Diachronic Analysis: A Short History of Amateur Sport in American Society
Prior to 1954, most children and young adults played sports in clubs, such as Boys and Girls and the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)
In 1954, sport for youth moved from clubs into adult-organized programs, many of which were run by the schools
In 1971, the government passed Title IX, which required schools to spend as much on women’s athletics as men’s; the number of women participating in school sports jumped from 31,000 in 1971 to 70,000 in 1981
1900s-1930s The Public Schools Athletic League, oldest organization of its kind in the country, is founded in New York City. 1911 The first statewide boys' basketball championship for Indiana high school teams is held. (Crawfords-ville downs Lebanon, 24-17.) more than just local interest.
1919-1925 1919-1925 Passaic (N.J.) High School wins 159 consecutive basketball games, still a national record. 1933 Sprinter Jesse Owens of Cleveland (Ohio) East Technical High School runs the 100-yard dash in 9.4 seconds, an interscholastic record that is to last for 21 years.
1950s High school sports superstars attract nationwide media coverage during the postwar period. 1950-1954 Jim Brown of Manhasset High School becomes a first-string varsity football player at age 14 and later sets a Long Island scoring record in basketball. Eddie Gottlieb, owner of the National Basketball Association's Philadelphia Warriors, recruits Wilt Chamberlain of Philadelphia's Overbrook High School as the Warriors' No. 1 choice in the 1959 NBA draft of college players.
1960s-1980s 1965 Jim Ryun of Wichita (Kan.) East High School runs the mile in 3:58.3, a national interscholastic record that still stands. Aug. 29, 1974 Moses Malone of Petersburg, Va., signs a $3 million contract with the Utah Stars of the American Basketball Association, becoming the first basketball player in modern times to go directly from high school to the pros.
1960s-1980s (cont.) 1977 The Holiday Prep Classic, the first year-end holiday tournament for top high school basketball teams from across the country, is held in Las Vegas, Nev. 1985 Texas passes a “no pass, no play” law barring high school students from sports and other extracurricular activities for six weeks (reduced to three weeks in 1995) if they fail any courses.
1990s-2000s March 24, 1990 A record crowd of 41,046 watches the championship game of the Indiana boys high school basketball tournament at the Hoosier Dome in Indianapolis. June 28, 1995 The Minnesota Timberwolves pick Kevin Garnett of Chicago's Farragut Academy as the fifth player chosen in the NBA draft. June 26, 1995 In Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that schools may test athletes for drug use on a random basis.
Mon. 3 hrs
Tues. 3 hrs
Wed. 2 hrs
Thurs. 1 ½ hrs
Fri. Game Day
A Day in the Life of an American High School Athlete
Synchronic a American High School Sports: A Snapshot
High School Sports Facilities
Swimming Pool Softball Field Baseball Field Tennis Courts Football Field Gymnasium
Soccer Field (Football) Practice Baseball Field Library?
The #’s 47% of all High School Students are involved in athletics Average # of sports per school: 10.58 for boys and 10.19 for girls 46% of the costs for High School athletics is paid for by the school (taxes) “Pay-to-pay” fees: 6% of the costs are covered by fees paid by the students who play
New Jersey: A Snapshot of American High School Sports
“High school sports spending grows as budgets get tighter in New Jersey” Posted: Monday, October 26, 2009 New Jersey adds to the more than $200 million per year spent on high school athletics...That’s 1,180,178,000 NOK New Jersey schools also budgeted more than $82 million this year for all other extracurricular activities. "It's gotten out of hand," said Jerry Cantrell, a former school board president whose son plays high school lacrosse. "It's just problematic to keep asking taxpayers to pay for it all."
“Pay to Play” ...only 15 New Jersey public high schools require students or their parents to pay a fee to play sports or participate in other extracurricular activities, according to data collected by the New Jersey School Boards Association. The number of New Jersey public and private high school students participating in sports jumped almost 25 percent in the past five years, from 209,452 in 2002-03 to 257,798 in 2008-09, according to the National Federation of State High School Associations.
Budget information provided to the state Department of Education shows school districts spend about $200 million per year on athletics. (That’s 1,167,652,000 NOK) And the annual athletic budgets do not include stadiums or other facilities, which are funded as capital projects. Egg Harbor Township is spending $3.1 million on a sports renovation that includes artificial turf on the football stadium, fixing the track, and installing new bleachers, lighting, five new tennis courts and new fields for javelin, pole vault and triple jump.
"If you want to be a comprehensive high school, you have to offer extracurricular opportunities within reason," said Dennis Anderson, superintendent of the small K-12 Wildwood school district, where more than 80 percent of the students are eligible for the free or reduced-fee meal program. His athletic budget this year is $418,000. (2,440, 392 NOK)
"Colleges like extracurricular activities," Baldachino said. "And I think kids today need them more than ever to get exercise, a sense of belonging, learn teamwork."
