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Gardening with Indigenous Plants in Moreland - Australia
 

Gardening with Indigenous Plants in Moreland - Australia

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Gardening with Indigenous Plants in Moreland - Australia

Gardening with Indigenous Plants in Moreland - Australia

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    Gardening with Indigenous Plants in Moreland - Australia Gardening with Indigenous Plants in Moreland - Australia Presentation Transcript

    • Gardening with Indigenous PlantsMoreland City Council in Moreland
    • ContentsMoreland City Council and its open space About this booklet 1 Planning and planting the garden 2 Garden Designs 4 Plant Descriptions Grasses and other tussock plants 8 Small plants 11 Groundcovers 17 Climbers 19 Small and medium shrubs 20 Large shrubs 25 Moreland City Council recognises the years. This booklet, promoting the use Small and medium trees 28 importance of open space in the of indigenous plants in residents’ Index 32 Contacts and further information inside back cover municipality for its residents, and for the gardens, is part of Moreland City plants and animals that inhabit the area Council’s program to create sustainable and travel along the habitat corridors landscapes across the municipality’s About this booklet that criss-cross the region. Residents’ gardens, streets and parks. gardens can significantly contribute to This booklet outlines how and why Indigenous plants can be used to Merri Creek Management Committee indigenous (local native) plants can be create formal and informal settings in the municipality’s open space, and can (MCMC) works to restore Merri Creek, provide ‘breathing space’ for the used in home gardens. Indigenous plants gardens. Indigenous plants can be its parklands and open space to a have evolved and adapted to our climate grown in pots and tubs, and some can residents, as well as habitat for the healthy living stream and bushland plants, birds and insects that once and soils. They are both home and food be clipped to form hedges. Lawns of environment. The municipalities of native grass can be created by planting for a variety of insects, birds and animals. naturally occurred in the area. Darebin, Hume, Mitchell, Moreland, These can be attracted to your garden by densely with Weeping Grass and Moreland City Council has a Whittlesea and Yarra and Friends of planting indigenous plants. Wallaby Grasses (these species are not commitment to sustainability. In Merri Creek are members of MCMC, described in this booklet; talk to an landscape terms this translates as providing funding and support for its Many indigenous plants have colourful wildflowers which can add interest to indigenous plant nursery or see the sustainable landscapes which: operations. Project grants are received from State and Federal Government the garden. Most of the plants listed in references listed at the end of this • are less dependent on resources, this booklet are tolerant of dry summers booklet). Native grass lawns can be • have aesthetic strengths, grant schemes as well as other sources. mown or can be left unmown MCMC employs specialist staff and drought, and will only require • offer broad environmental benefits infrequent watering (once or twice a depending on the style of your garden such as habitat for fauna. dedicated to improving and promoting the creek. week during summer) Many will flourish and the uses of the lawn area. Gardens planted with indigenous (local in the heavy clay soils which are A number of garden design plans are native) plants contribute to fulfilling Gardening with Indigenous Plants characteristic of the northern suburbs of included in this booklet, as well as these principles. Residents’ gardens in Moreland was produced for Melbourne, and across the Western details of almost fifty different landscaped in this manner also celebrate Moreland City Council by Merri Creek Plains of Victoria, with little soil indigenous plants considered well suited the character of the local environment, Management Committee, with plant treatment or addition of chemicals or to home gardens. At the end of this help conserve the plants of the area and illustrations by Brian Bainbridge and fertilisers necessary (although some booklet is a list of indigenous nurseries assist us to connect with the cultural George Stolfo. plants benefit from the addition of small which sell all the plants listed, as well as history of the land; Wurundjeri (local amounts of native plant fertiliser – see organisations and books which can Aboriginal clan) land for thousands of Revised and reprinted 2005. Plant Descriptions later in this booklet). provide more information. 1
    • Planning and planting the garden Planning and planting the garden The City of Moreland lies on the western high density in each square metre of pot-bound, don’t tease the roots of the plant Pruning and weeding basalt plains of Victoria. Although Moreland planting; see description for each plant later before planting. Place the plant carefully in Pruning, which mimics the grazing of has a range of different soil types, the in the book for more detail). Provide the hole, and crumble the soil around the wallabies and kangaroos, will encourage predominant one is derived from volcanic adequate space for any shrubs or trees. plant, firming the soil as you go. Water the denser growth in some plants, will prevent lava flows thousands of years ago. These soils Many home gardens are too small to plant using 1/3 of a bucket of water. legginess and will promote flowering and are usually heavy, poorly draining black clay accommodate large trees (check location of new growth. Specific