Superhydrophobic Coatings- The Road Ahead

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  • 1. Superhydrophobic Coatings- The Road Ahead Prospects for Technology and Application Potential Aravind Chander V, Industry Manager Chemicals and Materials, Technical Insights March 20, 2013© 2012 Frost & Sullivan. All rights reserved. This document contains highly confidential information and is the sole property ofFrost & Sullivan. No part of it may be circulated, quoted, copied or otherwise reproduced without the written approval of Frost & Sullivan.
  • 2. Today’s Presenter Aravind Chander V, Industry Manager Frost & Sullivan •Experience base covering a broad range of sectors in • Chemicals - coatings, catalysis, specialty chemicals, and oil and gas • High tech materials & technologies- smart materials, composites • Food and biotechnology - nutrition and health • Nanotechnology - electronics, chemicals and energy •Over five years of research and consulting expertise, leading and assisting projects that involve various types of industry analysis. •Chemical Engineer with MBA in Technology Management. 2
  • 3. AgendaToday’s presentation will cover: A Brief Snapshot Application Landscape Impact Mapping of Drivers & Challenges Key Developments Highlights of Regulatory Scenario Insights – The Road Ahead Conclusions 3
  • 4. A Brief SnapshotSneak Preview Superhydrophobic surfaces and coatings have been inspired biomimetically from the water-repelling and self-cleaning properties of lotus leaf. The surface is characterized by a high water contact angle of more than 150°and a small sliding angle of less than 15°. Contextual Importance Key Strengths• The presence of moisture on surface which is supposed to • Low cost and ease of manufacturing enables to exploreremain dry has led to a number of problems such as corrosion, a wide range of solutions across application such as anti-bio-fouling, buildup of dust particles, loss of equipment corrosion in marine vessels, aircraft parts; self-cleaning inefficiency and many more. building exteriors, architectural & automotive glass, and•The shortcomings of hydrophobic coatings such as irreparable textiles.wetting of the surfaces due to dust formation leading to • Availability of non-toxic, anticorrosive and antifoulingpunctiform soiling has given rise to the development of hydrophobic materials with the chemistry know-how ofsuperhydrophobic coatings that possess extreme anti-wetting formulation and research studies conducted on variousproperties and other properties, such as anti-fouling, anti- substrates allow the development and testing of newercorrosion, anti-condensation, anti-ice and anti-snow, self- products across different application segments.cleaning, anti-condensation, anti-friction, and anti-clotting. •The potential of superhydrophobic coatings has beenIncorporation of these properties in products has opened up effectively commercialized only in some applicationsnewer opportunities in sectors including aerospace, automotive, currently. However, more promising applications will beoptics, and healthcare. explored soon. 4
  • 5. Application Landscape-- Introduction Coating and Deposition Technologies Automotive Materials and Chemical Vapor Sol-Gel Substrates Deposition Techniques Aerospace Electrodeposition Galvanic Cell Applications across Sectors Polymers Reaction Textiles Glass Layer-by-layer Nanosphere Deposition Lithography Plasma Treatment Plastic Optometrics Metal Transformation Solvent Casting Polyelectrolyte Medical Nanoparticles Multilayers Devices Diatomaceous Templating Self-assembly Microfluidics Earth Composites Anodization Thermal/Electron Beam Evaporation Marine 5
  • 6. Application Landscape--Industrial Significance and Prospects Application Sectors Coating Properties Industrial Significance • Safer and better functional products De-Icing • Higher capacity of heat exchangers Anti-fogging • New product and processes (IPR- protected, implemented and commercialized • Increase life span of the substrates • Reduce labour cost involved in cleaning Self-cleaning • Improve the usability and functionality of substrates • Increase transmission of light, esp. in solar panels Anti-wetting • Increase life span of the substrates • Prevent contamination • Improve the usability and functionality of substrates 6
  • 7. Application Landscape--Industrial Significance and Prospects (contd.) Application Sectors Coating Properties Industrial Significance • Prevent growth of mould and mildew and Anti-corrosion • water seepage. • Improve wettability characteristics • Help in phase separation (oil and water phases) in oil and gas industry. • Prevent adherence of microorganisms and barnacles, especially to ship hulls Anti-fouling in marine vessels • Promote self cleaning effect, thereby, reducing labour costs. • Speed enhancement of boats and marine vessels • Reduces growth and survival of microbes in substrates, thereby, Anti-microbial limiting chances of infection and the spread of contagious diseases • Improved odor protection, especially in garments • Increases lifespan of the products 7
