Sensors for Energy Efficient Buildings and
Building Management - Nine Pronged
Technology Assessment
(Technical Insights)
S...
Nine Dimensional Analysis of Technology Assessment

D4FE-TI

2
Key Findings
Incremental Benefits expected in future
Sensors are increasingly used in building automation for such applica...
Key Findings (continued)

Major Assignees located in APAC Region
The majority of the top assignees are located in the APAC...
Key Findings (continued)
Impact on Key Megatrends

Sensors have major impact on Mega trends such as Urbanization, Innovati...
Significance

Overview

Technology Snapshot
With the growing interest towards improving energy conservation and reducing
t...
Technology Capability
Occupancy Sensors/Motion Detector

Technology

Description

Vision Based

These systems use an image...
Breadth of Applications
Based on Building Type

Application by Building Types

Residential Buildings

Public Places

Shopp...
Breadth of Applications
Specific Applications in Building Automation
• HVAC control implements sensor solutions to provide...
Convergence Scenario
ICT

Context
Aware
Mobility

Flexible
Electronics

Big data
Analysis

Energy
Harvesting

Surveillance...
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Sensors for Energy Efficient Buildings and Building Management - Nine Pronged Technology Assessment

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Sensors for Energy Efficient Buildings and Building Management - Nine Pronged Technology Assessment

