Great Opportunities for Lightweight Solutions
 

Great Opportunities for Lightweight Solutions

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Lightweight solutions applied to the Automotive industry present great opportunities for business growth. Lightweighting is becoming more important with the development of electric vehicles. ...

Lightweight solutions applied to the Automotive industry present great opportunities for business growth. Lightweighting is becoming more important with the development of electric vehicles. Legislation and fuel efficiency are the main drivers.

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  • High sale of SUVs and big sedans has put the American average vehicle weight higher than that of the European. European have more experience in manufacturing fuel-efficient vehicles as they need to comply with the fuel economy standards and emission regulation. American OEMs, for whom stringent fuel economy standards have just been introduced, will find it more challenging to shift from larger gas guzzlers to fuel sippers and to convince the customers to buy smaller cars.
  • Bantam Weight Vehicles weighing less than 1000 kg. The vehicle models have reached optimum weight. Weight reduction will be minimum and level of cost affordability will be the key question. Changing vehicle dimensions, use of High Strength Steel and functional/modular integration are the key trends to be followed. Vehicle weight reduction will show a significant improvement in CO2 emission reduction. Welter Weight Vehicles weighing between 1001 – 1350. Further weight reduction of 4-8% will have a positive impact on CO2 emission reduction. Vehicles in this weight category represent more than 50% of sale in Europe OEMs are keen to reduce weight as it aid to achieve the fleet average for CO2 emission. Use of HSS, aluminium, function/modudar integration and design optimisation are the key trends for weigh reduction Cruiser Weight Vehicles weighing between 1351 to 1800 More opportunity for weight reduction and OEMs like Daimler, BMW in this weight category are under pressure to reduce weight in the respective models. Weight reduction will be the key component in the effort to reduce CO2 emission. Use of HSS, Aluminium, magnesium and carbon fibre will be eminent due to the affordability factor Heavy Weight Vehicles weighing 1801 and above More opportunity for weight reduction OEMs can afford to use more exotic materials like magnesium, composites, carbon fibres. Weight reduction will be mainly used to accommodate the weight of additional systems. Though there will be significant impact on CO2 emission reduction, the additional systems added will nullify the same.

Great Opportunities for Lightweight Solutions Great Opportunities for Lightweight Solutions Presentation Transcript

  • Automotive Lightweight Materials 360 Degree View
  • Focus Points
    • Introduction to Mega Trends
    • The Importance of Lightweighting Vehicles
    • Market Challenges
    • How Will it be Achieved
    • Impact on the Chemical Industry
    • Opportunities and Things to Consider
  • Mega Trends Create Opportunities and Threats for Chemicals and Materials Primary research through the global value chain, technology and legislation drivers, qualitative and quantitative analysis Drive to lower CO 2 emissions Urbanisation Globalisation Growth in electric vehicles New OEMs emerging Smaller, lighter, greener vehicles High speed rail 50% of automobile sales from BRIC Opportunities for: Polymers Battery materials and chemicals Green fuels and lubricants Advanced adhesives Threats to: Metals Metal treatment & coating Glass Additives for fossil fuels Mega Trends Transportation Trends Impact for Chemicals and Materials Mega Trends Transportation Trends Impact for Chemicals and Materials
    • Drive to lower CO 2 emissions
    • Urbanisation
    • Globalisation
    • Growth in electric vehicles
    • New OEMs emerging
    • Smaller, lighter, greener vehicles
    • High speed rail
    • 50% of automobile sales from BRIC
    • Opportunities for:
    • Polymers
    • Battery materials and chemicals
    • Green fuels and lubricants
    • Advanced adhesives
    • Threats to:
    • Metals
    • Metal treatment & coating
    • Glass
    • Additives for fossil fuels
  • Lightweight Design is the Solution to Address Many Mega Trends I mprove fuel economy Several trends mentioned above are achievable through lightweight vehicle construction. As a result, global automotive OEMs are in the process of downsizing their vehicle weight by using alternative (lightweight) materials in their vehicle construction. Source : Frost & Sullivan ...... Lower CO 2 emissions Bio-based materials NVH isolation Enhance vehicle safety Increase recycling and recyclability Automotive Mega Trends
  • Objectives of Lightweighting Primary objectives of vehicle weight reduction Secondary objectives of vehicle weight reduction Increasing Fuel Economy Reducing CO2 Emissions Improved Vehicle Dynamics Improved Braking
  • Vehicle Weight Reduction - An Overview Increase in small car demand to drive down average vehicle weight, with a reduction of 8 to 15kg year on year in Europe OEM Weight Reduction Strategies: Vehicle Weight Reduction Forecasts (Europe, The United States), 2002-2015 Weight (in kg) Year 1,250 1815 CAGR CAGR Vehicle Segments Weight in kg Unit Volumes in Million 1730 1200 USA Europe (0.79) % + (0.68%) + Vehicle Segments Weight in kg Unit Volumes in Million Key: Small Low Medium High Medium Executive Super Luxury Sports MPV SUV Unit Volumes Basic
  • Legislation is also a Driver for Lightweighting
    • CO 2 emission regulation and the CAFE regulation are the key drivers of weight reduction.
