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  • 1. Verbets TiderDet største problemet:- å unngå å skifte tid- spesielt i stiler om roman, novelle eller film
  • 2. Årsak:• en historie du ser eller leser har alltid sin egen tidsreferanse• men du leser den NÅ.08.03.13 2
  • 3. :Derfor• sjekk alltid hvilken tid du bruker• sørg for at den ikke endres
  • 4. Hvilke tider:• nåtid• fortid• fremtid – før nåtid (perfektum) • He has gone now. – Før fortid (pluskvamperfektum) • He had gone when we arrived
  • 5. Preteritum PerfektumGrunnform s-form Samtidsformen partisipp -ing form Past Simple Past ParticipleBase form 3rd person singular Present participle /Present Simple Gerund• Actions that The form of the verb are repeated is usually the same as or habitual the base form, but in• States the 3rd person singular• Statements adds –s. that are Some verbs change always true like to be which uses am, is, are and to have where the 3-rd person is has The auxiliary verb to do is used in a negative structure or a question see below: 08.03.13 5
  • 6. Preteritum PerfektumGrunnform s-form Samtidsformen partisipp -ing form Past Simple Past ParticipleBase form 3rd person singular Present participle /Present Simple Gerund• I get up at • s/he drops by 6.00 am every Sunday every • s/he goes home at morning 4pm• I like coffee •• The sun (it) sets in the west 08.03.13 6
  • 7. http://ndla.no/en/node/91502?fag=42&meny=1617 7- ing form of the verb 08.03.13
  • 8. Tenses• The term tense means the way verbs change to express the time in which the action takes place.• The Historical Present describes the past as if it were happening now• The use of the historical present may be an effective device if you are writing fiction BUT• You can also get very confused about where you are in time… BE VERY CAREFUL08.03.13 8
  • 9. Historical Present Examples:• I hear you resigned• In jokes and imaginative writing it gives dramatic immediacy: The battle rages all immediacy around him (dear reader) We see the brave Captain Francis Drake standing by the wheel with the Spanish Amada burning as he continued to attack and destroy the Spanish fleet. As the fighting ends…..08.03.13 9
  • 10. 08.03.13 10
  • 11. Verbets former
  • 12. FLERTALLS FORM, ENTALLS BETYDNING: • news (nyheter): No news (it) is good news. • crossroads (veikryss): They met at a crossroads(it) • mathematics (matematikk): Mathematics (Its) is an interesting subject. • physics (fysikk): Physics (It) is studied in schools. • measles (meslinger): Measles (Its) is a childrens illness. Disse substantivene, som har flertalls form, tar likevel verbet i entall etter seg og pronomenet • it, its.08.03.13 12
  • 13. ENTALLS FORM, FLERTALLS BETYDNING:• cattle (storfe): The cattle are grazing in the paddock.• police (politi): We rang the police. They came at once.• A policeman - two policemen.Cattle og police har flertalls betydning og tar derfor verbet i flertall og pronomenene• they, them, their, theirs.08.03.13 13
  • 14. ORD MED BÅDE ENTALLS OG FLERTALLS BETYDNING: a) Med flertalls betydning: • people: There were a lot of people present. They are working hard. • family: The family (= they) were sitting around the table. • crew: The crew (= they) were discussing their wages. • party: The Labour Party (= they) have voted for him. Disse substantivene brukes med flertalls betydning når vi tenker på at gruppen er sammensatt av enkeltpersoner. Pronomen som viser tilbake på dem, må da vare i 3. person flertall (they, them, their, theirs). b) Med entalls betydning: • people: People of the world unite ! (= it unites) • family: The family (= it) comes from France. • crew,: The crew (= it) comes from the Australian boat ”Fanfare” . • party: The Conservative Party (= it) is against the plan. Når gruppene betraktes som en enhet, har disse ordene entalls betydning. Pronomen: • it, its.08.03.13 14
  • 15. Genitiv (eieform) (The Genetive) a) Flertall a) Entall • The peoples’mountains • Narvik’s book • The girls’work • Napster’s internet site • The boys’ car • The boy’s car • The children’s bike • Fiona’s friend • The men’s friends • Its face • Their faces Genitiv entall dannes ved apostrof Husk !! og s (s). • Its = dens/dets Genitiv flertall skrives bare med apostrof () etter ord med flertalls • It’s = it is s. Ellers skrives apostrof og s (s) som i entall og uttales som flertalls s i substantiv08.03.13 15
  • 16. Vanlig feilIncorrect use of it is or there is/there are is one of the most common mistakes Norwegian students make in writing or speaking English. As a general rule you should try to remember that when it is possible to say “det fins” or “det eksistere”, then you should use there is or there are. Fill in with either it or there.• ___________ is an exciting story to read• Do you think _______________ is enough action in the story?• ___________is extremely cold in the water in winter.• What is ____________________ to worry about?• Is _____________ anybody home ?• ____________________ is always so much to do at school.08.03.13 16
  • 17. ENGLISH IDIOMS• in any case• anyway• in other words• on the whole• It’s no wonder• as far as I am concerned• in spite of• to a great extent• in my opinion• on the one hand• a typical problem• as a result• from my point of view• in my opinion• for that reason• as far as I am concerned08.03.13 17
  • 18. Star Writing Tricks Three parallel groups of words, usually separated by commas, which create Figurative Language a poetic rhythm or add support for a add “spice” to writing and can help paint a more vivid picture point, especially when the three for the reader. groups have their own modifiers. It was a beautiful June morning, I like reading mysteries that and the last few days of challenge me, watching freedom before school were science fiction films, and slipping away faster than sending e-mail to all of my springtime showers. friends when I am not busy studying. "Will you walk a little faster?" said a whiting to a snail,"Theres a porpoise close behind us, and hes treading on mytail.”C.S. Lewis08.03.13 18