Speaking of colleges.... In 2009... 56 college football coaches made at least $1 million 25 college football coaches made at least $2 million 9 college football coaches made at least $3 million 3 college football coaches made at least $4 million
By Comparison— In 2009, Norway's richest woman was stock market investor Tone Bjoerseth-Andersen, whose wealth was $107 million University Presidents in the US make, on average, $427,400. Nearly one in 10 pulled down less than $300,000. The President of the United States makes $400,00 (or, 2,360,356 NOK)
Auburn University is in the middle of building an $85 million basketball arena, and UCLA is putting $185 million into the renovation of 44-year-old Pauley Pavilion. Arizona recently unveiled a plan to spend $378 million on facilities upgrades in every major sport in the next 20 years or so.
In a survey of 97 public Football Bowl Subdivision schools and the 11 conferences in the subdivision, the commission found that athletics spending between 2005 and 2008 increased at a rate that's an average of four to 11 times greater than spending on academics. Median athletic spending on sports at the schools grew by 38% during the three-year period, while median academic spending grew 20%. Including room and board, the cost of attending a private college is $29,026 per year on average, and $12,127 at four-year public universities. The average debt for graduating college seniors who borrow to finance their undergraduate degree is just under $20,000.
“Cultural Capital” forms of knowledge, skills, education, and advantages that a person has, which give them a higher status in society.
The BIG Question: What Can We Learn about Americans by Studying American High School Sports?
First— HS Athletics are an important part of a school and a community. http://www.northfieldnews.com/news.php?viewStory=54887
American College Campus vs.Norwegian College Campus
American College Campus vs.Norwegian College Campus
American College Campus vs.Norwegian College Campus
Second— They’re very controversial Should academics be tied to participation? Should all students (children of taxpayers) be allowed to play (should there be cuts) Do schools spend too much on athletics? Should HS athletes be allowed to go pro? Do athletics contribute to, or undercut, athletics? Should athletics be an integral part of the school system/day/campus/budget, or should it be separate (as is the case in Norway)?
Football vsFotball: Sammenligne Sport i USA med Sport iNorge Ning Welcome to your Mini Network, Colin Irvine! Football vsFotball: Sammenligne Sport i USA med Sport iNorge is now ready to use. Here are some next steps to customize and setup your Network: InviteMembers Customize Appearance Add or Update Features http://comparinghssport.ning.com/
What values and principles are your players learning through football? “The values and principles learned through football are many. I hope to instill a work ethic that will carry over into life. Discipline, poise, confidence, punctuality and teamwork are part of life lessons.” ~Danny Hale, Bloomsburg University Coach of the Year, Division II Football
From the Coach.... “We believe that football is the ultimate team sport. It teaches young men the importance of discipline, leadership, trust and teamwork. Being successful in the game of football means being disciplined in both learning the game plan and enacting that plan on game day.” “Through these elements, players learn the value of teamwork in both the game of football and the game of life. As the coach, it is my responsibility not only to teach these elements but also to model these ideals in my life as a teacher, coach, and member of the community.” ~Coach Wofford 2010 HS Football Coach
Mission Statement... “The football program at Pali High School will be a part of the educational process for the student-athletes participating in the program. In addition to learning the skills of playing football on the high school level, our players will be taught the values associated with being a good citizen, a good student, and a good teammate. These values will assist our players with their college dreams and careers beyond their high school experience.”
Coaches and Other Players Coaches and Other Players
Cheerleaders Coaches and Other Players Coaches and Other Players Cheerleaders
Stands: Parents, Alumni, Student Band, Students, Media Cheerleaders Coaches and Other Players Coaches and Other Players Cheerleaders Stands: Parents, Alumni, Student Band, Students, Media
Planning Your Homecoming In planning a high school or college Homecoming Celebration a great deal of work is involved. Since every school has a different situation those in charge must actually plan the program themselves. The information given below is an outline of some of the activities that can be used for a typical homecoming, after the date, game and time has been determined. http://trilochanbhattacharya.com/freearticles/how-to-plan-a-pep-rally
Creating a Task Force 1. Appoint the various cheerleaders and pep club members as chairmen. Assign a definite task to everyone, so every part of the schedule will receive proper attention and the work involved is widely distributed. On the more difficult assignments, assign two or more chairmen. As examples of the committees that will be necessary, there should be a chairman for: Advertising and PublicityAlumniTheme Selection and follow upMusicBon FireParadeSpeakersPep Fest MeetingBeauty Queen NominationOpen House and SocialVictory DanceDecorations
Select a Theme 2. Every homecoming celebration should be based around a “theme.” All advertising, costumes, decorations, etc. should promote this theme. The “theme” could be: Something your locale produces or is famous for. A musical theme. A historical theme. A cartoon theme. A Western theme. A “Famous Person” theme. Pioneer’s theme.
Homecoming Queen 3. If you are to have a homecoming queen, she is usually a member of the senior class. She is elected by student vote of the senior class. Her “attendants” may also be elected by student vote in the freshman, sophomore and junior classes. The identity of the “queen” is usually reserved for a special event and crowning at either an Alumni “Open House” the night prior to the game; at the bon fire rally or during half-time at the game and afterwards she is paraded around the sidelines in an automobile.