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Chapter One: A World Language
“Worlds of English”
Introduction to International English
Contents
The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to
give examples of other varieties of English than
those that are u...
Brief History of English
Structure of English
Language
Structure
system
Phonetics Phonology
grammar
Morphology Syntax
Semantics
Vocabulary Discours...
Basic questions
English is today’s most international
language but…
• When and where was it born?
• How did it evolve?
• H...
The English Language Timeline
Pre-English: Celts and Romans up until 410 AD
Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150 AD
S...
The Celtic Stock
The Celtic language was one of
the first known to be recorded
in Britain before the following
invasions o...
The Celts in Europe
The Roman invasion
Julius Caesar conquered Britain
in 55 BC and Claudius in 43
AD, but it wasn’t permanent or
really influ...
The Roman invasion
Rome introduced Latin words in
commerce, religion, army, some
place names, etc.
Christianity introduced...
The Roman Empire
The English Language Timeline
Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD
Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450
St...
The Anglo-Saxon Conquest
Different Germanic tribes coming
from current Denmark
conquered Britain in 449 AD.
The Angles and...
The Anglo-Saxon Conquest
Old English
The Anglo-Saxon language is also
known as Old English and it is
the primitive form of modern
English.
The Angl...
Old English
Some words coming from Anglo-
Saxon are:
This language also left the “Saxon
Genitive” (Terry’s brother)
man ea...
The Germanic family
The Vikings
In the 9th and 10th centuries
Vikings from Scandinavia
occupied the North-East of
Britain.
Their language, Old...
The Viking Invasion
Old Norse
Some basic everyday words in
English come from Old Norse:
sky leg take
window call
dirty church
Similarities between Old Norse and
Old English
An example of how close the languages were
earlier is the Saga of Gunnlaugr...
The Voyage of Ohthere – Ottars reise
Den gammalengelske teksten lyder:
• Ohthere sæde his hlaforde, Ælfrede cyninge, þæt h...
Translation
Old English
• Ohthere sæde his
hlaforde, Ælfrede
cyninge, þæt he ealra
Norðmonna norþmest
bude.
• He cwæþ þæt ...
The Voyage of Ohthere – Ottars reise
The English Language Timeline
Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD
Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450
St...
The Norman Conquest
The Normans came from
Normandy, Northern France in
1066.
It was the last invasion in England
but had a...
The Norman Conquest
French Influence
French was the language of the
top of society
(government, church, justice…)
and little by little its inf...
French Influence
The Normans brought more than
10,000 words into English, 75% still
in use and no longer felt as foreign.
...
Middle English
This is the span from 11th to 15th
centuries.
Some French words incorporated
were:
court advise
mutton gove...
Middle English
The Great Vowel Shift meant the
complete dissolution between
spelling and pronunciation (the
first was kept...
Middle English dialects
The English Language Timeline
Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD
Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450
St...
Early Modern English
This is the span from 15th to 17th
centuries.
The use of the printed press
helped to fix the language...
Classical languages
These languages gave many
words for different sciences and
disciplines (not for common
language) and g...
The British Isles
English is now the official
language imposed on the whole
of Great Britain and also taken
to Ireland.
Mo...
The British Empire
Britain is now a powerful nation
and begins its colonial
expansion.
North America was the first
colony ...
The British Empire
By 1870 67% of non-European
countries are British.
Other languages
The expansion of English
worldwide meant contact with
other languages that gave
more new words to English:...
The English Language Timeline
Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD
Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450
St...
Lingua Franca
Today English is an international
language for communication :
• 330 million as native speakers
• 2 billion ...
Varieties of English
English has different variations in
every country
(British, American, Australian…)
and also more loca...
http://access.cappelen.no
Future of English
English will probably be the
international language in the
future.
Today’s communication prevents
the br...
Chronology quiz P9
http://access.cappelen.no
What Makes English so Important?
• International education
• Language of business and trade
• Language of international di...
International English includes:
• English as a Second Language (ESL)
• English for Special Purposes (ESP)
• Native speaker...
