Technical Insights: Top Technologies Report - Advanced Manufacturing Technology Cluster
Top Technologies Report – Advanced Manufacturing Technology Cluster (Technical Insights) “ We Accelerate Growth” D -TI 2011
Research Methodology Outline 2 3 4 5 1 Enhanced Manufacturing Flexibility Improved Product Quaity Greater visibility into manufacturing practices Drive for Enhanced Productivity in Global Marketplace Product Miniaturization Key Technology Trends--Evaluation Scale Key Technology Trends in the AMT Sector
Micro and Nano Technologies in Manufacturing Advances in Machine Vision Lasers for Manufacturing Robots in Manufacturing Key Technologies in the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Cluster Top Technologies –Advanced Manufacturing Technology Cluster Advancements in Predictive Maintenance
Micro and Nano Technologies Machine Vision Predictive Maintenance Lasers <ul><li>A wider range of micro parts will be made; e.g., actuators, gears, valves, pumps, optics, fluidics </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon micromachining will be used in a wider range of MEMS devices (e.g., chemical sensors, bolometer, resonators/oscillators </li></ul><ul><li>Greater opportunities for nano-made structures/ devices in electronics, sensors, etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater use of digital cameras </li></ul><ul><li>CMOS image sensors continue to usurp CCD image sensors in industrial machine vision </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded opportunities for 3D vision in inspection, quality control, process control, object localization/recognition, as well as in consumer electronics, automotive safety, biometrics. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater use of adaptive vision systems in demanding inspection tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of multispectral sensors/.cameras in industrial vision </li></ul><ul><li>Greater impact of MEMS sensors/systems in condition monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of energy harvesting with greater power output and increased wireless equipment monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of autonomous, intelligent sensors, energy harvesting, and wireless sensors for machine condition monitoring </li></ul>Developments in, for example, the defense sector will push laser power, which will benefit manufacturing Fiber optic lasers will suit a greater number of manufacturing applications Expanding materials and markets for laser-based additive manufacturing techniques Further adoption of all-fiber lasers and direct diode lasers Position of CO2 lasers will remain strong Opportunities for advanced gain materials to offer new wavelengths at higher powers Supercontinuum lasers will be applicable to manufacturing Advances in laser miniaturization, efficiency, power, wavelength stability, robustness, spectrum broadening, decreasing cost Key Opportunities and Applications
Industry Overview <ul><li>Innovative micro and nano manufacturing technologies are becoming increasingly required as an ever larger number of products become further miniaturized and require micromachining. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, micromachining is in greater demand as parts not only decrease in size but increase in complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>There is increasing interest in parts with feature sizes of less than 100 micrometers (around the width of a human hair). </li></ul>Overview <ul><ul><li>Micromachining equipment and techniques are used to manufacture diverse types of products, such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) sensors or devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical components (including molds, leads, implantable devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfluidic channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-valves; Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiny actuators and motors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenses and optical devices </li></ul></ul>Components/Products <ul><li>Larger (non-table-top machines) can be used to make micro parts. A high-precision machining center from Makino, weighing 18,078 pounds, is cable of positioning accuracy of 1 micrometer or better in micro milling. </li></ul><ul><li>In the face of greater demands in machining miniature parts, driven by expanding micron and sub-micron manufacturing requirements, the design and construction of machine tools, work and tool holders, cutting tools and electrodes that are capable of making much higher accuracy and precision parts will become further enhanced. </li></ul>Needs <ul><li>Compound micro machining has the ability to fabricate high aspect ratio microstructures (e.g., deep, tall microstructures with vertical sidewalls) with high dimensional accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of compound manufacturing can be enhanced by on-machine tool fabrication and on-machine tool and work piece measurement capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Makino reportedly has complimentary processes, including micromilling and EDM; and, depending on the device, such as a TEM (transmission electron microscope) holder or SEM (scanning electron microscope) products, both milling and EDM processes would be used. </li></ul>Compound Micromachining
Different Types of Micromachining Techniques Source: Frost & Sullivan Micro milling Electrical Discharge Machining Laser Machining Bulk or Surface Micromachining Nano Manufacturing Photolithography Micromachining Techniques
