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- 1. Why the car of the future only weighs 500 kg January 2012 Nicolas Meilhan Senior Consultant, Frost & Sullivan January 2013
- 2. Weight and engine power of the average French car in the last 50 years10 kg increase per year, 500 kg in 50 years!Engine power multiplied by more than 2,5 - Evolution of power, weight and price ( in month of minimum salary) of a passenger car - Power Average Weight Price in month of minimum salary Source : L’Argus 2
- 3. What is the transport mode of the future? Amount of scrap metal displaced to transport 1 person: Renault Zoé – 1,4t – 1,4 person 1000 kg per person Renault Twizy – 500 kg – 1 person 500 kg per person Bus - 20t – 60 persons 330 kg per person Scooter 125 – 150 kg – 1 person 150 kg per person Electric bike – 20 kg – 1 person 20 kg per person Bike - 10 kg – 1 person 10 kg par person Source : David MacKay 3
- 4. Space occupied in a city street by three common modes of transport—cars,bicycles and a bus - to transport 60 persons 69 volunteers, 69 bikes, 60 cars and one bus The electric tank might not be the most suited transport mode in a city Of the 3 major problems city faces – pollution, traffic and parking, it only addresses the pollution! 4
- 5. Energy consumption of different transport modesThe most efficient transport mode is the good old bicycle. To match the energy efficiency of a bike, one has to fill a car with 80 people! - Energy consumption (kWh pour 100 person - km) - Source . David MacKay 5
- 6. Reducing CO2 emissions is a good thing… … but it does not mean we will still be able to afford driving our cars in the short term while oil supply is decreasing... and oil prices are surging! - Evolution of Oil & Gas production 1930-2030 - - Fuel consumption of vehicles in L/km as a function of their mass -Production in thousand barrels of oil equivalent per day • Future belongs to fuel efficient vehicles as well as low-cost cars (such as Logan) • In Japan, 40% of passenger cars sold in 2012- 2 millions in total - were kei-cars – small cars with length limited to 3,5 m and engine power limited to 660 cc Legislators should regulate vehicles weight, engine power or energy consumption like in Japan to make those light weight cars attractive with regard to heavy and energy inefficient cars – a 7-series BMW weights as high as 2t! Source: Colin Campbell & ASPO, 2008,, Hiroshi Komiyama (Roadmap for a Sustainable Earth), 2008 6
- 7. Our economy is very sensitive to oil availability Any bottleneck on oil supply in the last 40 years ended in an economic recession It is high time to reduce transportation oil dependency – 97% - by developing light and energy efficient cars - Evolution of car production, GDP incremental growth and oil prices - Incremental growth in value of worldwide Oil prices (constant dollars) Worldwide car production ? 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010Globalrecessions 7
- 8. What consumes energy when we drive?At lower speeds– in cities– mechanical losses, which are correlated to vehicle weight, havethe biggest impact on the energy consumption of vehicles - Power required to compensate mechanic & aerodynamic friction forces - Power Speed Source : Gregory Launay www.gnesg.com Power to compensate mechanical losses Power to compensate aerodynamic losses • Accelerations, which is increasing the speed of a given mass, is what requires the most energy when driving in a urban environment • A 500 kg car such as Renault Twizy at a speed of 35 km/h carries a kinetic energy 20 times as less as a 1,4t electric tank1,4t such as Renault Zoé at a speed of 90 km/h It is logical that such lightweight cars – 500 kg – do not have to comply with the same safety norms than car that are 2 to 3 times heavier as they have less kinetic energy to dissipate in case of a crash 8