International English is
used for:
Education
Business and trade
Diplomacy
Arts and entertainment
Science and technolo...
International English, Issues:
A threat or a help to other languages?
Confusing or enriching others’ cultural identity?
...
International English, Standards
• Many accepted forms of English spelling and grammar
• Some deny any one standard form o...
Received pronunciation (RE)
In your English classes you are presented with a
British English model which is called:
Receiv...
How will International English affect
• your education?
• your social life?
• your career?
• your country?
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Worlds of English

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P10 Access to Internastional English 2012

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Transcript of "Worlds of English"

  1. 1. Chapter One: A World Language “Worlds of English” Introduction to International English
  2. 2. Contents The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to give examples of other varieties of English than those that are used in the Anglo-American core area, and reflect on their distinctive character. • Brief History of English • Tasks
  3. 3. Brief History of English
  4. 4. Structure of English Language Structure system Phonetics Phonology grammar Morphology Syntax Semantics Vocabulary Discourse Use social cognitive
  5. 5. Basic questions English is today’s most international language but… • When and where was it born? • How did it evolve? • How did it spread around the globe? • What languages are related to English? • What other languages influenced English?
  6. 6. The English Language Timeline Pre-English: Celts and Romans up until 410 AD Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150 AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
  7. 7. The Celtic Stock The Celtic language was one of the first known to be recorded in Britain before the following invasions of the island. Celtic tribes (coming from Europe) lived in Britain in the Iron Age for over 500 years until the arrival of the Romans.
  8. 8. The Celts in Europe
  9. 9. The Roman invasion Julius Caesar conquered Britain in 55 BC and Claudius in 43 AD, but it wasn’t permanent or really influential. Latin was never the language of the people, it was only the language of the ruling class.
  10. 10. The Roman invasion Rome introduced Latin words in commerce, religion, army, some place names, etc. Christianity introduced more Latin in the English language later on.
  11. 11. The Roman Empire
  12. 12. The English Language Timeline Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
  13. 13. The Anglo-Saxon Conquest Different Germanic tribes coming from current Denmark conquered Britain in 449 AD. The Angles and the Saxons were very important and gave English its basic vocabulary and structures. English is Teutonic in essence.
  14. 14. The Anglo-Saxon Conquest
  15. 15. Old English The Anglo-Saxon language is also known as Old English and it is the primitive form of modern English. The Angles gave the name of the country (England, “land of Angles”).
  16. 16. Old English Some words coming from Anglo- Saxon are: This language also left the “Saxon Genitive” (Terry’s brother) man eat house work woman
  17. 17. The Germanic family
  18. 18. The Vikings In the 9th and 10th centuries Vikings from Scandinavia occupied the North-East of Britain. Their language, Old Norse (connected with the Anglo- Saxon), gave many words to the English language.
  19. 19. The Viking Invasion
  20. 20. Old Norse Some basic everyday words in English come from Old Norse: sky leg take window call dirty church
  21. 21. Similarities between Old Norse and Old English An example of how close the languages were earlier is the Saga of Gunnlaugr Serpent- Tongue(Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu) which is one of the Icelandic sagas. It was composed at the end of the 13th century and contains 25 verses of poetry. It is an important work in both Norwegian and Icelandic literary history.
  22. 22. The Voyage of Ohthere – Ottars reise Den gammalengelske teksten lyder: • Ohthere sæde his hlaforde, Ælfrede cyninge, þæt he ealra Norðmonna norþmest bude. He cwæð þæt he bude on þæm lande norþweardum wiþ þa Westsæ. Samme tekst på norsk: • ”Ottar fortalte sin herre, kong Alfred, at han bodde lengst nord av alle nordmenn. Han sa at han bodde nord i landet, ved Vesterhavet.” Norwegian: Ottar fra Hålogaland
  23. 23. Translation Old English • Ohthere sæde his hlaforde, Ælfrede cyninge, þæt he ealra Norðmonna norþmest bude. • He cwæþ þæt he bude on þæm lande norþweardum wiþ þa Westsæ. Modern English • Othere said to his lord, King Alfred, that he lived northernmost of all the Northmen (or Norwegians). • He said that he lived in the land [that is] northward along the Western Sea (i.e. the sea to the west of Norway). Source: http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/eduweb/engl401/texts/ohthfram.htm 20100121
  24. 24. The Voyage of Ohthere – Ottars reise
  25. 25. The English Language Timeline Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
  26. 26. The Norman Conquest The Normans came from Normandy, Northern France in 1066. It was the last invasion in England but had an enormous influence in many aspects of British life: habits, language, society, literat ure, justice, etc.
