prefers partial shadeA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 20
    • Viola glabella Violet Highly AdaptableViola palustris Marsh Violet Requires moist soils, partial shadeViola sempervirens Evergreen Violet Requires, moist soilsLIVE MULCHES AND PIONEERSPLANT LIST 5 (WETLAND AREAS, AREAS OF STANDING WATER, YEAR-ROUND OR SEASONALLY)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/COVERAGEFor uplands: Native topsoil mix with live Upper 6 inches of existing undisturbed native topsoil from salvage site;mycorrhizae, includes mosses stockpiling of soil limited to one growing seasonFor wet soil/emergent areas: Native hydric soils Upper 6 inches of existing undisturbed native hydric topsoil fromand peat salvage site; no stockpiling of soil Assorted Native Mosses Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverCalliergonella cuspidata Spear Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverCeratodon purpureus Red Roof Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverLycopodium species Clubmoss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverPolytrichum piliferum Haircap Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverRacomitrium canescens Roadside Rock Moss Taken from salvage site/obtained from nursery, 100% coverLupinus polyphyllus Lupine Nitrogen-fixing pioneer, seed, 10%Penstemon cardwellii Cardwell’s Penstemon Pioneer, seed, total of this genus-20%Penstemon davidsonii Davidson’s Penstemon Pioneer, seed, total of this genus-20%Penstemon species Other Native Penstemon Pioneer, seed, total of this genus-20%Note: Propagation of mosses can be achieved by mixing live mossplant segments in a blender with buttermilk. Pour blended mixture onsoil during rainy season.A Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 21
    • Urban Native Plant ListPLANT LIST 6 GENERAL LISTThese plants form the central plant communities for urban areas. Many other plants are already grown in nurseries, especiallywetland species. Additions to the list are encouraged and are essential to increase diversity.TREE CANOPYPLANT LIST 6 (GENERAL LIST)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/RECOMMENDED SIZESAcer macrophyllum Big-Leaf Maple 1 gallon container - any size B&B – See list 7 regarding this speciesAlnus rubra Red Alder Slips-any size B&B – See list 7 regarding this speciesArbutus menziesii Madrone 1-5 gallon containerBetula papyrifera Paper Birch 1 gallon container-any size B&BCalocedrus decurrens Incense-cedar 1 gallon container-any size B&BCercis occidentalis Western Redbud California native, 1 gallon container-any size B&BChamaecyparis nootkatensis Alaska Yellow Cedar 1 gallon container-any size B&BCastanopsis chrysophylla Chinquapin 1 gallon container-any size B&BCornus nuttallii Pacific Dogwood 1 gallon container-any size B&BFraxinus latifolia Oregon Ash 1 gallon container-any size B&BJuglans hindsii California Black Walnut California native, 1 gallon container-any size B&BPicea sitchensis Sitka Spruce 1 gallon container-any size B&BPinus contorta Shore Pine, Lodgepole Pine 1 gallon container-any size B&BPinus monticola Western White Pine 1 gallon container-any size B&BPinus ponderosa Ponderosa Pine 1 gallon container-any size B&BPopulus tremuloides Quaking Aspen 1 gallon container-any size B&B – See list 7 regarding this speciesPopulus trichocarpa Black Cottonwood 1 gallon container-any size B&B – See list 7 regarding this speciesPrunus emarginata Bitter Cherry 1 gallon container-any size B&BPseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir 1 gallon container-any size B&BQuercus chrysolepsis Canyon Live Oak California native, 1 gallon container-any size B&BQuercus garryana Garry Oak 1 gallon container-any size B&BQuercus kelloggii California Black Oak California native, 1 gallon container-any size B&BSalix alba ssp. ralva White Willow 1 gallon container-any size B&BSalix alba ssp. vitellina Golden Willow 1 gallon container-any size B&BSalix hookeriana Hooker’s Willow 1 gallon container-any size B&BSalix lucida ssp. lasiandra Pacific Willow 1 gallon container-any size B&BSalix scouleriana Scouler’s Willow 1 gallon container-any size B&BSalix sitchensis Sitka Willow 1 gallon container-any size B&BTaxus brevifolia Pacific Yew 1 gallon container-any size B&BA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 22