notes for each plant soils that may become waterlogged in winter, power lines and plumbing before planting). MULCHING are listed in the plant descriptions in the and dry and crack in summer. Outcrops of Mulch retains moisture in the soil reducing PREPARATION following pages. older sedimentary yellow clays are also the need to water, encourages beneficial soil common in some areas. Control of weeds is a key element in animals such as worms, and suppresses The common weeds of all home gardens will successful gardening. It is easier to remove weeds. Mulch can be attractive and increase also invade the indigenous home garden, The indigenous (local native) plants listed in weeds before rather than after planting. the habitat values in the garden. and regular weeding is necessary. Mulch this booklet have evolved to grow and Remove weeds by hand-weeding, layers minimise weed invasion. Dense flourish in the clay soils and so soil treatment There are different types of mulch smothering with mulch (see below), or by plantings of groundcovers and small plants is usually unnecessary. available; fine pine mulch and eucamulch careful, targeted, minimal application of may also out-compete most weeds. However herbicides. Do not dig over the soil before are very popular. These mulches should be PLANNING laid to form a 10 cm thick layer. For added some weeding will always be necessary. When establishing a new garden or planting (this can encourage more weeds), weed suppression, a layer of newspaper Formal gardens and gardens with bare earth modifying an existing garden it is important but make sure the soil is moist. at least ten pages thick can be laid under require more intensive maintenance to to first create a plan to guide planting and PLANTING the mulch. maintain the sharp lines, boundaries and other works. You will need to consider: The best time to plant is in autumn or Jutemat (a commercially available product) block elements of the original design. Such • sunny / shady patches, • wet / dry areas, spring when the soil is moist and the gardens need more regular pruning, and if can be used, but may be more difficult to • soil condition, • high use areas, weather is not too hot. You can plant in there is no mulch, require more regular lay in a small garden area. Do not use carpet • informal paths, • garden uses winter but there will not be much growth watering, and more intensive weeding. (e.g. entertainment, play, quiet underlay based on nylon netting. due to cold weather. Avoid planting during enjoyment, habitat). summer as the plants become heat- and ONGOING CARE AND Replacement planting Collect information about your garden at water-stressed. Purchase healthy plants from MAINTENANCE and mulching different times of the day and different a nursery that sells indigenous plants of local Using indigenous plants may reduce As the garden establishes, some plants will seasons of the year. Use this information to provenance (see inside back cover of this maintenance but will not dispense with booklet). Indigenous plants are often sold as flourish, some may not do so well, perhaps select the right plants for these areas. it altogether. “tubestock” (the plants are grown in small because they have been planted in the Decide on a style for your garden, and select wrong place. If the successes and failures plants that will be suited to your garden’s square deep pots). The plants are relatively Watering and fertilising are noted, this knowledge can be used to spaces. Some design examples are included cheap, and although small when planted, Generally, an indigenous home garden will plan replacement planting. Ongoing on the following pages. Work out the develop excellent root systems and are more require infrequent watering and application tolerant of drought. planting is also necessary to replace any of number of plants you will need. Use plant of fertilisers. After the initial watering the shorter lived plants (such as Sticky size at maturity as a guide to avoid Dig a hole slightly larger than the pot, gently associated with planting, gardens may require watering once or twice a week Everlasting and Kangaroo Apple). overcrowding your garden. Grasses and remove the plant from the pot (by holding small plants can be planted densely, the pot upside down and tapping it, avoid during summer and drought periods. Some Top up the mulch layer every two to five reducing weed invasion (up to 10 plants for pulling the plant out by the stem). Because plants may respond to a light application of years depending on the type of garden and medium density and up to 20 plants for plants grown in tubes do not usually become native plant fertilisers. the type of mulch used.2 3
    • Garden designs Garden designs COURTYARD GARDEN FORMAL GARDEN Sun and shade loving plants are arranged around the This design utilises strong lines and shapes, clipped shrubs and constructed corners of this small courtyard. Brick paving and gravel corner planting beds or bays. The silver-blue leaves of the Common create contrasting colours and surfaces against which the Everlasting contrasts with the green and yellow of the Rock Correa in the 0 2 4 plants are displayed. N bays. An arbour is constructed at the end of the garden, draped with Small- Metres leafed Clematis, to provide a pleasant, shady place to sit, and to create a 12 12 focal view point from the paved entrance. A fine lawn of Weeping Grass and 8 16 16 16 16 16 8 16 15 16 Wallaby Grass between the bays is maintained by regular mowing. N 16 3 1 14 Regular pruning is required for this dramatic garden. 