  27. 27. The Norman Conquest
  28. 28. French Influence French was the language of the top of society (government, church, justice…) and little by little its influence spread a bit to the rest of the population who always spoke English. This is the birth of Anglo-French.
  29. 29. French Influence The Normans brought more than 10,000 words into English, 75% still in use and no longer felt as foreign. By the 13th / 14th centuries only the top class uses French. By 15th century it disappears but always as a favourite foreign language. With French also came a lot of Latin vocabulary.
  30. 30. Middle English This is the span from 11th to 15th centuries. Some French words incorporated were: court advise mutton govern sovereign duke
  31. 31. Middle English The Great Vowel Shift meant the complete dissolution between spelling and pronunciation (the first was kept while the second evolved a lot). English was not a unique language but a collection of dialects (Southern dialects were more important).
  32. 32. Middle English dialects
  33. 33. The English Language Timeline Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
  34. 34. Early Modern English This is the span from 15th to 17th centuries. The use of the printed press helped to fix the language. The Renaissance meant the arrival of many classical terms from Latin and Greek (only at cultivated level).
  35. 35. Classical languages These languages gave many words for different sciences and disciplines (not for common language) and grammar rules. physics radius history architecture educate algebra
  36. 36. The British Isles English is now the official language imposed on the whole of Great Britain and also taken to Ireland. More regional languages (Welsh and Pictish) are pushed away and nearly disappeared.
  37. 37. The British Empire Britain is now a powerful nation and begins its colonial expansion. North America was the first colony but later many more territories were incorporated to the Empire.
  38. 38. The British Empire By 1870 67% of non-European countries are British.
  39. 39. Other languages The expansion of English worldwide meant contact with other languages that gave more new words to English: tea tornado sauna tattoo yatch futon boomerang pasta
  40. 40. The English Language Timeline Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
  41. 41. Lingua Franca Today English is an international language for communication : • 330 million as native speakers • 2 billion as foreign speakers
  42. 42. Varieties of English English has different variations in every country (British, American, Australian…) and also more local dialects (Brummie, Geordie, Cockney… in the UK) American English is no doubt the predominant one (TV, cinema, music, the
  43. 43. http://access.cappelen.no
  44. 44. Future of English English will probably be the international language in the future. Today’s communication prevents the breaking up of English into different languages.
  45. 45. Chronology quiz P9 http://access.cappelen.no
  46. 46. What Makes English so Important? • International education • Language of business and trade • Language of international diplomacy • Dominant language of arts and entertainment • Has been adopted by science and technology • The most important language in digital communications
  47. 47. International English includes: • English as a Second Language (ESL) • English for Special Purposes (ESP) • Native speakers (330 million) • Foreign speakers (2 billion) http://access.cappelendamm.no
  48. 48. International English is used for: Education Business and trade Diplomacy Arts and entertainment Science and technology http://access.cappelendamm.no
  49. 49. International English, Issues: A threat or a help to other languages? Confusing or enriching others’ cultural identity? A source of new impulses for English? A source of new tensions among English speakers? http://access.cappelendamm.no
  50. 50. International English, Standards • Many accepted forms of English spelling and grammar • Some deny any one standard form of English • Others believe some standard necessary for teaching • In any case, literature in many forms of English http://access.cappelendamm.no
  51. 51. Received pronunciation (RE) In your English classes you are presented with a British English model which is called: Received pronunciation, abbreviated RP
  52. 52. How will International English affect • your education? • your social life? • your career? • your country?
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