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Worlds of English
 

Worlds of English

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P10 Access to Internastional English 2012

P10 Access to Internastional English 2012

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    Worlds of English Worlds of English Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter One: A World Language “Worlds of English” Introduction to International English
    • Contents The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to give examples of other varieties of English than those that are used in the Anglo-American core area, and reflect on their distinctive character. • Brief History of English • Tasks
    • Brief History of English
    • Structure of English Language Structure system Phonetics Phonology grammar Morphology Syntax Semantics Vocabulary Discourse Use social cognitive
    • Basic questions English is today’s most international language but… • When and where was it born? • How did it evolve? • How did it spread around the globe? • What languages are related to English? • What other languages influenced English?
    • The English Language Timeline Pre-English: Celts and Romans up until 410 AD Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150 AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
    • The Celtic Stock The Celtic language was one of the first known to be recorded in Britain before the following invasions of the island. Celtic tribes (coming from Europe) lived in Britain in the Iron Age for over 500 years until the arrival of the Romans.
    • The Celts in Europe
    • The Roman invasion Julius Caesar conquered Britain in 55 BC and Claudius in 43 AD, but it wasn’t permanent or really influential. Latin was never the language of the people, it was only the language of the ruling class.
    • The Roman invasion Rome introduced Latin words in commerce, religion, army, some place names, etc. Christianity introduced more Latin in the English language later on.
    • The Roman Empire
    • The English Language Timeline Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
    • The Anglo-Saxon Conquest Different Germanic tribes coming from current Denmark conquered Britain in 449 AD. The Angles and the Saxons were very important and gave English its basic vocabulary and structures. English is Teutonic in essence.
    • The Anglo-Saxon Conquest
    • Old English The Anglo-Saxon language is also known as Old English and it is the primitive form of modern English. The Angles gave the name of the country (England, “land of Angles”).
    • Old English Some words coming from Anglo- Saxon are: This language also left the “Saxon Genitive” (Terry’s brother) man eat house work woman
    • The Germanic family
    • The Vikings In the 9th and 10th centuries Vikings from Scandinavia occupied the North-East of Britain. Their language, Old Norse (connected with the Anglo- Saxon), gave many words to the English language.
    • The Viking Invasion
    • Old Norse Some basic everyday words in English come from Old Norse: sky leg take window call dirty church
    • Similarities between Old Norse and Old English An example of how close the languages were earlier is the Saga of Gunnlaugr Serpent- Tongue(Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu) which is one of the Icelandic sagas. It was composed at the end of the 13th century and contains 25 verses of poetry. It is an important work in both Norwegian and Icelandic literary history.
    • The Voyage of Ohthere – Ottars reise Den gammalengelske teksten lyder: • Ohthere sæde his hlaforde, Ælfrede cyninge, þæt he ealra Norðmonna norþmest bude. He cwæð þæt he bude on þæm lande norþweardum wiþ þa Westsæ. Samme tekst på norsk: • ”Ottar fortalte sin herre, kong Alfred, at han bodde lengst nord av alle nordmenn. Han sa at han bodde nord i landet, ved Vesterhavet.” Norwegian: Ottar fra Hålogaland
    • Translation Old English • Ohthere sæde his hlaforde, Ælfrede cyninge, þæt he ealra Norðmonna norþmest bude. • He cwæþ þæt he bude on þæm lande norþweardum wiþ þa Westsæ. Modern English • Othere said to his lord, King Alfred, that he lived northernmost of all the Northmen (or Norwegians). • He said that he lived in the land [that is] northward along the Western Sea (i.e. the sea to the west of Norway). Source: http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/eduweb/engl401/texts/ohthfram.htm 20100121
    • The Voyage of Ohthere – Ottars reise
    • The English Language Timeline Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
    • The Norman Conquest The Normans came from Normandy, Northern France in 1066. It was the last invasion in England but had an enormous influence in many aspects of British life: habits, language, society, literat ure, justice, etc.
    • The Norman Conquest
    • French Influence French was the language of the top of society (government, church, justice…) and little by little its influence spread a bit to the rest of the population who always spoke English. This is the birth of Anglo-French.
    • French Influence The Normans brought more than 10,000 words into English, 75% still in use and no longer felt as foreign. By the 13th / 14th centuries only the top class uses French. By 15th century it disappears but always as a favourite foreign language. With French also came a lot of Latin vocabulary.
    • Middle English This is the span from 11th to 15th centuries. Some French words incorporated were: court advise mutton govern sovereign duke
    • Middle English The Great Vowel Shift meant the complete dissolution between spelling and pronunciation (the first was kept while the second evolved a lot). English was not a unique language but a collection of dialects (Southern dialects were more important).
    • Middle English dialects
    • The English Language Timeline Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
    • Early Modern English This is the span from 15th to 17th centuries. The use of the printed press helped to fix the language. The Renaissance meant the arrival of many classical terms from Latin and Greek (only at cultivated level).
    • Classical languages These languages gave many words for different sciences and disciplines (not for common language) and grammar rules. physics radius history architecture educate algebra
    • The British Isles English is now the official language imposed on the whole of Great Britain and also taken to Ireland. More regional languages (Welsh and Pictish) are pushed away and nearly disappeared.
    • The British Empire Britain is now a powerful nation and begins its colonial expansion. North America was the first colony but later many more territories were incorporated to the Empire.
    • The British Empire By 1870 67% of non-European countries are British.
    • Other languages The expansion of English worldwide meant contact with other languages that gave more new words to English: tea tornado sauna tattoo yatch futon boomerang pasta
    • The English Language Timeline Stage 1: Old English (OE) from 410 – 1150AD Stage 2: Middle English (ME) from 1150 – 1450 Stage 3: Early Modern English (EME) from 1450 – 1750 Stage 4: Modern English (ModE) from about 1750
    • Lingua Franca Today English is an international language for communication : • 330 million as native speakers • 2 billion as foreign speakers
    • Varieties of English English has different variations in every country (British, American, Australian…) and also more local dialects (Brummie, Geordie, Cockney… in the UK) American English is no doubt the predominant one (TV, cinema, music, the
    • http://access.cappelen.no
    • Future of English English will probably be the international language in the future. Today’s communication prevents the breaking up of English into different languages.
    • Chronology quiz P9 http://access.cappelen.no
    • What Makes English so Important? • International education • Language of business and trade • Language of international diplomacy • Dominant language of arts and entertainment • Has been adopted by science and technology • The most important language in digital communications
    • International English includes: • English as a Second Language (ESL) • English for Special Purposes (ESP) • Native speakers (330 million) • Foreign speakers (2 billion) http://access.cappelendamm.no
    • International English is used for: Education Business and trade Diplomacy Arts and entertainment Science and technology http://access.cappelendamm.no
    • International English, Issues: A threat or a help to other languages? Confusing or enriching others’ cultural identity? A source of new impulses for English? A source of new tensions among English speakers? http://access.cappelendamm.no
    • International English, Standards • Many accepted forms of English spelling and grammar • Some deny any one standard form of English • Others believe some standard necessary for teaching • In any case, literature in many forms of English http://access.cappelendamm.no
    • Received pronunciation (RE) In your English classes you are presented with a British English model which is called: Received pronunciation, abbreviated RP
    • How will International English affect • your education? • your social life? • your career? • your country?