0 2 4 4 4 2 12 8 2 3 9 Metres 9 14 Arbour 8 4 8 9 17 7 20 14 8 1 1 8 3 7 3 3 8 8 1 6 6 17 20 3 20 Rock 3 3 3 7 9 19 7 8 7 7 12 9 8 14 8 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 11 14 5 2 2 9 9 13 2 9 5 5 2 2 5 18 9 12 5 2 2 9 5 11 8 9 7 2 18 3 2 2 6 Gravel 7 11 Native grass lawn 6 10 14 7 7 9 7 7 7 3 3 3 In pots 6 3 6 Grasses and other tussock plants PAGE Small Plants PAGE 1. Pale Flax Lily 8 10. Common Everlasting 14 3 11. Tufted Bluebell 11 8 Small Plants 3 3 7 7 3 2. Cut Leaf Daisy 13 8 3. Clustered Everlasting 14 Climbers 4 Common Rasp Fern 16 12. Small-leafed Clematis 19 13. Purple Coral Pea 19 Small and medium shrubs 5. Small-leafed Eutaxia 21 Small and medium shrubs Grasses and other tussock plants PAGE Small and medium shrubs PAGE 14. Large-leaf Bush-pea 20 1. Pale Flax Lily 8 5. Large-leaf Bush-pea 20 6. Turkey Bush 24 15. Rock Correa 20 2. Spiny-headed Mat-rush 8 6. Rock Correa 20 Small and medium trees 16. Austral Indigo 23 7. Rosemary Grevillea 22 7. Silver Banksia 28 Small plants 17. Tree Violet 23 3. Common Everlasting 14 Large shrubs 18. Gold-dust Wattle 24 8. Wedge-leaf Hop Bush 26 In ground Large shrubs Climbers Small and medium trees 4. Small-leafed Clematis 19 Grasses and other tussock plants 19. Sweet Bursaria 25 9. Silver Banksia 28 8. Spiny-headed Mat-rush 8 Small and medium trees 9. Silky Tussock Grass 10 20. Lightwood 304 5
    • Garden designs Garden designs COTTAGE GARDEN BUSH GARDEN A birdbath provides a focal point for this flowering garden, created This bush garden contains a more “natural” mixture of grasses, using dense plantings of small wildflowers and grasses. Informal groundcovers, shrubs and trees. The trees and native grass lawn of Wallaby gravel paths weave through the garden. Clumped small trees Grass and Weeping Grass (occasionally mown) provide peaceful areas to sit N provide height contrasts with the wildflowers. Regular watering and enjoy the bush in your own garden. N 0 2 4 and pruning will maintain vigorous growth and flowering. 0 2 4 Metres Metres 18 22 18 18 18 22 20 22 15 20 20 19 20 18 22 12 10 20 21 21 4 15 4 10 10 15 10 19 12 14 6 16 12 14 15 21 9 18 17 10 20 2 6 19 9 12 15 3 14 2 20 2 19 16 14 9 18 4 6 2 2 3 9 6 17 1 1 20 4 2 2 2 5 5 9 3 10 17 17 8 1 2 5 21 11 14 12 13 19 7 2 18 1 11 19 2 15 17 13 12 8 7 6 11 1 Native grass lawn 2 6 6 1 1 12 12 13 1 10 11 17 3 1 12 7 19 10 1 5 2 11 8 7 12 10 17 3 3 13 1 1 7 3 10 2 11 13 15 6 12 12 1 12 23 13 5 1 14 1 10 12 6 9 1 10 2 5 23 13 2 1 4 2 1 2 14 1 6 5 10 12 8 1 16 19 12 11 23 2 1 1 Gravel path 11 11 11 5 5 9 19 19 14 5 1 24 11 11 6 23 2 Gravel path 16 23 8 11 2 7 24 19 1 19 2 9 6 10 10 11 24 15 1 14 16 3 16 16 11 14 14 10 16 12 2 Grasses and other tussock plants PAGE Groundcovers PAGE 2 1. Pale Flax Lily 8 14. Ruby Saltbush 18 12 2. Feather Spear Grass 9 Climbers 3. Slender Spear Grass 10 15. Small-leafed Clematis 19 Grasses and other tussock plants PAGE Climbers PAGE 4. Silky Tussock Grass 10 16. Purple Coral Pea 19 1. Kangaroo Grass 9 9. Small-leafed Clematis 19 Small Plants 2. Spiny-headed Mat-rush 8 Small and medium shrubs Small and medium shrubs 5. Common Billy Buttons 11 17. Large-leaf Bush-pea 20 Small Plants 10. Large-leaf Bush-pea 20 6. Tufted Bluebell 11 18. Rock Correa 20 3. Tufted Bluebell 11 11. Rosemary Grevillea 22 7. Tufted Burr Daisy 12 19. Twiggy Daisy-bush 21 4. Cut Leaf Daisy 13 12. Tree Violet 23 8. Basalt Daisy 12 20. Hop Goodenia 22 5. Basalt Daisy 12 9. Clustered Everlasting 14 Large shrubs 21. Austral Indigo 23 6. Clustered Everlasting 14 13. River Bottlebrush 25 10. Common Everlasting 14 7. Sticky Everlasting 15 11. Sticky Everlasting 15 Large shrubs 14. Sweet Bursaria 25 12. Native Flax 15 22. Sweet Bursaria 25 Groundcovers Small and medium trees 8. Milky Beauty Heads 17 15. Yellow Box 29 13. Austral Storks Bill 16 Small and medium trees 23. Lightwood 30 16. Golden Wattle 31 24. Golden Wattle 316 7
    • Grasses and other tussock plants Pale Flax Lily Spiny-headed Mat-rush Kangaroo Grass Feather Spear Grass Dianella laevis Lomandra longifolia Themeda triandra Austrostipa elegantissimaDESCRIPTION Sword-shaped leaves of blue- Tussock of glossy, strappy bright green Dense grass tussock of fresh green arching A dense grass tussock of stiff, upright, bright green or light green forming leaves. Each leaf has a ‘bitten off’ tip. leaves. Leaves turn purple with cold weather green leaves. In spring the tussock elongates a dense tussock. Slender Flower spikes with clusters of small yellow in winter, and in late summer take on an as delicate, intricately branched, soft, hairy branched flower stems emerge flowers and spiny bracts are produced orange hue. flower-heads emerge. At maturity, flower-heads in spring, spangled with pale amongst the foliage in spring. Tall flower stems emerge in spring in subtle pink form a shivering, silvery mound. blue, starry flowers. Orange and Shiny brown seed capsules follow in summer. and purple colours. Flower-heads turn a brassy gold anthers are prominently orange as the seeds mature in mid-summer. displayed in the centre of each flower. Glossy blue berries follow in summer.SIZE 60 cm high and across. 80cm high and across. 