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  • 1. Language Course 1: Verbs Access to International English Fiona Jane Ellingsen H2013 02.09.13 1
  • 2. Verbets Tider Det største problemet: - å unngå å skifte tid - spesielt i stiler om roman, novelle eller film
  • 3. Årsak: • en historie du ser eller leser har alltid sin egen tidsreferanse • men du leser den NÅ. 02.09.13 3
  • 4. :Derfor • sjekk alltid hvilken tid du bruker • sørg for at den ikke endres
  • 5. Tenses • The term tensetense means the way verbs change to express the time in which the action takes place. 02.09.13 5
  • 6. Hvilke tider – Which Tense?: • Present tense: nåtid • Past tense: fortid • Future tense: fremtid – før nåtid (perfektum) • He has gone now. – før fortid (pluskvamperfektum) • He had gone when we arrived
  • 7. Present simple
  • 8. Past simple A finished action in the past I played football in 2010 x 2010 NOW
  • 9. Present Perfect Simple The unfinished past I have played football since 2010 2010 NOW
  • 10. Past Perfect Simple Two or more events in the past I had played football until 2010 but /when /…/ 2010 NOW played Are you still playing? NO ? YES?
  • 11. Future simple
  • 12. Aspect • The aspectaspect of a verb is determined by whether the action is on-going or completed. 02.09.13 12
  • 13. Present continuous NOW Decision made in the past Play football I’m playing football for Tottenham I will continue to pIay football.I am playing football.
  • 14. Past continuous NOW I’ve been playing football all afternoon I have been playing football all afternoon
  • 15. Future continuous NOW I’ll been playing football all afternoon I will be playing football tomorrow
  • 16. Past Continuous Sequencing two past actions When you rang yesterday, I was playing football NOW You rang I was playing football
  • 17. Concord – Predicate Rule A grammatical agreement between subject and verb
  • 18. Eksempler: The boy_ walks to school every day The girls walk_ to school every day – Finn flere eks. Kort regel: det er nok med en -s fordelt på subjekt og verbal
  • 19. Regelen er med andre ord svært enkel, men det er to problemer : • Å huske å plassere en -s på enten subjektet eller verbalen når man skriver • Å vite om subjektet er et entallsord eller flertallsord
  • 20. practice Now, it’s your turn to practice! International Language School
  • 21. Problem 1: Hvordan huske…? Lag en liste: – ting du har problemer med
  • 22. Problem 1: Hvilket ”tall” har subjektet Hva er et subjekt? • det er et substantiv eller noe som brukes i stedet for et substantiv - for eksempel et pronomen (”som substantiv” på latin).
  • 23. Pronomener: Ubestemte • another, each, either, neither … • sammensatte av: some-, any-, no- + -body, one, -thing • tar alltid entall av verbet (nesten), men av og til flertall av pronomen som peker tilbake på dem – eks.: Has everybody read their mail?
  • 24. Skille tellelige og utellelige substantiv – (Countable / Uncountable) for eksempel: Dollar (s) / money • utellelig → entall av verbet, for eksempel: Money is …. • men: Dollars are Substantiv
  • 25. 02.09.13 25 Noen substantiver er - • tellelige på norsk, ikke på engelsk • bare flertall eller bare entall • flertall i form, men entall i betydning • entall i form, flertall i betydning • like i entall og flertall (ikke problem)
  • 26. 02.09.13 26 NB! Utellelige på engelsk: • Advice • Business • Furniture • Information • Knowledge • News • Money • Work • I need some good advice. • He does business with us. • That is a nice piece of furniture. • This information is reliable. • Your knowledge of English is good. • No news is good news. • This money is not worth counting. • The work is already in progress.
  • 27. 02.09.13 27 Flere utellelige: •cash, •evidence, •homework, •interest (renter), •permission, •scenery, •bread (two loaves of -), •luggage, •baggage
  • 28. 02.09.13 28 Kun Flertall • Two halves: binoculars, glasses / spectacles, jeans, pants, pyjamas, scissors, shorts, tights, trousers, tweezers – Used with: A pair of... • Noen ubestemte pronomen: both, many, few, several, others
  • 29. 02.09.13 29 Entalls betydning, Flertalls form • measles • pains • physics • mathematics (maths) • works – Eks.: She was good at mathematics
  • 30. 02.09.13 30 Entalls form, flertalls betydning : • cattle • clergy • police • public Eks.:Eks.: • The cattle are grazing in the paddock.The cattle are grazing in the paddock. • We rang the police. They came at once.We rang the police. They came at once. • A policeA policemanman - two police- two policemenmen..
  • 31. 02.09.13 31 Både entalls- og flertallsbetydning: • people • family • crew • party • government • team Når du tenker på gruppen som helhet → entall MEN de enkelte personer innen gruppen → flertall eks.: they are)
  • 32. 02.09.13 32 Med flertalls betydning: • people: There were a lot of people present. They are working hard. • family: The family (= they) were sitting around the table. • crew: The crew (= they) were discussing their wages. • party: The Labour Party (= they) have voted for him. • Disse substantivene brukes med flertalls betydning når vi tenker på at gruppen er sammensatt av enkeltpersoner. Pronomen som viser tilbake på dem, må da vare i 3. person flertall (they, them, their, theirs).
  • 33. 02.09.13 33 Med entalls betydning: • people: People of the world unite ! (= it unites) • family: The family (= it) comes from France. • crew,: The crew (= it) comes from the Australian boat ”Fanfare” . • party: The Conservative Party (= it) is against the plan. • Når gruppene betraktes som en enhet, har disse ordene entalls betydning. Pronomen: it, its.
  • 34. 02.09.13 34 Lik form i entall og flertall: • Noen fisk og dyr: – deer, salmon, trout • Dessuten (f.eks): – aircraft, dice, data, headquarters, series, species – sammenhengen bestemmer verbalens tall
  • 35. Time for a break International Language School
  • 36. Historical Present • The Historical PresentHistorical Present describes the past as if it were happening now • The use of the historical present may be an effective device if you are writing fiction BUT • You can also get very confused about where you are in time… BE VERY CAREFUL 02.09.13 36
  • 37. Historical Present Examples: • I hear you resigned • In jokes and imaginative writing it gives dramatic immediacydramatic immediacy: The battle rages all around him (dear reader) We see the brave Captain Francis Drake standing by the wheel with the Spanish Amada burning as he continued to attack and destroy the Spanish fleet. As the fighting ends….. 02.09.13 37