Nano Manufacturing Techniques: Nanolithography & Nano Imprint Lithography Nano Manufacturing Techniques Nano Self-Assembly Nanolithography Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) <ul><li>Nanolithography </li></ul><ul><li>Nanolithography is used in the fabrication of, for example, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). </li></ul><ul><li>Optical lithography techniques will not likely be cost effective with respect to feature sizes below 11-22 nm. </li></ul><ul><li>NIL </li></ul><ul><li>NIL a 3D patterning process, is a method of fabricating nanometer scale patterns by mechanical deformation of the imprint resist and subsequent processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns about nanoimprint technology have included overlay issues, defects, slow template patterning at the smallest resolution, potential for template wear. </li></ul><ul><li>NIL has potential for high-throughput, high-resolution parallel patterning in such applications as magnetic media and optical devices (such as planar diffractive optical elements for LED or LED lighting, emissive heads-up displays, or large area optical light deviation elements on glass (areas which have been by the European Commission NaPANIL project). </li></ul>Source: Frost & Sullivan
D - TI Imaging for Machine Vision Sensors Illumination Systems Optics for Image Acquisition The image acquired using these components is processed in order to produce information that can be used for purposes such as inspection, sorting and grading for quality control. The part of the electromagnetic spectrum to be used for imaging depends on the nature of the application; for example, the physical and chemical composition of the object to be imaged, the ambient light conditions at the location of inspection, the size of the object to be imaged, the parameter that is to be inspected (size, color, shape, temperature, internal defects etc.) and the accuracy and speed required. Light emitting diodes (LEDs), which offer small size, low energy consumption, reliability and cover different spectral ranges, are a preferred lighting sources in industrial vision. Overview – Machine Vision Systems
D - TI Major Application Sectors Vision Systems 3D Vision Systems Vision systems are also finding opportunities in, for example, LCD glass applications (such as positioning of LCD glass substrates), thin-film inspection, as well as the solar industry (e.g., solar wafer/panel inspection). Moreover, 3D vision sensors are finding applications in such areas as on-board vehicle safety systems, consumer electronics, and biometrics, in addition to the more traditional industrial automation and defense application areas Industrial machine vision systems are applied in such industries as: Aerospace, Automotive, Pharmaceutical, Food and Beverage, Agriculture, Packaging, Electronics & Semiconductor (a high-end application area where vision systems are used in metrology and inspection of integrated circuit packages), Paper and Printing, Glass, Textiles, Wood. <ul><li>Aerospace and Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial and airborne surveillance using LiDAR </li></ul><ul><li>3D Imaging for automated vehicles – vision guided target tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Automation and Machine Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Engineering, Additive manufacturing, Rapid Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Vision guided robots – bin picking applications, Autonomous vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Factory automation lines, Quality control – Inspection, Process control </li></ul><ul><li>Biometrics and Surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>3D fingerprint recognition for homeland security </li></ul><ul><li>3D facial recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Gaming and Consumer Electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for 3D Sensors in mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Gesture recognition – 3D Gaming </li></ul><ul><li>Natural interaction based living room interfaces </li></ul>
Representative Industry Participants in Key Segments D - TI Basler AG, Teledyne Dalsa, Sony Electronics, PixeLINK, JAI 3-D Vision Systems Multispectral Imaging Sensors or Cameras Vision Based Robotic Guidance MV Software or Video Analytics Digital Cameras for Machine Vision Vision Sensors or Smart Cameras Teledyne Dalsa, Cognex, OmniVison, Omorn Electronics, Eastman Kodak, CMOSIS, Augusta technologie/LMI Technologies, e2v Technologies. SICK, Leutron Vision; FLIR Systems; Velodyne Lidar, Microsoft (acquired Canesta) JAI, Sensors Unlimited (Goodrich), Xenics, Banpil Photonics SICK, Augusta Technologie/LMI Technologies, Inc., Microsoft, PMD Technologies ( 3D time of flight cameras and imagers) Braintech Inc., Adept Technology., Radix Controls Omron, MVTec Software GmbH, Eutecus
D - TI D - TI <ul><li>Wavelength/spectrum (optical spectrum – from infrared to ultraviolet) </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength & power stability </li></ul><ul><li>Beam quality factor M2 ( deviation of the laser beam from a theoretical Gaussian, ISO Standard 11146) </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul>Laser ( L ight A mplification by S timulated E mission of R adiation), where stimulated emission is a natural process in which light is amplified in an optical cavity or resonator. Parameters Source: Edinburgh Instruments Ltd Source: WWU Münster Credit: UML - STL Definition of “high power” property depends on the application <ul><li>Continuous Wave (CW) </li></ul><ul><li>Power (Watt) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulsed </li></ul><ul><li>Total energy per pulse (Joule) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse duration </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse repetition frequency </li></ul>Technology Snapshot – Lasers in Manufacturing (Contd.)