    • According to the Kyoto protocol, the most industrialised countries have to achieve an emission reduction of 5.2 per cent, as compared against the level in 1990, between 2008 and 2012.
    Japanese weight class fuel economy standards CO 2 Emission regulation
    • US – Corporate Average Fuel Economy
    • California – Greenhouse gas emission regulation
    China’s automotive fuel economy standards Taiwan’s fuel economy standards South Korea’s Average Fuel Economy Standards Australian average fuel consumption and FCAI targets Source: Frost & Sullivan Source: Frost & Sullivan Region Type Measure Structure Fuel mpg Vehicle-type based CO 2 g/km Vehicle-segment based Fuel km/L Vehicle-weight based Fuel L/100-km Vehicle-weight based Fuel L/100-km ~ Fuel L/100-km Vehicle-engine size based Fuel L/100-km Vehicle-engine size based China USA Europe Japan Australia South Korea Taiwan
  • Vehicle Weight Classification (Europe) More weight reduction opportunity in welter segment to manage the fleet CO2 average Source: Frost & Sullivan Fiat New Panda Fiat 500 Ford Fiesta Renault Clio Peugeot 206/207/208 Volkswagen Golf Ford Focus Toyota Prius Nissan Qashqai BMW 3 Series Mercedes-Benz E-Class BMW 5 Series Audi Q5 BMW X3 BMW 7 Series Mercedes-Benz S-Class Volkswagen Touareg Bantam Weight Cruiser Weight Heavy Weight Welter Weight Co2 Target of 130 g/km CO2 emissions (in g/km) * Size of the bubble – Sales Volume 2009 Weight in kg
  • Vehicle Weight Band - The United States: Reduction in vehicle weight in the Welter and the Cruiser segments to boost the fleet average mpg of CAFE Smart fortwo Toyota Yaris Toyota Corolla Toyota Prius Honda Civic Hybrid Toyota Camry Chevrolet HHR Ford Mustang VW Jetta Nissan Altima Hybrid Toyota Camry Hybrid BMW 3 Series Mercedes-Benz C Class Toyota Highlander Dodge Charger Dodge Caravan Chevrolet Trailblazer Ford Explorer Honda Odyssey Chevrolet Tahoe Ford Expedition Chevrolet Suburban Bantam Weight Cruiser Weight Heavy Weight Welter Weight Fuel Consumption (mpg) CAFE target of 35.5 to 39.0 mpg
    • Size of the bubble – Sales Volume 2010
    • # Weight band labels are used only for the reference purpose
    More opportunity for weight reduction and the OEMs in this weight category are under pressure to reduce mass in their respective models. The United States will witness launch of more super-mini models in the Bantam weight band Source: Frost & Sullivan Honda Civic Honda Accord Weight (kg) USA
  • Legislation Incompatibility Makes Using Lightweight Materials Difficult
    • End-of-life Regulation
    • EU’s End-of-life Vehicles Directive (2000/53/EC) places a responsibility on the vehicle manufacturers to eliminate certain heavy metals and use only recyclable materials.
    • Approximately 85 per cent of the material in the end-of-life vehicles should be recyclable by 2015.