  1. 1. Sensors for Energy Efficient Buildings and Building Management - Nine Pronged Technology Assessment (Technical Insights) Sensors enabling cost savings by optimizing energy usage D4FE-TI June 2013
  2. 2. Nine Dimensional Analysis of Technology Assessment D4FE-TI 2
  3. 3. Key Findings Incremental Benefits expected in future Sensors are increasingly used in building automation for such applications as HVAC, lighting control and presence detection. Incremental benefits in terms of accuracy, networking and multisensing capabilities (e.g., CO2/temperature/humidity sensors for HVAC) are expected in the future. Nanosensors are expected to make a major impact by 2019 allowing high sensitivity and multisensing capabilities. Multi-billion market with high potential The overall sensors industry approaches a $65 Billion market, in 2012, according to Frost & Sullivan. In 2012, the building automation sector accounted for around 2.7% of the total, representing about $1.75 Billion. High Technology Development in APAC Major technological development is seen in the APAC region, which caters to global market. There is a high potential for applications in this region owing to the increased pace of industrialization. Growth of large retail malls, high growth of the building industry, and increased penetration of the building automation systems drives the trend. D4FE-TI 3
  4. 4. Key Findings (continued) Major Assignees located in APAC Region The majority of the top assignees are located in the APAC region. The number of patents related to sensors for building applications have more or less followed a rising trend over the last decade Government Initiatives driving research A number of EU funded projects are being undertaken including public-private projects. For instance the TIBUCON project constitutes organizations from multiple countries in the EU. Applicable for Multiple Applications Sensors are targeted to enable cost savings by controlling the energy consumption of systems based on real time demand. Sensors are vital for enhancing building energy efficiency by monitoring key environmental variables, such as temperature, humidity, differential pressure/air flow, carbon dioxide or volatile organic compounds, lighting conditions or human presence. Moreover. Lux sensors can turn lights on or off, depending on the amount of daylight in a n area. D4FE-TI 4
  5. 5. Key Findings (continued) Impact on Key Megatrends Sensors have major impact on Mega trends such as Urbanization, Innovation to Zero and ‘Smart is the New Green’. Increased opportunities with ICT The cloud can serve as a platform for data collection, storage and analysis of information generated by the sensors. Sensors can be integrated with other technologies, thus opening up opportunities for product development and applications. Robust standards can promote adoption The proliferation of standards (rather than the use of proprietary solutions) pertaining to sensors for energy efficient buildings, including low-power wireless sensors and for wireless solutions that include energy harvesters would further boost implementation of sensors for energy efficient buildings. D4FE-TI 5
  6. 6. Significance Overview Technology Snapshot With the growing interest towards improving energy conservation and reducing the CO2 emission in the environment, a lot of research is being carried out in the area of energy efficient buildings, as buildings are considered to be one of the major sources, and a growing source, of CO2 emission and energy consumption. With the intervention of smart sensors and actuators, the construction of green buildings has become much easier as they help a great deal in reducing the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Thus equipping buildings with motion sensors, air quality sensors, etc is observed to be the recent trend in construction sector. 3 2 1 4 3.5 5 0 Technology Maturity Energy utilized by the building sector accounts for about 40 percent of the total electricity in US, as noted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings (August 2010). It was also noted that U.S. buildings currently contribute 8 percent of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, the building sector is responsible for 35-45 percent of total energy consumption. The statistics show the deep necessity to construct green buildings and save energy. Energy efficient buildings serve all the purposes a man needs by consuming least amounts of energy. Hence these have become increasingly popular in the recent past. 3 2 1 4 Impact 2.0 With the deep awareness about energy deficiency in the world, there has already been a significant improvement in the adaptation of energy efficient services such as green buildings. Sensors enable demand based on supply of lighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning which results in energy savings by turning off devices when not required. D4FE-TI 0 5 Technology Adoption 6
  7. 7. Technology Capability Occupancy Sensors/Motion Detector Technology Description Vision Based These systems use an image sensor to capture images which are analyzed to determine the presence of people. Vision-based systems can detect and count the number of people in an area, areas that are unoccupied, and can have a larger range than conventional occupancy sensors Ultrasonic Ultrasonic sensors emit an inaudible high frequency tone. Like sonar, the tone bounces off the objects in the room and returns to the sensor. If there is motion, the acoustical response changes and occupancy is sensed. Passive Infrared PIR sensors sense infra-red heat radiated from the human body (10 micron wave lengths). Because there can be other sources of heat at the same temperature, the sensors respond to changes in position of the source of heat. Due to their physical properties, pyroelectric sensors ca n only detect motion. Thermopile sensors are able to detect the presence of stationary individuals by detecting body heat. And, therefore, can be used to automatically switch off unnecessary air conditioning or lighting when people are present but not moving. Microwave Microwave sensors emit electromagnetic waves and detect their reflection or echo to determine occupancy Sensor Fusion Impact over next 5 Years Combination of technologies such as Ultrasonic and PIR, or PIR and Microwave, etc The most common types of occupancy sensors use PIR or Ultrasonic technologies. For better accuracy, a combination of these technologies is used. Occupancy sensors are mainly motion/human activity detectors that determine human motion to detect presence or absence of occupants. Vision based occupancy detection are not motion detectors but rely on software to determine human beings from image processing. Microwave technology is also being explored and implemented for occupancy detection. D4FE-TI 7
  8. 8. Breadth of Applications Based on Building Type Application by Building Types Residential Buildings Public Places Shopping Malls Office Buildings Residential buildings can implement sensor solutions to gain savings by having sensors/controllers for individual rooms. And by more precisely regulating temperarture. Lighting and window shade controlling also has key potential in this area Public places, such as large auditoriums, stadiums, sch ools, movie theaters, underground railway stations, etc will benefit from demand controlled ventilation and lighting control. In places like shopping malls, demand based ventilation can enable mall authorities to generate savings as well as ensure comfort levels for end users. This is because the footfall generally varies throughout the day Sensors can enable significant savings for companies as one of the major expenses in running an office is electricity consumption. A lot of waste can be curbed by installing occupancy based lighting and demand based ventilation systems. Impact over next 7 Years 3 2 1 1 4 5 D4FE-TI 1 4 0 1 4 0 4 4.5 4.0 5 3 2 3 2 3.5 2.0 0 3 2 5 5 0 8
  9. 9. Breadth of Applications Specific Applications in Building Automation • HVAC control implements sensor solutions to provide real time information about various parameters, as well as occupancy information. The inputs lead to the system providing optimum comfort level to users and facilitating the health of occupants. Moreover, it leads to energy savings by switching off or controlling the device when not required HVAC Lighting Control • Light Intensity sensors and occupancy sensors are the primary sensors that are used in lighting control. Based on occupancy lighting is switched on or off to enable energy savings. By gauging the ambient light in a room lights can be controlled. Air Quality Monitoring Breadth of Application Automatic Doors Fire / Smoke Alarm Window Shade Control D4FE-TI • Air quality monitoring leads to a healthier environment for people. Toxic gases can be detected by the sensors in an indoor environment as well as volatile organic compounds that can affect the health of occupants. CO2 monitoring facilities demand controlled ventilation • Automatic doors are predominantly employed in hotels and offices where doors open when a person approaches it. Automatic doors employ motion sensing technologies to determine human approach. • Smoke alarms have been an integral part of buildings and residences. Carbon monoxide sensors are used in residences and such buildings as parking garages. A lack of false alarms are vital in this field. Temperature and gas sensors are employed to detect fires and trigger automatic systems for fire control • Sensors that detect ambient light intensity can be used to control window shades during daytime in the presence of bright sunlight 9
  10. 10. Convergence Scenario ICT Context Aware Mobility Flexible Electronics Big data Analysis Energy Harvesting Surveillance Systems MEMS 2018 2017 2016 Alarm System Wireless Networks Nanotechnology Graphene Technology Cloud Computing 2015 2014 2013 Sensors in Building Applications 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Sensors for energy efficient buildings have the potential to converge with various technologies, predominantly from the microelectronics, Information and Communication Technology, and nanotechnology Domains D4FE-TI 10
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