Impact of Technology and Opportunity Analysis D - TI Lasers in Manufacturing Opportunities <ul><li>Flexible electronics - Due to very accurate energy application lasers are beneficial for uses where a base material is sensitive towards high temperatures; the applications include organic and flexible electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear fusion - Lasers are considered as a technology to enable nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion is an alternative method to currently used nuclear fission. The first laser- driven fusion power plant is expected to be ready around 2030, and the first commercially available power plant would be operational around 2040. </li></ul><ul><li>Diode and fiber-based lasers offer higher efficiency compared to CO2 lasers, hence there is a tendency to replace CO2 lasers with fiber or diode-based devices in multiple processes </li></ul>Impact <ul><li>Enabling of low volume parts production and consumer centricity (customized products manufactured on consumer demands) </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property (product design) protection by keeping production within a company </li></ul><ul><li>Significant enhancement of spare parts supply model, where parts can be manufactured at the service side rather than imported from original production sites </li></ul><ul><li>In multiple applications such as in cutting systems, lasers are smaller, more cost-effective and more green than conventional tool-based technologies </li></ul>Benefits <ul><li>Lasers typically offer precise delivery of processing energy, which results in minimum heat affected zone (improved material characteristics) as well as in more efficient processes. They also enables production of micro patterns for sectors such as photovoltaics or sensors Market popularity and awareness should not be restricted to only negative refractive index MMs and cloaking applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Laser technology is clean, non-contact, requires minimum maintenance (compared to cutting tools used in multiple conventional processes) and is software-controllable Such characteristics make lasers highly advantageous for automation purposes </li></ul>
D - TI D - TI Strengths Limitations Strengths Limitations Precision Focused laser beam enables highly precise operations and high reproducibility Increased speed High power lasers offer significant speed improvement Non-contact operation Cutting, drilling, welding are some tasks that can be done non-contact Safety High-power lasers can burn skin, eyes, clothes and other materials Efficiency At CW operation, it is difficult to achieve high efficiencies for high-power CW lasers Heat generation Significant amount of pumping energy is converted into heat that affects material properties and beam quality Flexibility Fiber beam delivery made lasers easily deployable and more able to integrate Source: Frost & Sullivan analysis Spectrum coverage Applicability to different materials largely depends on laser wavelength Cleanliness Applicable to clean rooms; also useful for bloodless cutting in healthcare Key Drivers & Challenges
D - TI 2011 2014 2018 <ul><li>Prices of laser systems will decrease as an effect of industry consolidation and developments </li></ul><ul><li>New materials and applications will be developed in application centers </li></ul><ul><li>Developments in defense sector will push laser power, which will be beneficial for manufacturing applications </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber lasers will suit an increasing number of manufacturing applications </li></ul><ul><li>Laser-based additive manufacturing technologies will experience dynamic developments in terms of markets and new materials </li></ul><ul><li>Companies will follow early adopters of laser technology </li></ul><ul><li>All-fiber lasers and direct diode lasers will gain further market adoption </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 laser’s position shall remain significant </li></ul><ul><li>New gain materials might arise to offer new wavelengths at high powers so that new materials will be processable by laser. </li></ul><ul><li>Super-continuum lasers become applicable to manufacturing operations, which will significantly increase flexibility of laser tools </li></ul><ul><li>Miniaturization, efficiency, power and wavelength stability, power increase, robustness, spectrum broadening and finally cost decrease drive developments in laser technologies </li></ul>Technology Progress Market Growth Source: Frost & Sullivan analysis Roadmap