    • This leaves the vehicle manufacturers with strict targets for the type of materials that can be used in the vehicle.
    • European Union – CO 2 regulation
    • The European Parliament mandates car manufacturers to cut car emissions from the current level of 160 g/km of CO 2 to 130 g/km by 2012-2015.
    • OEMS are required to assure that 65 per cent of the newly registered cars have an average emission level of 130 g/km by 2012, 75 per cent by 2013, 80 per cent by 2014 and finally, 100 per cent by 2015.
    • OEMs exceeding the limits will be penalised by paying an incremental premium for each kilometre driven.
    EOL recycling prevents thermoset composite use and also hinders the introduction of new innovative plastics. Established commodity plastics gain however due to established recycling infrastructure
  • Methods of Weight Reduction Low COST INCREASE WEIGHT REDUCTION High Low High Long Term Short Term Medium Medium Medium Term TIME PERIOD OLED Design optimization and functional integration Alternate lightweight material New design Development of new systems requires extensive R&D and a complete rethinking of design elements to tailor the system to be region specific. This is applicable to both existing and new vehicles. A few examples are the new lightweight vehicle concept T25 by Gordon Murray Design Limited, and the redesigning of the suspension in Mazda 2 by shortening the training are on the rear axle. This is expected to be done on a long-term basis when modelling a new generation vehicle. In certain systems, replacing heavy material with lighter alternatives will reduce weight, but the cost may increase depending on the type of material selected. Material selection is based on the cost affordability factor for each vehicle model/segment. For example, extensive aluminium roof panels were used on steel BIW in the 2009 BMW 7 Series. Elimination/redesign of certain components that are not vital to the performance of a low cost system helps in weight reduction, for example, removal of brake booster in Tata Nano. Reduction in part count in exhaust offered weight reduction and space optimisation in Mazda 2. lightweighting Mega Trend Effect on Chemicals and Materials Demand: OEM‘s Weight Reduction Methods (World), 2009-2016 Source: Frost & Sullivan
  • Vehicle Weight Reduction Has Many Approaches Increase in vehicle dimension–longer, wider and taller cars Increase in vehicle strength stiffness –for improved Noice, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) and handling Adding comfort systems such as air conditioning and seats Adding special features like infotainment and other electrical systems Adding occupant safety systems such as airbags and pre-tensioners Adding performance improvement systems for better acceleration, handling and braking Adding emission treatment systems Use of High Strength Steel (HSS) and Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) Use of aluminium* Use of magnesium, plastics and composites* Changing vehicle dimension as in the Mazda 2 Redesign of certain systems in a car such as the suspension system in Mazda 2 Downsizing of engine by 30% and adding turbo-chargers Replacing hydraulic power steering with electric power steering 30% 20% 15% 15% 12% 5% 5% (21)% (33)% (8)% (4)% (20)% (10)% (4)% 750 kg 1500 kg 1400 kg Weight Increase over a period of time Weight decrease Weight (kg) Potential areas of weight reduction * Applicable on different systems based on the cost feasibility. (Systems: Powertrain, chassis, body, interiors and others) The percentage mentioned are the fractions of the total weight reduced (100kg). The percentage mentioned are the fractions of the total weight increase(750kg). 1970 2000 2011 Year Note: All figures are rounded; the base year is 2009. Source: Frost & Sullivan ~ 750 kg + ~ (100) kg -
  • Weight Reduction Techniques
    • Unibody design and BIW
      • 1.7 kg reduction by use of high-strength steel and new structural adhesives
    • Downsizing and Turbocharging
      • Engine downsizing of 30 per cent reduces 10-20 per cent of the total weight of the car and 10-20 per cent CO 2 emissions.