    • Thuja plicata Western Red Cedar 1 gallon container-any size B&BTsuga heterophylla Western Hemlock 1 gallon container-any size B&BUNDERSTORY LAYERPLANT LIST 6 (GENERAL LIST)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/RECOMMENDED SIZESAcer circinatum Vine Maple 1 gallon container-any size B&BAcer glabrum Rocky Mountain Maple 1 gallon container-any size B&BAlnus crispa ssp. sinuata Sitka alder 1 gallon container-any size B&BAmelanchier alnifolia Serviceberry 1 gallon container-any size B&BCeanothus velutinus Snowbrush 1-5 gallon containerCornus (sericea) stolonifera Red-osier Dogwood 1-5 gallon containerCorylus cornuta Western Beaked Hazel 1 gallon container-any size B&BCrataegus douglasii Black Hawthorn 1-5 gallon container -any size B&BGarrya elliptica Silk-tassel 1-5 gallon container -any size B&BHolodiscus discolor Oceanspray 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BLithocarpus densiflorus Tan Oak 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BMalus fusca Pacific Crab Apple 1 gallon container-any size B&BMyrica californica California Wax Myrtle 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BMyrica gale Sweet Gale 1 gallon container-any size B&BOemleria (Osmoronia) cerasiformis Indian Plum 1 gallon container-any size B&BOplopanax horridus Devils Club 1-5 gallon container. See list 7 regarding this species.Philadelphus lewisii Mock-orange 1-5 gallon container -any size B&BRhamnus pushiana Cascara 1-5 gallon containerRhododendron macrophyllum Pacific Rhododendron 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BRibes sanguineum Red Currant 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BRubus parviflorus Thimbleberry 4” pots -1 gallon containerRubus spectabilis Salmonberry 1-5 gallon container -any size B&BSambucus cerulea Blue Elderberry 1-5 gallon container -any size B&BSambucus racemosa Red Elderberry 1-5 gallon container -any size B&BShepherdia canadensis Canadian Buffalo-berry 1-5 gallon containerSpiraea douglasii Duglas Spiraea 1-5 gallon container – See list 7 regarding this species.Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BVaccinium ovatum Evergreen Huckleberry 1-5 gallon container -any size B&BVaccinium parvifolium Red Huckleberry 1-5 gallon container -any size B&BSHRUB/SUBSHRUB LAYERPLANT LIST 6 (GENERAL LIST)A Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 23
    • BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/RECOMMENDED SIZESAchlys triphylla Vanilla Leaf 4” pots -1 gallon containerAdiantum pedatum Maidenhair Fern 4” pots -1 gallon containerAquilegia formosa Western Columbine 4” pots -1 gallon containerAsarum caudatum Wild Ginger 4” pots -1 gallon containerAthyrium filix-femina Lady Fern 4” pots -1 gallon container.Blechnum spicant Deer Fern 4” pots -1 gallon containerBrodiaea coronaria Harvest Brodiaea 4” pots -1 gallon containerCamassia quamash Camas 4” pots -1 gallon containerChimaphila umbellata Pipsissewa 4” pots -1 gallon containerDicentra formosa Bleeding Heart 4” pots -1 gallon containerDryopteris austriaca Shield Fern 4” pots -1 gallon containerEriophyllum lanatum Oregon Sunshine 4” pots -1 gallon containerErythronium oregonum Fawn Lily 4” pots -1 gallon containerErythronium revolutum Fawn Lily 4” pots -1 gallon containerFritillaria lanceolata Chocolate Lily 4” pots -1 gallon containerGaultheria ovatifolia Oregon Winterberry 4” pots -1 gallon containerGaultheria shallon Salal 4” pots -5 gallon containerGymnocarpium dryopteris Oak Fern 4” pots -1 gallon containerHeuchera micrantha Coral Bells 4” pots -1 gallon containerHydrophyllum tenuipes Pacific Waterleaf 4” pots -1 gallon containerIris tenax Oregon Iris 4” pots -1 gallon containerKalmiopsis leachiana Kalmiopsis 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BLonicera ciliosa Orange Honeysuckle 4” pots -1 gallon containerLonicera hispidula Hairy Honeysuckle 4” pots -1 gallon containerLeucothoe davisiae Western Leucothoe 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BMahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BMahonia (Berberis) nervosa Low Oregon Grape, Longleaf Mahonia 4” pots -5 gallon containerPachystima (Paxistima) myrsinites Oregon Box 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BPolystichum munitum Sword Fern 4” pots -5 gallon container to any size B&BPteridium aquilinium Bracken Fern 4” pots -5 gallon container – See list 7 regarding this species.Rosa gymnocarpa Dwarf Rose 4” pots -5 gallon containerRosa nutkana Nootka Rose 4” pots -5 gallon containerSpirea douglasii Douglas’ Spirea 4” pots -1 gallon container – See list 7 regarding this speciesSisyrinchium douglasii Douglas Blue-eyed-grass 4” pots -1 gallon containerTellima grandiflora Fringecup 4” pots -1 gallon containerTiarella trifoliata Foamflower 4” pots -1 gallon containerA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 24