40cm high and across, flower stems to 1m. 30cm high and across, flower-heads to 60cm.GARDEN USES Grows best in moist soil and Most vigorous in moist soil with light shade but Grows best in full sun and moist soil but Likes exposed, sunny conditions, requires dappled light but also copes well copes with a wide range of conditions. Nearly is tolerant of summer drought and light good air movement or wind to prevent with full sun and dry conditions indestructible once established. Trim ragged shading. It is essential to remove dead leaves mildew. May grow in the dry shade below once established. May die back leaves to stimulate new growth and a fresh every two years by trimming or burning. native shrubs and trees. Severe pruning in in summer. appearance. Looks good planted in groups at about 30cm autumn will rejuvenate tussocks. Looks good planted densely as Plant densely as a hardy ground cover. Plant spacing. Use to support delicate wildflowers. Will do well in rockeries, the edges of retaining a low maintenance groundcover, individuals as strongly ‘structural’ features Caterpillars of the Common Brown Butterfly and walls and dry exposed slopes. Looks good in beside driveways and in narrow amongst frothier grasses and wildflowers. native moths eat the leaves. small clumps. Avoid planting where dogs may spaces. Plant in drifts among Leaves are eaten by some butterflies, the get the sharp seeds in their fur. native grasses, below native trees flowers are valuable to nectar-feeding This was the dominant grass of the Victorian Volcanic Plains Grasslands, covering the plains in In its natural habitat this plant helps to slow or amongst rocks. insects. erosion on dry cliff-faces. a rich carpet of seasonally changing colours, Berries are eaten by birds and from purple to green to orange. Blue-tongue Lizards.FAMILY LILIACEAE XANTHORRHEACEAE POACEAE POACEAE8 9
    • Grasses and other tussock plants Small plants Slender Spear Grass Silky Tussock Grass Common Billy Buttons Tufted Bluebell Austrostipa scabra ssp falcata Poa morrisii Craspedia paludicola Wahlenbergia communisDESCRIPTION Medium-sized, dense grass Medium sized rounded grass tussock with Rosettes of softly hairy spoon-shaped leaves. Bright green herb with small narrow leaves, held tussock of fine greyish leaves. In numerous fine blue-grey leaves that feel softly Flowering stems develop in spring, each topped on slender upright stems that emerge from spring, shining pink flower-heads velvet to touch. with a golden ball-shaped flower-head. creeping underground stems. emerge above the foliage. These Purplish-green flower-heads emerge in spring, Delicate sky-blue star shaped flowers on slender fade to silver as the seeds develop, soon fading to gold as the seeds mature. stalks are produced over spring and summer. the fine seeds curling into loose spirals before falling.SIZE 30cm high and across. 30cm high and across. 20 cm high, flowering stems to 1 m. 30 cm high, may spread over 1 m wide.GARDEN USES Favours dry soil and exposed Likes moist, well-drained conditions in full sun Likes sunny areas in boggy soil. Will cope with Likes moist, well drained soil but will tolerate conditions with good air movement or dappled shade with good air movement. Can some light shade and summer drought. Very shade, occasional waterlogging and summer to prevent mildew. Will grow in cope with periods of waterlogging and summer prone to snail and slug attacks; so avoid dryness. Extra water in summer will keep plants dry shade below native shrubs. drought. Occasional trimming close to the favoured snail haunts. flowering profusely. Trimming in autumn will help ground is required to maintain appearance. Looks best grown in groups (about 30cm Plant several in a clump to create a light retain vigorous tussocks. Attractive planted in drifts or in a mixture with spacing). The flower display is short-lived, so groundcover. Mix with grasses to create a natural Looks good planted in drifts on other grasses or wildflowers. Seeds are eaten by plant among structural species, such as Knobby wildflower grassland effect. Rejuvenate exposed banks, retaining walls and parrots and finches. Club Rush, whose foliage always looks effective. established plants by cutting to ground level then amongst rocks. A good choice for Can be grown in pots kept in a tray of water. watering. The flowers will attract native bees. windswept areas such as roadsides. The flowers are especially attractive to butterflies. Keep away from areas where dogs may get the sharp seeds in their coats. Good shelter for skinks.FAMILY POACEAE POACEAE ASTERACEAE CAMPANULACEAE10 11
    • Small plants Tufted Burr Daisy Basalt Daisy Cut Leaf Daisy Woolly New Holland Daisy Calotis scapigera Brachyscome basaltica Brachyscome multifida Vittadinia gracilisDESCRIPTION Small rosettes of dark green Slender herb with fine upright stems that Small groundcover herb that suckers from Small herb with grey felty leaves and stems. Tiny leaves. Special stems bud off emerge from creeping underground stems. underground stems, spreading to create a good purple daisy flowers in summer are followed by new rosettes at their ends and Narrow, bright green leaves are sparsely groundcover. The leaves are small, dark green fluffy seed heads. establish around the parent scattered on the stems. Delicate white daisy and finely divided. plant, eventually developing flowers emerge at the top of the plant through Mauve daisy flowers emerge above the foliage a mat of rosettes. Daisy flowers spring and summer. in spring and summer. with thin white rays are produced in spring. These are followed by spiny burrs that persist on the plant until caught in the fur of an animal (or a sock!).SIZE 10 cm high, flowers to 20cm. about 40 cm high. 20 cm high, spreading to 50cm across. 30 cm high, 40 cm across.GARDEN USES Likes boggy soil and full sun, Does well in full sun and boggy soil. It copes Favours light shade and dryish soils. Can cope Favours moist, well-drained soil. Will cope with though will accept light shade with inundation in winter and short periods of with summer drought. summer drought. May grow in the dry shade and summer drought. Planted in summer drought. The plant may die back in Plant in patches to form a light groundcover. below native trees and shrubs. ideal conditions this plant soon summer and re-emerge in winter. The plant Best planted in patches where the silver foliage forms a light groundcover. works best when grown with supporting plants Looks good dotted amongst native grasses, providing a contrast in form. will make a stronger impression. The foliage Daisy flowers are especially such as tussock grasses or groundcovers. contrasts well with native grasses. attractive to butterflies and other The daisy flowers attract nectar-feeding moths The flowers are produced over a long period and butterflies. and are popular with nectar-feeding insects such The daisy flowers attract native butterflies and nectar-feeding insects. other nectar-feeding insects. as butterflies.FAMILY ASTERACEAE ASTERACEAE ASTERACEAE ASTERACEAE12 13