Sensors for Robots Technology Snapshot – Guidance for Robots 3D Vision for Robots Autonomous Robots Visual Servoing Source: Frost & Sullivan Advancements in sensor fusion (e.g., vision, force control, and tactile sensing) afford robots more intelligence to sense their environment. Robot performance is enhanced through tactile force feedback or non-tactile sensing for position and guidance. Tactile feedback and vision systems can provide greater accuracy for end-effectors. Advances in sensors enable robots to expand into less traditional applications, such as biomedical, clinical laboratory. Other expanding applications include automated warehouse distribution using vision sensors. Manufacturing and assembly processes benefit from advances in robot vision systems. 3D machine vision is being increasingly used in robotics. There are different options for recording 3D data (use several cameras; detect two dimensions with one camera and the third dimension using another sensor, such as a distance sensor). Three-dimensional information allows the robot’s vision system to identify a specific type of object and detect its position, facilitating malfunction-free handling. Autonomous robots are able to perform required tasks in an unstructured environment without continuous human guidance. A fully autonomous robot is capable of: obtaining information about the environment; working for an extend time without human intervention; move all or part of itself through the operating environment without human assistance; avoiding situations that are hazardous to individuals, property, or itself. Autonomous robots can have a range of environmental sensors. Sensors for indoor autonomous robot navigation have included sonar and laser range-finders. Visual servoing is used in robotic guidance to control a robot (e.g., the robotic arm) using visual feedback. Visual servoing is essentially giving the robot the ability to dynamically track any moving object or target with, ideally, 6-degrees of freedom. The robot is given sufficient sensory data and processing power which are used for matching object movement and velocity. Visual servoing helps in finding the relative error in position between the theoretical and actual positioning of an object using appropriate sensors. Initially, part identification was done using mechanical line tracking or drag lines, followed by encoder-based tracking, the application of machine vision for feature tracking, and finally visual servoing with the help of robots.
Key Stakeholders in the Robotics Market Source: Frost & Sullivan Segments Stakeholders Robot manufacturers Providers/developers of cameras, sensors, software, or vision systems for robot guidance or vision applications
Emerging Opportunities Robots capable of greater autonomy will find opportunities in such areas as security, household chores, waste water treatment, and in industrial environments where it is beneficial to have robots capable of operating in a more unstructured environment free of continuous human guidance. Robots will continue to find expanded use, and to be implemented at smaller manufacturers, with advances in such areas as communications, perception, and human-robot interactions. Robots with 3D vision will find greater use in such applications as painting, roof and door assembly, roof mounting, glass insertion, engine assembly and inspection, sealing, layered bin-picking, etc. Source: Frost & Sullivan Robots in Manufacturing Human-Robot Interaction Robots for 3D Vision Autonomous Robots
2011 2014 2018 <ul><li>Greater use of machine vision and sensors in robots for greater robot flexibility and adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of 3D vision-equipped robots in bin-picking, auto racking, and other applications. Penetration of robots in a greater number of applications and into smaller-sized industrial environments materials </li></ul>Greater ease of integration of machine vision systems and robots. Technology Progress Market Growth Source: Frost & Sullivan analysis Roadmap Advancements in humanoid robots (whose appearance is based on the human body and can adapt to changes in the environment or itself), due to developments in, for example, sensors, actuators, planning and control of movements, and artificial intelligence, which could advance opportunities for humanoid robots in such applications as service, rescue, space exploration, or (eventually) manufacturing lines. Greater opportunities for autonomous robots in industrial settings and in diverse areas, such as security and service applications
Technology Snapshot – Predictive Maintenance D - TI Predictive maintenance involves determining the condition of equipment based on certain monitoring parameters, and generating alarms if a potential failure is detected . It enables condition-based or proactive maintenance of machinery based on the actual condition of the machine rather than on a fixed schedule, thereby enabling more efficient, cost-effective maintenance of machinery only when there is an impending problem or failure. Condition monitoring, a vital part of predictive maintenance, involves monitoring equipment condition parameters to identify any key changes that can indicate a developing malfunction. Source: Frost & Sullivan and Google Images Periodic checking of machine conditions for predictive