    • Tolmiea menziesii Piggyback Plant 4” pots -1 gallon containerTrientalis latifolia Star Flower 4” pots -1 gallon containerTrillium species Trillium 4” pots -1 gallon containerViburnum edule Highbush Cranberry 1-5 gallon container -any size B&BGROUNDCOVER LAYERPLANT LIST 6 (GENERAL LIST)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/RECOMMENDED SIZESAchillea millefolium Yarrow 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedAngelica genuflexa Kneeling Angelica 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedAntennaria microphylla Rosy Pussytoes 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedAntennaria neglecta Field Pussytoes 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedArmeria maritima Sea Pink 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedArctostaphylos uva-ursi Kinnikinnik (Bearberry) 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedCornus canadensis Bunchberry 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedCeanothus prostratus Mahala Mat 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedCornus canadensis Bunchberry 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedFragaria chiloensis Coastal Strawberry 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedFragaria vesca Woodland Strawberry 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedFragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedLinnaea borealis Twinflower 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedMahonia (Berberis) repens Creeping Oregon Grape 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedMaianthemum dilatatum False Lily-Of-The-Valley 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedOenanthe sarmentosa Water Parsley 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedOxalis oregana Oxalis, Wood Sorrel 4” pots -1 gallon containerPotentilla anserina ssp. pacifica Silverweed 4” pots -1 gallon container, seedPhlox diffusa Spreading Phlox 4” pots -1 gallon containerSedum divergens Spreading Stonecrop 4” pots -1 gallon containerSedum lanceolatum Lance-leaved Stonecrop 4” pots -1 gallon containerSedum oreganum Oregon Stonecrop 4” pots -1 gallon containerSedum spathulifolium Broad-leaved Sedum 4” pots -1 gallon containerTiarella trifoliata Foamflower 4” pots -1 gallon containerVancouveria hexandra Inside-Out Flower 4” pots -1 gallon containerViola adunca Blue Violet 4” pots -1 gallon containerViola glabella Yellow Violet 4” pots -1 gallon containerViola sempervirens Evergreen Violet 4” pots -1 gallon containerLIVE MULCHES AND PIONEERSA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 25
    • PLANT LIST 6 (GENERAL LIST)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/RECOMMENDED SIZESMycorrhizae, Ectomicorrhizae Soil/root fungi Inocculum in solution, mycorrhizal teabags or from native soilsAssorted Native Mosses Mosses Sod patches or as removed from salvage sitesCalliergonella cuspidata Spear Moss Sod patches or as removed from salvage sitesCeratodon purpureus Red Roof Moss Sod patches or as removed from salvage sitesLathyrus polyphyllus Leafy Peavine SeedLupinus polyphyllus Large-Leaved Lupine Seed, 4” pots -1 gallon containerLycopodium species Clubmoss Sod patches or as removed from salvage sitesPenstemon cardwellii Cardwell’s Penstemon Seed, 4” pots -1 gallon containerPenstemon davidsonii Davidson’s Penstemon Seed, 4” pots -1 gallon containerOther Native Penstemon Penstemon Seed, 4” pots -1 gallon containerPolytrichum piliferum Haircap Moss Sod patches or as removed from salvage sitesRacomitrium canescens Roadside Rock Moss Sod patches or as removed from salvage sitesSatureja douglasii Yerba Buena SeedTrifolium wormskjoldii Springbank Clover SeedVicia gigantea Giant Vetch SeedGRASSES, SEDGES, AND RUSHESPLANT LIST 6 (GENERAL LIST)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/ RECOMMENDED SIZESAgropyron spicatum Bluebunch Wheatgrass Seed, 4” potsAgrostis scabra (idahoensis) Bentgrass SeedBromus sitchensis Alaska Brome (grass) Seed, 4” potsBromus vulgaris Columbia Brome (grass) SeedCarex brevicaulis Short-stemmed Sedge Seed, 4” pots, bunches, divisions, and clumpsCarex canescens Grey Sedge Seed, 4” pots, bunches, divisions, and clumpsCarex microptera Small Winged Sedge Seed, 4” pots, bunches, divisions, and clumpsCarex obnupta Slough Sedge Seed, 4” pots, bunches, divisions, and clumpsCinna latifolia Wood Reedgrass Seed, 4”potsDanthonia intermedia Timber Oatgrass Seed, 4” potsDeschampsia cespitosa Tufted Hairgrass Seed, 4” potsElymus glaucus Blue Wildrye (grass) Seed, 4” potsFestuca idahoensis Idaho Fescue Seed, 4” pots, bunches, divisions, and clumpsFestuca rubra var. rubra Red Fescue (grass) SeedJuncus balticus Baltic Rush Seed, 4” pots, bunches, divisions, and clumpsJuncus effusus Common Rush Seed, 4” pots, bunches, divisions, and clumps – See list 7 regarding this speciesA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 26