    • Small plants Clustered Everlasting Common Everlasting Sticky Everlasting Native Flax Chrysocephalum semipapposum Chrysocephalum apiculatum Xerochrysum viscosum Linum marginaleDESCRIPTION Herb with many erect stems and Sprawling herb with silvery hairy leaves. Small Erect herb with narrow, emerald-green, Short lived herb. Erect stems with small, blue- thin felty grey leaves. Showy clusters of golden everlasting-type daisies are stickyleaves. Brilliant golden everlasting daisies green leaves emerge from the base of the plant. blossoms made up of many small produced on short ascending stems through the top the plant in summer. Annual or short-lived Delicate sky-blue flowers appear over several everlasting-type daisies top the warmer months. perennial. weeks at the top of the plant in spring. stems in spring and summer.SIZE 40 cm high. 30 cm high. 1 m high and 40 cm across. up to 1 m high.GARDEN USES Does well in moist, well drained Does best in moist, well drained soil in full sun Prefers moist, well-drained soil and full sun. It Prefers moist to boggy soils in full sun. It will soils, resents permanently humid with good air movement. It will tolerate light copes well with summer drought and light readily self-seed into suitable positions, often conditions. Can grow in the dry shading and summer drought. Cut back plants shading. Looks good planted in groups for a along the edges of paths. It may die back shade of native trees and shrubs. to rejuvenate them. spectacular floral display that will last through during summer drought then re-sprout Is well adapted to coping with Makes an excellent groundcover if planted at spring and summer. following rain. summer drought. Cut back about 40 cm apart. Suits rockeries, retaining The flowers are attractive to nectar-feeding Most spectacular when grown in groups (about plants to rejuvenate them. walls, dry banks and busy roadsides. insects and the leaves are eaten by the 30 cm spacing). It can be allowed to self-seed to Grows well in a rockery, retaining The long-lasting flowers are attractive to nectar- caterpillars of the Painted Lady Butterfly. create an informal, wildflower effect. wall or on a sloping bank. Plant in feeding butterflies and other insects, and groups for a massed display or provide shelter for skinks. singly as a contrast to native grasses. The long-lasting flowers attract butterflies and other nectar- feeding insects.FAMILY ASTERACEAE ASTERACEAE ASTERACEAE LINACEAE14 15
    • Small plants Groundcovers Common Rasp Fern Austral Storks Bill Milky Beauty Heads Running Postman Doodia australis Pelargonium australe Calocephalus lacteus Kennedia prostrataDESCRIPTION A fern with bright green fronds Soft, hairy herb with rounded, bright green Sprawling groundcover with dense, silvery Trailing groundcover with foliage of three that have an attractive, red blush leaves held on slender stalks. As the plant foliage and trailing stems. Chalky white, rounded, hairy, wavy-edged leaflets. The plant when young. The edges of the matures, trailing stems with smaller leaves ball-shaped flowers are produced above the will rapidly cover several square metres in ideal leaflets are finely saw-toothed. sprawl for up to one metre. Clusters of slender foliage in spring. The seed heads are long- conditions. In spring, clusters of scarlet pea May spread by underground pink flowers, finely striped with red are lasting, fading to grey over a period of several flowers with yellow centres are produced over stems to form a groundcover in produced in early summer. As leaves die they months and may still be present when the next several weeks. These are followed by narrow, ideal conditions. may develop vivid pink, purple and red colours. flowers emerge. hairy pods that pop open on hot summer days.SIZE 30 cm high. 40 cm high. 20 cm high and up to 1 m across. 5 cm high, may cover more than 1 m across.GARDEN USES Grows best in damp soil with Grows best in moist, well-drained soil with some Prefers boggy soil and full sun. Will tolerate Favours dry soils and sunny conditions though it high humidity, light to heavy light shading. some light shading and summer drought. It can will tolerate light shading. Drought tolerant. shade and sheltered conditions. This species grows particularly well amongst be grown beside pools and in bog gardens. The plant works particularly well on the It will grow under trees and rockeries and retaining walls. It tolerates The flowers attract nectar-feeding insects such edges of retaining walls, amongst rockeries and shrubs where these conditions summer drought though it may die back and as butterflies. It creates good daytime and dry slopes. exist. It will survive periods of reshoot in autumn. The leaves provide an summer-time shelter for frogs near ponds. summer drought, dying back and The hard seeds are extremely long lived and interesting contrast to other foliage types and may germinate decades after the parent plant re-sprouting when rain returns. are pleasantly scented. has died. Plant in damp areas, in greenhouses and beside pools or Pea Blue Butterflies eat the seeds within the drains where humidity is high. pods. Common Blue butterflies eat the leaves.FAMILY BLECHNACEAE GERANIACEAE ASTERACEAE FABACEAE16 17