  • 8. Impact Mapping of Drivers and Challenges Very Certain Wider application Adoption of self-cleaning surfaces markets Demand for anti-fouling Process compatibility properties on a diverse array of substrates Environmental concerns Large-scale production is complex Unimportant Requirement of specialized Critical knowledge and skilled resources Coating is sensitive to mechanical wear Lack of Technologies to enhance performance Very Uncertain Business Drivers Business Challenges Technology Drivers Technology Challenges Source: Frost & Sullivan 8
  • 9. Key Developments--Recent Innovations Anti- icing Coatings: Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), has developed an innovative super hydrophobic coating that has the ability to prevent icing of the aircraft parts. The researchers developed the anti-icing coating using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material. Anti-Fouling Coatings: International Yacht Paint, a unit of AzkoNobel Coatings Ltd., has developed a premium range antifouling coatings under the name of "Micron WA." The coatings are based on the Water Activated Matrix (WAM) technology that has the ability to allow the minimal use of copper and also helps in efficient biocide delivery, thereby, leading to reduced patina formation and barnacle adherence on the ships’ hull. Source: : International Yacht Paint Water Repellant Coatings: Hydrobead has developed a water repellent coating has been designed to mimic the lotus leaf. The coating can be applied to any surface that requires extreme water repellency, such as rain gear, outdoor equipment (tents, tarps), fencing, roofs, or other surfaces subject to water degradation or corrosion. Anti-Corrosion Coatings– Ross Nanotechnology, has developed a nanotechnology- based super hydrophobic coating that completely repels water and heavy oils. The NeverWet™ coating can be used onto any surface and offers complete protection against corrosion and liquid penetration without touching the underlying surface. Nokia Research Centre is also prominent in this space. Source: Ross Nanotechnology Self Cleaning Artificial Skin: UT-BATTELLE, LLC has developed a self-cleaning skin like prosthetic polymer surfaces that is super hydrophobic in nature. The developed surfaces can be used on the surfaces of the artificial organs to obtain a skin-like look and haptic feel. 9
  • 10. Key Developments—New Products Zschimmer & Schwarz Mohsdorf GmbH & Co. KG has developed a superhydrophobic Anthydrin NK finish in emulsion form that has both water- and oil-repellant properties. It can be 0 applied on textiles or fabrics at low temperatures. Also the finishes are resistant to washing and dry cleaning. NeroShields Inc., has formulated a superhydrophobic nanotechnology-based coating sealer product. It is based on the natural process of electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) NeroShield which not only imparts hydrophobic properties but also self-cleaning and anti-fungal features. It creates a breathable water-repellent membrane using polymers as building blocks. The product is available in four different types for different surfaces, including concrete, glass, wood, and metal (car). NTT Advanced Technology Corporation has developed a series of superhydrophobic HIREC coating for different surfaces and applications. It also repels ice and snow besides water. Series It has been developed in both spray and coating forms. The primary application of the product is in the communication equipment field for radars, antennas, and communication towers. Xeromax Sciences (P2i) has developed a superhydrophobic technology which when Water- applied on textiles results in a durable water repellent material. The nano-coating also has resistant the ability to repel the stains on a fabric while being abrasion-resistant. It can serve textile nanocoating applications, such as weatherproof clothing, water- and stain-resistant apparel, protective work clothing as well as other accessories including bags and wallets. Other potential uses could be in fuel cells and air filters. Ross Nanotechnologies has developed NeverWet, a superhydrophobic coating product NeverWet for multiple applications. Neverwet coatings provide a surface contact angle of about 160 degrees to 175 degrees with water, making the water droplet an almost perfect sphere. It possesses features such as anti-wetting, anti-icing, anti-corrosion, anti-bacterial, and self-cleaning. 10
  • 11. Highlights of Regulatory Scenario Environmental Aspect Product Aspect• Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals • Volatile Organic compound (VOC) containing coatings creates (REACH) has been effective in the EU since 1981. This tropospheric ozone that is harmful. The European VOC Directive regulation requires the registration of all chemicals that are sets emission levels for VOC precursors and recommends being used by companies for product manufacture. Such installation of equipment for reduced emission. Coating registration processes gives additional cost burden to manufacturers have significantly reduced solid content so as to companies while also may cause the removal of toxic comply with this regulation. This has driven new efforts for chemicals that might also be the most efficient ones from the process development. market. The coating manufacturers need to either find • Fluoropolymers, such as polytetra