    • Juncus ensifolius Daggerleaf Rush Seed, 4” pots, bunches, divisions.Melica subulata Alaska Oniongrass Seed, 4” potsPoa howellii Howell’s Bluegrass SeedPoa macrantha Seashore Bluegrass Seed, 4” potsWETLAND PLANT LIST 6 (GENERAL LIST)BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKS/ RECOMMENDED SIZESAlisma plantago-aquatica Broadleaf Water-Plantain Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsCaltha palustris Marsh Marigold Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsCorydalis scouleri Scouler Corydalis Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsEleocharis palustris Common Spike-rush Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsGlyceria borealis Western Managrass Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsJuncus balticus Baltic Rush Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsJuncus ensifolius Daggerleaf Rush Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsLysichiton americanum Skunk Cabbage Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsNuphar polysepalum Yellow Pond-lily Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsOenanthe sarmentosa Water Parsley Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsPolygonum amphibium Water Smartweed Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsPotamogeton gramineus Grass-leaved Pondweed Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsPotamogeton natans Floating-leaved Pondweed Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsPotentilla palustris Marsh Cinquefoil Containers, bunches, divisions – See list 7 regarding this species.Rananculus aquatilis White Water-buttercup Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsSagittaria latifolia Wapato, Arrowhead Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsScirpus acutus Hardstem Bulrush Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsScirpus microcarpus Small-fruited Bulrush Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsSparganium angustifolium Narrow-leaved Bur-reed Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsTypha latifolia Cat-Tail Containers, bunches, divisions – See list 7 regarding this species.Veronica beccabunga ssp. americana American Brooklime Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsViola palustris Marsh Violet Containers, bunches, divisions, and clumpsA Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 27
    • Urban Native Plant ListPLANT LIST 7 AGGRESSIVE OR VERY THORNY NATIVE PLANTS, TO BE USED WITH CAUTIONSome of these native plants can be very aggressive and virtually take over a small site – use caution and be aware of site limitations. All of these plantshave great habitat and aesthetic value, and many are important early-successional species that are vital to creating healthy ecosystems. Plants on this listare important in restoration projects and projects on larger sites, but should only be used with a full understanding of their potential impacts.TREE CANOPYBOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAcer macrophyllum Big Leaf Maple Weak-wooded, fast-growing, massive tree. Large leaves can smother smaller plants. Difficult for other plants to grow beneath canopy. Excellent restoration tree for disturbed sites.Alnus rubra Red Alder Weak wooded and short-lived, fixes nitrogen in the soil. Excellent early successional tree that grows in very poor and very wet soils.Populus tremuloides Quaking Aspen Weak-wooded, short-lived tree. Can form monocultural thickets. Limited to very specific habitats naturally.Populus trichocarpa Black Cottonwood Weak-wooded and short-lived massive tree. Grows on very wet sites. Excellent wetland restoration tree.UNDERSTORY LAYERBOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSOplopanax horridus Devils Club Very thorny but beautiful plant, forms thickets in moist shady areas.SHRUB/SUBSHRUB LAYERBOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSAthyrium filix-femina Lady Fern Aggressive, especially in moist, shady sites.Pteridium aquilinum Bracken Fern Opportunist, colonizes disturbed areas, could become invasive.Spiraea douglasii Douglas Spiraea Aggressive, especially in wetland areas.GROUNDCOVERSAchillea millefolium Yarrow Colonizes disturbed areas, may become invasive.GRASSES, SEDGES, AND RUSHESBOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSJuncus effusus Common Rush Can form monocultures, may become invasive.A Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 28
    • WETLANDBOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME REMARKSPotentilla palustris Marsh cinquefoil Aggressive colonizer in wetland areas.Typha latifolia Cattail Will fill in small shallow ponds. Usually will colonize naturally – generally does not need to be introduced.A Manual of Native Plant Communities for the Pacific Northwest 29