    • Small and medium shrubs Large-leaf Bush-pea Rock Correa Twiggy Daisy Bush Small-leafed Eutaxia Pultenaea daphnoides Correa glabra Olearia ramulosa Eutaxia microphylla var microphyllaDESCRIPTION A slender, erect, lightly branched Densely branched, low growing shrub. Foliage Upright shrub, densely covered in small narrow Small shrub with slender branches covered with shrub. It has a small canopy of is dark green and shiny above, paler and duller green leaves. In spring the shrub produces regularly arranged, tiny blue-green leaves. In dark green, blunt-ended leaves. below. In autumn and winter, lime-green a showy display of white daisy flowers along spring the plant is liberally covered with small A short but spectacular floral tubular flowers are produced profusely amongst the branchlets. yellow pea flowers. The closely related Eutaxia display in spring features bunches the foliage. microphylla has a prostrate, groundcover habit. of gold and brown pea flowers.SIZE 3 m high. 1.5 m high, 3m across. 2 m high and 1.5 m across. 1 m high and 50 cm across.GARDEN USES Prefers moist, well-drained soil, in Grows vigorously in moist, well-drained soil and Thrives in moist, well-drained soil but is tolerant Tolerant of dry soils and full sun. It will grow full sun or light shade of native light shade but tolerant of dry soil and full sun of dry areas. It prefers full sun or light shade. slowly in the dry shade of mature native trees. trees, tolerant of summer to deep shade. This is a rapidly growing shrub that will form Very attractive in a rockery, retaining wall or dry drought. This plant makes an excellent understorey to a low, quick-growing screen. Light pruning sloping bank. Most attractive planted in small large trees. It can be planted as a hedge and will help maintain bushiness. The plant is short- The plant creates excellent shelter for small groups about one metre apart. will respond to light trimming with increased lived in most conditions, requiring replacement skinks. Native bees are attracted to the flowers. It can form a quick growing foliage density. after several years. screen. It is generally short lived It is a very strong attractor of Honey-eaters in The blossoms are particularly attractive to native and may require replacing after winter, especially the Eastern Spinebill and New nectar-feeding insects. several years. Holland Honey-eater. Various insects feed on the leaves, nectar and seeds of this plant.FAMILY FABACEAE RUTACEAE ASTERACEAE FABACEAE20 21
    • Small and medium shrubs Hop Goodenia Rosemary Grevillea Austral Indigo Tree Violet Goodenia ovata Grevillea rosmarinifolia Indigofera australis Melicytus dentatusDESCRIPTION Small, rounded shrub with fresh Small prickly shrub with dense, dark green A slender, sprawling small shrub with an open Variable in form. It will be dense, leafy and green, aromatic foliage. Yellow needle leaves clothing the branches. Pink, habit. The stems hold sparse, blue-green feathery supple in shady moist areas. In dry, exposed sites flowers appear amongst the spidery flowers are produced amongst the foliage. In spring, sprays of pink pea flowers are it is smaller with rigid, spiny branches and sparse foliage for much of the year. foliage throughout winter. Plants from the local arrayed on the ends of the branches, followed by foliage. Tiny, creamy-coloured, perfumed area are smaller and less rampant than most bunches of narrow brown pods. flowers cluster along branches in mid-winter. garden cultivars of this species. Purplish berries are produced in summer.SIZE 1 m high and across. 1 m high and 1.5 m across. 1.5 m high. up to 3 m high and across.GARDEN USES Most vigorous in moist soils in Prefers dry soils in full sun, will tolerate light Prefers moist, well drained soils in a semi-shaded Tolerant of a wide range of conditions from full semi-shade but also tolerant of shade below native trees and windswept areas position. Will tolerate dry soils, summer drought sun to full shade and dry to wet soils. drought, waterlogging, dense near roadways. and full sun. Especially valuable as an understorey shrub shade and full sun. Occasional Responds well to regular pruning to maintain The plant is naturally open and responds well to below trees. Provides an effective barrier or severe pruning can rejuvenate a bushy appearance or to create a hedged frequent light pruning to promote bushiness. It hedge. May be pruned lightly to promote a straggly plant. effect. is short lived and may require replacing after bushiness or heavily to rejuvenate a plant. Looks good in a mass planting, The flowers are a particular favourite of several years. In ideal conditions new plants will Valuable shelter for small birds. The berries adds interest to shady corners Honey-eaters. The non-flowering period is germinate readily from seed nearby. attract Silvereyes and other fruit-eating birds and will quickly give a new bush important for maintaining bird diversity (some Makes a greater impact when grown in groups. in summer. garden an established feel. garden cultivars flower year-round, resulting in Is especially attractive grown amongst rocks and It is host to a wide range of aggressive honey-eaters setting up a permanent below trees. insects and provides excellent territory). The prickly foliage shelters small birds The seeds in the pods are eaten by caterpillars food and shelter for small insect- such as wrens. of butterflies and moths. eating birds.FAMILY GOODENIACEAE PROTEACEAE FABACEAE VIOLACEAE22 23