fluoroethylene (PTFE) are alternatives or come up with eco-friendly credentials for their used in this industry. Even though the Restriction of Hazardous chemicals. Substances (RoHS) directive had not included PTFE, its safety is• Other countries also have regulations governing chemicals still debated. In fact, some manufacturers have resorted to that are likely to be used in coatings. For instance, China developing eco-friendly alternatives. REACH, Korea’s Toxic Chemicals Control Act, and Japan’s Chemical Substances Control Law are some notable regulations. Application Aspect• Laws governing textiles are Textile Products (Indication of Fibre Content) Regulation 1986 and Textile Products (Determination of composition) Regulations 2008. These also include nanomaterials, fluorinated polymers, and other toxic substances used in their development. Textile companies need to comply with these while getting coating products from SH coating manufacturers.• General Product (Safety) Regulations in UK control safety aspects of several products, including sports, leisure goods, and textiles.• The Restriction of the Use of certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations 2006 governs the use of permitted levels of hazardous substances including lead, mercury, nanomaterials, and certain bromine compounds.• The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) have set regulations that also govern coatings used on medical devices. The device needs to be verified using the standards, the recent risk analysis standard being ISO 14971:2000. 11
  • 12. Insights – The Road Ahead 2020 Basic research focusing on the development of The need for alternate Antireflective coatings,Widespread commercialization activities corrosion protection especially for solar cells andin textiles especially for sportswear and technology is driving the Biocidal coatings asmilitary applications is due to the research for anti-corrosive secondary functionalrequirement of hydrophobic textiles by super hydrophobic coatings. attributes.consumers. Increased commercialization However, the availability of Antireflectiveis expected in aerospace applications in existing corrosion protection Coatings forthe next two years. technologies and specialty Alternate Energy anti-corrosion coatings Sector makes the entry of in this space a challenging one Hydrophobic Anti Fog/ Biocidal Coatings for Anti-Icing Coatings for textiles Coatings Healthcare Anti Fouling Anti Coatings Self Scratch Corrosion Cleaning Resistant Coatings Coatings Coatings2013 2015 2017-18 2020 12
  • 13. Conclusions Superhydrophobic coatings were commercially introduced in the mid-1990s and ever since, they have been used in a wide variety of sectors, such as aerospace, automotive, healthcare, optics, microfluidics, electronics, filtration, to name 1 a few. Superhydrophobic paints, self-cleaning glasses, and water-repellant clothing are some of the commercially available products while some areas of intense research include coatings on marine vessels, automotive and aircraft parts, electronics, medical devices, bio-consumables, and architectural components. Superhydrophobic coatings are in the development and applied R&D stage. Certain functionalities of the coatings, such 2 as robust nature and resistance to wear are to be enhanced for complete realization of their commercial potential. Several industry and academic research projects are striving to address this need. Key market requirements for superhydrophobic coatings include development of both colored and transparent coatings 3 for desired applications; improved performance in comparison to competing products (hydrophilic self-cleaning materials); and utilization of safer raw materials and processes. USA, Germany, and UK are the leaders in the development and production of superhydrophobic coatings. Most of the 4 research projects are supported through funds from the government. The different research networks and regular funding activities from government, industry, and venture capitalists in this domain are likely to facilitate faster and increased commercial product development. In addition, the intellectual property 5 protection and expansion strategies taken up by companies will help in broadening the research database and spur creative developments. Differentiating the product applications, revamping the innovation portfolio, and investing special capital are strategies 6 followed by companies to manage R&D activities, and in turn, improve product development. Also, with higher revenue generation, the organization’s market share and position will improve. 13
  • 14. Next StepsDevelop Your Visionary and Innovative Skills Growth Partnership Service Share your growth thought leadership and ideas or join our GIL Global Community Join our GIL Community Newsletter Keep abreast of innovative growth opportunities 14
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  • 17. For Additional InformationJeannette Garcia Aravind Chander VCorporate Communications Industry ManagerChemicals, Materials, & Food Materials & Coatings(210) 477-8427 (91) 044-66814141Jeannette.garcia@frost.com achander@frost.comMark HicksSales ManagerChemicals, Materials, & Food(210) 247-2490Mark.hicks@frost.com 17