Green Roofs for A Wide Brown Land - the University of Melbourne
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Green Roofs for A Wide Brown Land - the University of Melbourne

Green Roofs for A Wide Brown Land - the University of Melbourne

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Green Roofs for A Wide Brown Land - the University of Melbourne Green Roofs for A Wide Brown Land - the University of Melbourne Presentation Transcript

  • Green roofs for a wide brown land?- Research required to develop a successful Australian industry Nicholas S.G. Williams, John P Rayner and Kirsten J Raynor Department of Resource Management and Geography Graduate School of Land and Environment The University of Melbourne
  • Green Roofs are Sexy In recent months there have been media stories in: • The Age • Sydney Morning Herald • Daily Telegraph • Horticulture Australia • Gardening Australia • Radio 2SER • Radio National: By Design Highrise horticulture ... the rooftop garden at M Central in Pyrmont. • Moreland Leader Photo: Lee Besford SMH • Queensland Property and Lifestyle magazine • Business WeekDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Most Australian examples are intensive green roofs Private home Sydney. Photo: Gardening Australia Converted car park, Sydney. Photo: Gardening Australia 30 cm + substrate depthDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Most Australian examples are intensive green roofs Marine Discovery Centre, Queenscliff, Crown Casino MelbourneDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Intensive Green Roofs • relatively nutrient rich, deep substrate (> 30 cm) • allows for establishment of greater range of plants: trees, shrubs and conventional lawns. • require high level of maintenance, regular irrigation and applications of fertiliser • weight can be considerable requiring substantial reinforcement of an existing roof or extra building structural support Freshwater Place, Melbourne • Therefore $$$$ and difficult to retrofit (Photo: Fytogreen)Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Very Few Extensive Green Roofs • Shallow, low-nutrient light substrates 2-15 cm deep • low maintenance, usually no irrigation or fertilisation (may be required initially) • Potentially provide greater biodiversity benefits than intensive roofs, - ‘Ecoroofs’ • planted with, or colonised by, mosses, succulents, Semi-extensive green roof on some wild flowers and CH2 building, Melbourne grasses Substrate 20-29 cm deep • Few (None?) in AustraliaDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Extensive vs Intensive In North America, most of industry growth is for extensive or semi intensive green roofs • Overall 30 % industry growth in 2007 • Number of extensive green roofs increased by 40% in 2007 • Number of intensive green roofs decreased by 247% in 2007 Green Roof Industry Survey 2007Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Why are there no extensive green roofs in Australia?Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Why are there no extensive green roofs in Australia?• A major barrier is the lack scientific data available to evaluate their applicability to Australian conditions.Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Why are there no extensive green roofs in Australia?• A major barrier is the lack scientific data available to evaluate their applicability to Australian conditions.• Relying on northern hemisphere experience and technology is problematic due to significant differences in rainfall, temperature, available substrates and vegetation.Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Why are there no extensive green roofs in Australia?• A major barrier is the lack scientific data available to evaluate their applicability to Australian conditions.• Relying on northern hemisphere experience and technology is problematic due to significant differences in rainfall, temperature, available substrates and vegetation.• This may introduce unacceptable levels of risk and unnecessary expense to projectsDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Why are there no extensive green roofs in Australia?• A major barrier is the lack scientific data available to evaluate their applicability to Australian conditions.• Relying on northern hemisphere experience and technology is problematic due to significant differences in rainfall, temperature, available substrates and vegetation.• This may introduce unacceptable levels of risk and unnecessary expense to projects• Basic research is needed to objectively evaluate the performance, cost and environmental benefits of green roofs in AustraliaDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Indicative World distribution of Green roofsDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment http://www.greenroofmaps.com/ June 2008 Green Roofs Australia Brisbane
  • The Australian Climate is different http://ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/pe.htmlDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • International Green Roof Research • Europe: 30-40 years • Nth America: 15-20 years • United Kingdom: 10-12 years • New Zealand: 3-4 years Many universities have independent green roof research and testing facilities – University of Sheffield http://www.thegreenroofcentre.co.uk/index.html – Michigan State http://www.hrt.msu.edu/greenroof/ – BCIT http://commons.bcit.ca/greenroof/ – North Carolina State http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/greenroofs/ – Penn State http://hortweb.cas.psu.edu/research/greenroofcenter/Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • International Green Roof Research • Europe: 30-40 years • Nth America: 15-20 years • United Kingdom: 10-12 years • New Zealand: 3-4 years Many universities have independent green roof research and testing facilities – University of Sheffield http://www.thegreenroofcentre.co.uk/index.html – Michigan State http://www.hrt.msu.edu/greenroof/ – BCIT http://commons.bcit.ca/greenroof/ – North Carolina State http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/greenroofs/ – Penn State http://hortweb.cas.psu.edu/research/greenroofcenter/Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • University Research Facilities • Replicated green roof modules or experimental plots • Monitored for runoff quantity and quality, plant performance, energy use • Funded by green roof component suppliers, government or companies wanting to build Oregon State University a green roof • Establishing facilities at University of Melbourne, Burnley Campus University of Sheffield Penn State UniversityDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Key Questions – Substrates • Northern hemisphere substrates are well established but transport costs and materials differences necessitate that local substrates be developed. • Unlike the green roof industry in North America and Europe, the few Australian proprietary products available have not been independently tested. • May need to develop different mixes for different locations based on availability and costDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Key Questions – Substrates • What substrates are available? • How do various substrate materials and mixes perform under Australian roof conditions? – Temperatures can be as high as 90 C • What depth of substrates are required for plants in the Australian climate? • What are the lifecycle costs (sustainability) of substrate componentsDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Key Questions - Plants • In temperate Northern hemisphere sedum species are typically planted on extensive green roofs. – Collapse and die in extended periods of hot weather – may not be suitable for Mediterranean or sub- tropical climates in Australia’s major cities • Very little is known about the suitability of Australian plants for green roofs. • Overseas interest in potential of drought adapted Australian species.Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Key Questions - Plants • Are there native plants that will survive on extensive green roofs in Australian climates • Or do they require supplementary irrigation? • What is the minimum depth of substrate required for survival? • What is the performance of Australian plants relative to species used in the Northern Hemisphere?Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • 35 rain evaporation 30 reservoir Available water (mm) 25 0.2E 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Nov Dec Jan Feb Days since Nov 1st 2007Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • 35 rain 30 evaporation Available water (mm) 25 reservoir 0.4E 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Nov Dec Jan Feb Days since Nov 1stDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • More likely to be a Brown Roof? Kangaroo and Wallaby grasses with everlastings Brenneisen S. 2006. Space for Urban Wildlife: Designing Green Roofs as Habitats in Switzerland. Urban Habitats 4: 27-36.Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Key Questions - Water • What are the stormwater volume and peak flow reductions in Australian climate conditions? • How does this vary with substrate depth and planting palette? • How do various substrates affect water runoff quality – Some mixes / components may leach N • Can we use grey water on green roofs?Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Key Questions – Energy and lifecycle • What is the potential impact on building energy performance • Can green roofs cool the urban landscape? – providing 50 % green roof cover in New York would lead to an average 0.1-0.8°C reduction in surface temperatures. – for every 1°C reduction 495 million kWh saved – Will only work if irrigated- can’t use potable H2O • What are the full environmental costs and benefits of different types of green roofs over their lifecycle?Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Green Roof Research @ The University of Melbourne • Established a 20m2 experimental extensive green roof at the Burnley Campus Using it to: 1. Select plants that will survive and look good in Australian climatic conditions 2. Develop a locally produced light weight substrate 3. Investigate the effect of the green roof on building energy budgetsDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Green Roof Research @ The University of Melbourne • Investigating the drought tolerance of selected succulents, grasses and herbs • Evaluating the properties of substrate components and mixes • Determining the effect of recycled water on green roof substratesDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Green Roof Research @ The University of Melbourne • Green Roof system donated by ZinCo • Used the FloraDrain 40 system • 125 mm of substrateSource:Zinco Planning Guide, 6th edition & EnvironmentDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Green Roof Research @ The University of Melbourne • Green Roof system was donated by ZinCo • Used the FloraDrain 125 mm 40 system • 125 mm of substrate 40 mmDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Source:ZincoRoofs Australia Brisbane June 2008 Green Planning Guide, 6th edition
  • Root resistant water proofingDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Fitting eaves to frameDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Rolling out protection layerDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Adding drainage layerDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Green Roof Research @ The University of Melbourne • Adding substrate and initial planting mid July • Need to finalise plant selection • 10 individuals of 32 species • 20 cm plant spacing • Upright succulents, herbs spreading succulents and grasses in separate quadrants • Irrigation to establish onlyDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Plant Selection Criteria • Attractive • High tolerance to light • High ‘drought’ tolerance • Robust and moderate to high vigour • Easily maintained • Tolerate seasonal water logging? • Possum proof? • AvailableDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Habitat Templates Gibber Chenopod Shrublands Image: Rob Jung Alpine rocky slopes Native grasslands. Photo Georgia GarrardDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Potential Plant Species Lomandra multiflora subsp. dura Rounded Noon Flower (Disphyma crassifolium) Wallaby Grasses (Austrodanthonia sp)Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Potential Plant Species Rhodanthe floribunda Sedum mexicanum Enchylaena tomentosaDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Potential Plant Species Pigface (Carpobrotus Blue Chalk Sticks rossii) (Kleinia mandraliscae) Dianella Phormium revoluta ‘Thumbelina’Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Potential Plant Species ? √ Pigface (Carpobrotus Blue Chalk Sticks rossii) (Kleinia mandraliscae) X Dianella revoluta X Phormium ‘Thumbelina’Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Semi-intensive green roof @ CH2. Media 20-29 cm deepDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • CH2 East Core Roof – February 2008Dr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Conclusions • Extensive green roofs have great potential as a climate change adaptation strategy – Less expensive – More easily retrofitted • Few extensive green roofs in Australia • Many candidate native plant species • Need research for Australian conditionsDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Conclusions • Extensive green roofs have great potential as a climate change adaptation strategy – Less expensive – More easily retrofitted • Few extensive green roofs in Australia • Many candidate native plant species • Need research for Australian conditions • Hopefully our work we can help fill this information gapDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008
  • Acknowledgements • John and Kirsten • Funding provided by The University of Melbourne-CSIRO Collaborative grant scheme • Materials provided by ZinCO • Peter May • Ross PayneDr Nick Williams, Melbourne School of Land & Environment Green Roofs Australia Brisbane June 2008