      • For example, Ford’s replacement of its V8 engine with V6 engine and 6 cylinder with 4 cylinder
    • Aluminium in rear suspension control arm
      • Offers up to 45 per cent weight reduction
    • High-strength steel in McPherson strut
      • 20 per cent reduction with structural components built using high-strength steel
      • 40 per cent reduction by use of hollow piston rods
    • Aluminium steering knuckles
      • Offers approximately 50 per cent weight reduction
    • Hollow seat frames and thin seat foams
      • Weight reduction of 4.9 kg in the 2008 Ford Focus by the use of hollow seat structure and lightweight foam
    Laminated glazing Thinner and stronger laminated glass windshield or windows, Approximately 10-12 per cent weight savings Lightweight cooling system Modular integration of radiator and cooling fan and modular integration of air conditioning and transmission coolers leads to approximately 1-5 kg weight reduction.
    • Electric power steering
      • Removal of mechanical components
      • Use of aluminium and magnesium in the steering components
      • Weight savings of approximately4-5 kg
    • Adopting hydro-forming technology on chassis frame
      • Offers 20 per cent weight reduction
    • Aluminium brake callipers
      • Replacement of steel by aluminium
      • Weight reduction by 3.4 kg
      • Used in Ford Focus
    Key Source: Frost & Sullivan Aluminium door modules, hood and fenders
    • Aluminium wheel
      • Offers 10 kg of reduction
      • Use of aluminium wheels by two-thirds of Ford’s fleet
    Powertrain Chassis Interior and Exterior
  • Key Weight Reduction Techniques vs. Cost Difference: Volume manufacturers to increasingly adopt the use of aluminium in the long run Low Medium High Low (0-20%) Medium (20%-40%) High (More than 40%) Aluminium Front wishbone Substituting mono-tube for twin-tube shocks Aluminium Steering Knuckles Aluminium Rear Suspension Cross member Aluminium Rear Suspension Control Arm Aluminium Brake Callipers Seats hollow frame structure Uni Body design Hydro-forming technology on chassis frame McPherson strut – Use of high-strength steels and assembled piston rods HSS Suspension Spring Engine downsizing by 30% and turbo-charging Engine downsizing by 30% Adopted in Volume Segment Adopted in Lower-Medium Segment Onwards High
    • Engine downsizing is a cost affordable solution to be adopted across all vehicle segments.
    • It offers both weight reduction and direct CO 2 emission reduction.
    • OEMs will adopt turbo charging to maintain/increase the engine performance
    • These are the key techniques used by the OEMs in the volume segment vehicles
    • These techniques which are currently employed in lower-medium segment ownwards will be implemented in the volume segment vehicles on a long run.
    Medium (20%-40%) (0-40%) (0-20%) (20%-40%) More than 40% Source: Frost & Sullivan Cost Increase Cost Reduction Cost Suspension Steering Braking Powertrain Interiors Body and Frame Key: Weight Reduction
  • Key OEM’s Material Preference – Some Are More Forward Thinking Than Others High level of uncertainty and risk High Exotic Material Use Low level of uncertainty and risk Low Exotic Material Use OEMs focused on using steel (inc. some high strength steel) have a low level of uncertainty and risk in their strategy Audi, amongst the more mature users of exotic materials leading the way for their use of Aluminium. At the same time they have a high level of expertise in material use and development, therefore has a relatively low level of uncertainty and risk Seeking advancements in steels (such as Twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel and Boron Steel) but needs to be verified TH!NK already an advanced user of Aluminium and for future models are likely to move to less exotic materials Mercedes-Benz seeking design advantages through exotic material use (including aluminium and magnesium) Higher exotic material use repositioning expected in short-term Lower exotic material use repositioning expected in short-term Based on: Combined feedback form respondents More focus on HSS and AHSS
  • Decision Making Structure for Weight Reduction Lightweighting Mega Trend Effect on Chemicals and Materials Demand: OEM Weight Reduction Organization Analysis, (World), 2009 Product Development Development Finance Production Advanced Engineering Head of Purchasing, Body Exterior Purchasing and Supplier Network Chief Engineer Commodity/System/Product Engineer – Body Engineering Vehicle Engineering Manager Weight Reduction Manager Purchasing Manager, Body Engineering Chairman – Board of Management Finance Other Departments Develops the concept based on inputs from the market/technology research team Takes the decision on whether to go ahead with the concept Takes ownership of the whole product development Takes the responsibility to balance all attributes of the product Decides on the total weight of the vehicle and sets weight targets for individual systems/components Key Decision maker for supplier section Takes the responsibility of developing individual systems/components by complying to specified targets. Source : Frost & Sullivan Key influencers for supplier section
  • “ Exotic” Material Breakdown Based on Volumes Introduction to the Market: Materials Breakdown based on Volumes (World), 2010 Note: All figures are rounded; the base year is 2010. Source: Frost & Sullivan Total Volumes: 15,896.5 Kilo Tonnes
  • AHSS will be the Clear Winner in the Exotic Materials Market Materials Breakdown based on Volumes (World), 2010 Materials Breakdown based on Volumes (World), 2017
    • All “exotic” materials will grow at the expense of traditional steel
    • AHSS will be favoured compared to other materials however, as it uses existing plant infrastructure, performance characteristics are well known allowing easier and cheaper design, low cost which fits well with the volume models
    • Urban (EV) vehicles with slower speeds could potentially use different chassis materials and change the market considerably – Carbon fibre?