maintenance can be done using handheld units; whereas continuous checking allows for real-time monitoring of equipment health. Handheld condition monitors, which can yield inconsistent vibration profiles due to change in the probe’s location or angle and may not provide real-time notification of a troublesome shift in vibration, tend to be used in non-critical equipment in which permanent online instruments may not be economically justified. Continuous condition monitoring tends to be used on more critical equipment where failure would have more dire consequences. In a smart predictive maintenance systems, the sensors can walk up, issue an alarm if necessary, and go back to a sleep mode <ul><li>Prediction of potential faults in a machine increases the machine’s operational reliability and reduces downtime </li></ul><ul><li>Predictive maintenance improves profitability of a plant by reducing repair costs </li></ul><ul><li>Predictive maintenance systems (PdM) systems enable the replacement of potentially faulty parts without hindering equipment operation, thus increasing equipment lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>PdM can eliminate the need for unscheduled maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>These systems improve energy conservation by reducing the probability of excessive power consumption by inefficient machines </li></ul><ul><li>Predictive maintenance helps optimize the performance of equipment as it ensures that equipments always run within specifications </li></ul>What is Predictive Maintenance? How does it work? Benefits
Overview -- Applications <ul><li>Automotive, diesel engines, military equipment/vehicles, wind turbines, aircraft, pipelines, petrochemicals, heavy duty trucks, industrial machinery, petroleum, etc. </li></ul>Oil Condition Monitoring <ul><li>Predictive maintenance of pumps and pneumatic systems in Defence marine, predictive maintenance or generator, dynamo and motors, oil valves and actuators </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures reliable operation of the defence aerospace and marine systems </li></ul>Defence- marine and Aerospace <ul><li>Fault prediction of turbines (e.g., turbine blades), generator faults, faults in motor drives, valves and actuators </li></ul><ul><li>Improves generation and transmission efficiency and reliability, reduces maintenance, downtime of power pant and power grid equipment </li></ul>Power Generation/Transmission <ul><li>Predictive maintenance of pipes, valves, motor bearings , rotor core, actuators, hydraulic systems </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases downtime and reduces possibility of faults by predicting faults </li></ul>Manufacturing <ul><li>Predictive maintenance of pipe and wall surface, valves and actuators, motors and ball bearings. </li></ul>Oil and Gas <ul><li>Predictive maintenance to implement corrosion prevention, pump and motor drive diagnostics </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced equipment reliability and improved profitability </li></ul>Food processing and pharmaceutical Application Description and Usage Sector Potential Predictive Maintenance Applications Oil Condition Monitoring Manufacturing Defence- marine and Aerospace Oil and Gas Food processing and pharmaceutical Power Generation and Transmission
Impact Assessment of Predictive Maintenance Systems Future-Term Medium-Term Near-Term Offer key benefits, such as programmability, self-testing, more autonomous operation MEMS sensors for PMS This traditional technology for PMS provides robustness, but will gradually face more competition from MEMS sensors Piezoelectric based sensor for PMS Comments Impact on the Industry Technology Strong Weak Predictive maintenance and condition monitoring allow for maintenance tasks, or actions, to be performed only when required to avoid equipment failure. This cost-efficient approach allows convenient scheduling of corrective maintenance and can prevent unanticipated equipment breakdown. Knowing particular the pieces of equipment requiring maintenance enables more effective planning of maintenance work, as well as longer equipment life, greater plant safety, fewer accidents, and better handling of spare parts. In our increasingly global economy with intensifying competition, achieving increased productivity is vital. Predictive maintenance can reduce the operating costs and ensure productivity in industrial plants.
Future Outlook -- Roadmap D - TI 201 4 > 20 1 8 201 1 2014 – 2018: Greater adoption of energy harvesting with greater power output, along with greater wireless monitoring of rotating equipment 2011 – 2014: Integration of more autonomous, intelligent sensors, energy harvesting and wireless networking for machine condition monitoring Between 2011 and 2018 MEMS sensors and MEMS-based systems are expected to have a greater impact in rotating machinery/equipment condition monitoring
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