    • Small and medium shrubs Large shrubs Turkey Bush Gold-dust Wattle River Bottlebrush Sweet Bursaria Eremophila deserti Acacia acinacea Callistemon sieberi Bursaria spinosa ssp spinosaDESCRIPTION Very robust small rounded shrub Erect, small to medium shrub. Attractive bright An erect shrub that tends to be dense and An erect shrub whose spiny branches are with dense, glossy, bright green green foliage consisting of small rounded leaves bushy in cultivation. Light green, narrow leaves covered sparsely with small green leaves. In foliage. In summer, tiny delicate regularly arranged along the stems. Some plants are clustered densely at the end of the summer, bunches of tiny, white, sweetly scented white flowers hang below the tend to sucker, producing a dense thicket of branches, fresh growth is often pink-tinged. flowers are produced profusely. Flowers are stems. These are followed by plants. In spring, bright, golden blossom covers Chalky white bark clothes the trunk and rapidly followed by persistent brown pods. Bark creamy coloured fruits. the branches. branches. A scattering of pale cream, on the trunk soon develops a corky, aged bottlebrush flowers are produced in summer. appearance.SIZE 1 m high and across. 2 m high and across. 5 m high and 3 m across. up to 6 m high and 1.5 m across.GARDEN USES Likes dry soil and full sun. Favours dry soil and full sun, will tolerate light Favours moist or waterlogged soils in full sun. Favours dry soils and full sun, will tolerate moist Tolerant of the light shade below shading and moist, well-drained soil. Wind Will tolerate semi-shade and the light shade of soils, shade and drought. native trees. Very drought and tolerant and copes with summer drought. native trees. Tolerates summer drought. Makes A good feature ‘tree’ in a small garden since its wind tolerant once established. Pruning established shrubs to the ground can a quick-growing screen. Can be severely pruned narrow, sparse canopy permits under-planting. The foliage retains a fresh green encourage fresh stems and suckering. to encourage bushiness or strategically pruned The trunk is an attractive feature and strategic appearance throughout summer. to display trunk and branches. pruning can highlight this. Alternatively, plant in Makes an excellent groundcover Looks good as a planting below established trees, on dry exposed slopes. Flowers attract nectar-feeding birds and insects, groups and prune to promote bushiness for below native trees and can be the dense foliage and flaky bark make good a hedge or screen. grown as a low hedge. Light Blossom and seedpods attract a large variety hunting grounds for insect-eating birds. trimming promotes bushiness. of native insects and the animals that feed The flowers attract butterflies and beetles. Fruits are eaten by birds. upon them.FAMILY MYOPORACEAE MIMOSACEAE MYRTACEAE PITTOSPORACEAE24 25
    • Large shrubs Wedge-leaf Hop Bush Kangaroo Apple Slender Pomaderris Woolly Tea-tree Dodonea viscosa Solanum laciniatum Pomaderris racemosa Leptospermum lanigerumDESCRIPTION Dense rounded shrub with glossy, A very fast growing shrub with dense, dark Erect slender shrub. The foliage is dark green A large sprawling shrub. The dense foliage is mid-green foliage. Older shrubs green, glossy foliage. The large leaves may have and undersurfaces of the leaves are pale and a silvery blue colour. White flowers festoon the develop sparse crowns and the up to four pointed lobes. Attractive violet felted. Heads of tiny, cream-coloured flowers are outer branches in summer, followed by woolly twisted trunk covered in fissured flowers are produced over several months in produced in spring. coated, woody fruits. grey bark becomes obvious. Tiny spring and summer. Egg-shaped fruit follow, greenish flowers are followed by maturing from green to yellow to orange. papery red or purple pods.SIZE 4 m high and across. 3 m high and across. 3 m high and 2 m across. 3 m high and 4 m across.GARDEN USES Favours dry soils, full sun and Favours moist, well-drained soils and dappled Prefers moist, well-drained soil and full sun or Favours moist soil in full sun. Can cope with exposed conditions. Tolerant of light. May tolerate summer drought and full sun light shade, will tolerate summer drought and medium to full shade and occasional soil moist, well-drained soils and light to full shade. full shade. dryness. May die in severe summer drought. to medium shade. Older plants tend to sprawl and will smother This species makes a fine screening plant. It can This species is useful for run-off areas, boggy A useful, fast growing shrub, smaller plants or weeds below them. Can make be lightly pruned to promote bushiness or sites or sides of ditches. Light pruning may be especially in the shade of native an attractive feature plant though it is usually strategically pruned to reveal the fine grey bark used to promote bushiness. trees or on dry exposed slopes. short-lived and will require replacing after of the trunk. The dense canopy is excellent shelter and Can form a dense screen or several years. The flowers attract nectar-feeding insects, the foraging site for small insect-eating birds. Insects hedge. May be lightly pruned to The fruits are eaten by possums and by native dense canopy is the right height for Ringtail are attracted to the nectar of the flowers. promote bushiness. and introduced birds. Possums to nest within. Makes an excellent shelter for small birds such as wrens.FAMILY SAPINDACEAE SOLANACEAE RHAMNACEAE MYRTACEAE26 27