  • Materials will Show a Cascade Effect Lighter Versions of Steel (HSS, AHSS, UHSS) will remain the most preferred material by the volume manufacturers Structural Development Low High 70-80% use of HSS 55-20% HSS + 10-15% UHSS HSS, mainly UHHS and Aluminium (Fiat uses Magnesium) HSS, Aluminium, AHSS Ford Galaxy & Ford S-MAX, VW Touareg, Fiat Croma 12% Hot-formed UHSS 18%UHSS 32-60% HSS Hybrid structure – Steel and Aluminium HSS, UHHS, AHSS and Aluminium Space Frames 60% is Aluminim, 30% Steel and use of magnesium, Carbon Fibre Audi TT, Mercedes S-Class Audi Q5, A6, Mercedes C-Class Audi Q7, Q6, Mercedes E-Class Audi A3, A4, Mercedes A-Class European Volume OEMs Ford Ka, VW Polo, Fiat Panda Ford Focus, VW Golf, Fiat 500 Ford Fiesta, VW Passat, Fiat Linea Ford Mondeo, VW Eos European Premium OEMs
  • Plastics in Automotive Plastics for Automotive Industry: List of Applications (World), 2009 Exterior Interior Under-the-hood
    • Bumpers
    • Bumper Spoilers
    • Roof/boot Spoilers
    • Lateral Sidings
    • Rocker Panels
    • Wheel Arch Liners
    • Windshield
    • Mirror Housing
    • Head Light/Rear Light
    • Tailgate
    • Dashboard
    • Dashboard Carriers
    • Pillar Claddings
    • Door Pockets
    • Door Panels
    • Consoles
    • Chairs
    • HVAC
    • Batteries
    • Battery Covers
    • Electronics Housing
    • Air Ducts
    • Splash Shields
    • Pressure Vessels
    • Reservoirs
    • Engine Covers
    Part Plastic Types Weight in Average Vehicle (kg) Bumpers PP, ABS, PC 12 Seats PUR, PP, PVC, ABS, PA 14 Dashboard PP, ABS, PA, PC, PE 15 Fuel Systems PE, POM, PA, PP 7 Body (including body panel) PP, PPE, UP 6 Under - bonnet Component PA, PP, PBT 9 Interior Trims PP, ABS, PET, POM, PVC 20 Electrical Components PP, PE, PBT, PA, PVC 7 Exterior Trim ABS, PA, PBT, ASA, PP 5 Lighting PP, PC, ABS, PMMA, UP 5 Upholstery PVC, PUR, PP, PE 8 Others PP, PE, PA 1
  • Polypropylene Dominates the Plastics Market and Will Continue to do so Over Next 10 Years Note: All figures are rounded; the base year is 2009. Source: Frost & Sullivan Plastics for Automotive Market: Volume Break-up by Polymer Type (World), 2009 Total Market Volume: 6,060 Kilo Tons
    • Polypropylene (PP) is the most preferred plastic type used in both interior and exterior applications of passenger cars, accounting for 45.5 per cent of the total volume of plastics used in automotive applications in 2009.
    • Seating is the largest application of Polyurethane (PU) in passenger vehicles, and its monopoly in this market will continue unabated, although some amounts of PP foams are likely to make some inroads into this segment.