- 9. How to reduce cars fuel consumption? 2 ways – reducing losses or reducing weightFuel consumption of vehicles depends on the amount of energy required to move the vehicle aswell as the powertrain energy efficiency. To decrease the fuel consumption, one can either: Reduce losses (increase the energy efficiency with an hybrid power train for example) Reduce the amount of energy required (with a lighter car for example). Energy CO2 emissions Source : Gregory Launay www.gnesg.com The red arrow represents the path that car markers have followed up to now which in most of the time increased the energy consumption of the car although it reduced its CO2 emissions An energy efficient approach would make a lot of sense in the future 9
- 10. 1 L /100km – Impossible? Fuel consumption of a 600 kg electric car with a small range extender is as low as 1 L/100 km - Energy efficiency of vehicles- Gasoline Range extended Electric Gasoline Diesel Diesel hybrid hybrid electric vehicle* vehicleTank to wheel energy 18% 23% 30% 35% 60% 70%efficiency 1 1,3 1.7 2 3.3 4* 80% of trips in electric mode,20% of trips with ICE range extender Fuel consumption of a car vs. Weight and energy efficiency - Peugeot Weight BB1 Rex Tank t o wheel energy efficiency Source : Gregory Launay 10
- 11. Peugeot BB1, the urban car of the future? Dimensions Peugeot BB1 Electric powertrain• Length = 2,500 mm• Width = 1,600 mm • Lithium-ion battery 12 kWh• Turning circle = 3.5 m • 15 kW electric motor • 320 N.m wheel torque Vehicle Weight, Seating & Luggage Capacity Range, speed & acceleration• 600 Kg including 150 kg batteries • Range – 120 km• 4 seats • Top speed– 90 km/h• 3 doors • 0-60 km/h – 6.8 s• 160 litres à 855 litres Peugeot VLV Peugeot VELV (1941) Source: Frost & Sullivan 11
- 12. An electric Peugeot BB1 fitted with a small range extender is probably the urban car of the future with a fuel consumption as low as 1 L/100 km and a total range of 300 km, in line with customer expectations Peugeot BB1 Peugeot BB1 Technical Specification Lotus city car Audi A1 E-tron Opel Ampera EV Rex EV Length 2,5 m 3,4 m 4m 4,4 m Width 1,6 m 1,7 m 1,7 m 1,8 m Weight 650 kg 601 kg 1,400 kg 1,200 kg 1,700 kg 15 kW 162 kW peak 75 kW peak 111 kW peak Engine Power & Torque 320 N.m 240 N.m 270 N.m 370 N.m Battery size 12 kWh 3 kWh 14,8 kWh 12 kWh 16 kWh 185 kg 150 kg 198 kg Battery weight 150 kg 36 kg * (12.5 kg/kWh) (12.5kg/kWh) (12,4 kg/kWh) Battery price € 4,800 € 1,200 ** Electric range 120 km 30 km 60 km 50 km 60 km Electric consumption 10 kWh/100km 25 kWh/100km 24 kWh/100 km 26,5 kWh/100 km Total range 120 km 300 km 500 km 250 km 560 km 2 cylinders, 0.25 L 3 cylinders, 1.2 L Rotary, 0,25 L 4 cylinders, 1,4 L Range extender : type, size, power - 15 kW 35 kW 15 kW 63 kW Fuel tank (L) - 10 L 12 L 35 L Range extender weight - 65 kg 56 kg (engine) 65 kg *** 91 kg (engine) Range extender price - 3,000 € 2,000 € 1,500 € 4,500 € Price 14,800 € 14,200 € 25,000 € (2013) 42,900 € (2011)* Battery weight= 12 kg/kWh ** Battery price = 400€/kWh *** complete package of rotary, generator, power electronics and cooling 12
- 13. The Mathis Andreau 333 (1946) is a very good example of a light energyefficient car that we should follow!3 wheels, 3 persons, 385 kg, 3 meter 40, 3.5 Litres / 100 km, developed 2 x 33ans ago Source : Matthieu BARREAU & Laurent BOUTIN , Réflexions sur l’énergétique Routier 13
- 14. How the car of the future looks like in an energy constrained world? A weight of 500 kg, a drag surface of 0,3 m2,, an hybrid powertrain Some examples to follow For a 4-seats vehicle • Weight of 490 kg (122 kg / person) • Drag surface of 0,3 m² (= aerodynamical coefficient Cx times front surface in use Sf) • Hybrid powertrain (Csp = 185 g/cv.h at nominal operating point) Fuel consumption of 1,5 L/100 km at 90 km/h Fuel consumption <1 L/100 km at 50 km/h in urban environment Source : Matthieu BARREAU & Laurent BOUTIN , Réflexions sur l’énergétique des véhicules routiers 14

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Also,where is the VELOMOBILE?in your efficiency comparison?