    • Small and medium trees Silver Banksia Blackwood Golden Spray Lightwood Banksia marginata Acacia melanoxylon Viminaria juncea Acacia implexaDESCRIPTION A shrub or small tree with rigid, A large shrub or small tree. The dense, dark A small tree whose leaves are dispensed with at A small, narrowly erect tree with graceful upright branches. The leaves are green canopy casts a deep shade. In late winter, an early age, the role of photosynthesis being drooping foliage. The canopy is open and a dark green above, silver below pale lemon blossoms are displayed over the taken over by bright green rush-like branchlets. fresh green. Rugged grey bark soon develops. and create a dense canopy. In outer foliage. Long pods then form, splitting to Shrubs are initially erect but later develop a Pale creamy blossoms in summer are followed winter the shrub produces reveal shiny black seeds embedded amid coiled weeping habit. In spring, small golden pea several months later by coiling pods that may egg-sized, lemon coloured spikes orange stalks. flowers cluster thickly along the tips of the persist on the tree for a year. of flowers. Some of these will branchlets. Small brown pods follow. develop into woody cones. Very wide variety of forms across Victoria; the local form has a narrow canopy.SIZE 6 m high, 3 m across. 10 m high and 6 m across. up to 5 m high and 3 m across. up to 15 m high, but will usually remain smaller.GARDEN USES The local form favours wetter Most vigorous in moist, well drained soils and Favours damp soils and full sun. It will tolerate Prefers dry soils in full sun but will grow in soils but tolerates heavy soils full sun but will grow well in a range of soils waterlogging and summer drought. moist, well-drained soils and light shade. seasonal waterlogging. Banksias and light conditions. It is moderately drought It has a dramatic appearance and looks good in Damage to the roots may cause suckering. tend to resent soil disturbance tolerant. a bog garden or beside a pool. It may be planted The tree grows rapidly and is long lived. The near their roots and excess This tree forms a dense, fast-growing screen or in a group to provide a light screen. open canopy allows for under-planting and the fertilisers. wind-break. Can be used as a specimen tree or erect form is useful in narrow spaces. The tree creates homes for insects, especially the Makes a good specimen tree in in groups to create a grove. fissured bark that develops on the trunk which This tree is attractive to insect-eating birds that small gardens. The dense foliage provides excellent foraging is a popular foraging area for insect-eating birds. hunt bark crevices and the dense tangles of The flowers attract Honey-eaters, and shelter for insect-eating birds and is a pods. Caterpillars of the Double-spotted Lorikeets and nectar-feeding favoured place for Ring-tailed Possums’ nests. Line-Blue Butterflies eat the flowers. insects throughout winter.FAMILY PROTEACEAE MIMOSACEAE FABACEAE MIMOSACEAE28 29
    • Small and medium trees Large trees Drooping Sheoak Golden Wattle Yellow Box Yellow Gum Allocasuarina verticillata Acacia pycnantha Eucalyptus melliodora Eucalyptus leucoxylon ssp connataDESCRIPTION A small to medium, rounded tree. A large shrub to small tree. It tends to be slender A large spreading tree with small green or Medium to large tree that generally develops A dense canopy of fine dark and upright in harsh sites, spreading and dense bluish-green leaves arrayed in a light canopy. a light canopy. Smooth white bark is streaked green branchlets develops in in open sites with moist, fertile soils. The foliage The trunk has flaky bark in warm grey and with cream and yellow tones. Abundant mature trees. Male trees produce is bright green, glossy and broad. In late winter yellow tones. Young branches are smooth and cream-coloured blossoms are produced in winter, tiny flowers along the tips of the golden blossom is prominently displayed. white. Honey-perfumed, creamy-blossom is followed by persistent gum-nuts. This is the branchlets. Female trees have produced spring or summer. local subspecies; there are six subspecies in flowers on older branches that Victoria. develop into spiky wooden cones.SIZE 10 m high and 8 m across. 4 m high. 30 m high and 15 m across. 30 m high and 15m across.GARDEN USES Grows in dry, well-drained soil in Requires dry, well-drained soil in full sun or light Favours dry soils and open conditions. Will grow Grows well in dry soil in full sun. Needs good full sun. It favours windy and shade, very intolerant of impeded drainage or in moist, well-drained soils. drainage. This is eventually a large tree so is rocky sites. waterlogged soil. It looks good grown in groups This is a large tree, so is unsuited to small unsuitable for small gardens (dwarf cultivars of It is very graceful as a young tree with several planted less than one metre apart. gardens. It may spend several years as a this species originate in coastal South Australia). and will develops its dense crown Can be short lived, requiring replacement after rounded shrub before developing a distinct These trees are amongst the most attractive to from about six years old. Female about ten years. trunk. lorikeets and honey-eating birds. Older trees will trees next to pathways shed The leaves have a gland that secretes sweet The tree is valuable to wildlife, fostering a large develop bark and leaf litter below, important round cones that can be a hazard liquid, attracting native ants and honey-eaters. number of native insects. These occasionally shelter for insects and spiders, and the birds and to pedestrians. Aging trees may host many native moth and defoliate the tree, slowing its growth. Older skinks that hunt for them. Small birds search the foliage, beetle larvae. trees provide nectar and nesting sites, leaf litter, fissured bark and dense leaf-litter bark and ultimately hollows. for spiders, moth cocoons and other insects.FAMILY CASUARINACEAE MIMOSACEAE MYRTACEAE MYRTACEAE30 31