    • Polyamides are the third largest individual plastic type in the passenger vehicles market largely due to their under-the-hood applications, including fuel systems.
    • Thermosetting composites are fast gaining grounds in several exterior automotive applications and are expected to experience a higher growth rate during the forecast period.
  • Volume Forecasts: Polypropylene The global volume for polypropylene in automotive applications in 2009 was 2,760.0 kilo tonnes. The market is likely to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.5 per cent from 2009 to 2016. Plastics for Automotive Market: PP Volume Forecasts (World), 2006-2016 Note: All values are rounded; the base year is 2009. Source: Frost & Sullivan Plastics for Automotive Market: PP Volume Forecasts (World), 2006-2016 Year Volumes (Kilo Tonnes) Volume Growth Rate (%) 2006 2,848.6 -- 2007 2,980.0 4.6 2008 2,970.0 (0.3) 2009 2,760.0 (7.1) 2010 3,140.0 13.8 2011 3,420.0 8.9 2012 3,830.0 12.0 2013 4,120.0 7.6 2014 4,480.0 8.7 2015 4,790.0 6.9 2016 4,880.0 1.9 Compound Annual Growth Rate (2009-2016): 8.5%
  • Under the Hood Plastics at risk by Electric Vehicle Development Note: All figures are rounded; the base year is 2009. Source: Frost & Sullivan Others include Oil filter modules, oil pan modules, battery trays and so on Plastics for Automotive Market: Volume Break-up by Under-the-hood Application (World), 2009 Total Market Volume: 590 Kilo Tonnes
  • Body panels are the Next Big Market for Plastics Dimensional stability and coating issues are limiting the market currently Need for better coating characteristics Plastic panels perform well “ The finish on our Fiat 500 is actually better than on our Ferraris. One is steel the other is composite. We know how to coat steel. We need help with coating other materials” - Fiat “ The expansion coefficients are different and we can’t make the joining tolerances. Also we struggle to predict how the material will behave during design phase” - GM “ We like plastic panels because of the flexibility. With metal if you bang it you get a ding. With plastic you don’t. That has cost advantages during manufacturer and also for the customer on the road” - Ford Dimensional stability of the panels is a major challenge
  • End Users have a Poor Opinion of Plastics for Exterior Panel s The perception of plastics as a low grade material needs addressing Q14: Please rank the materials you would expect to be the best for manufacturing exterior panels. (Where “1” is best, a #2 ranking is second best, and a “3” ranking is the third rank) Key Take Away: Carbon fiber and metals are perceived as the best materials for use in the exterior panels, chosen as number-one by approximately one-third of vehicle owners. "Eco” materials, as well as plastics, definitely are not perfect for such application in the opinion of the majority. Source: Frost & Sullivan
  • Evaluation of the Reinforcing Fibers to Perform in the Different Vehicle Aspects Key Take Away: Fiberglass and carbon fibers have very similar profiles. Both are rated high for safety / structural integrity, reliability, and aesthetics, while relatively low for environmental friendliness. Natural fibers, on the other hand, obtained higher ratings for being environmentally friendly, but relatively low on all other dimensions. 7 = I would expect this material to perform to the highest standards 1 = I would not expect this material to perform well at all Q7: Please rate how well you would expect the following reinforcing fibers to perform when used in the following vehicle aspects… Source: Frost & Sullivan
  • Green Legislation is Affecting Materials Choice End of life already restrains thermoset uptake
    • OEMs fear they will ultimately have to bear the cost and responsibility of recycling vehicles at end of life
    • Plastics recycling infrastructure needs improving
    • A lot of anger from OEMs about lack of action by plastics manufacturers
    • Steel industry is more advanced
    Which Material? Cost Weight Performance Others Legislation compliance Green image Raw material cost End of life cost Aesthetics Installed infrastructure Impact resistance Life cycle analysis is believed to be the next regulatory progression and it is having an effect on choices for lightweight materials Strength Recycling issues affect half of underlying decision making criteria
  • Conclusions
    • Lightweighting is a trend that is going to stretch long into the future
    • Legislation and fuel efficiency are the main drivers
    • Many strategies to lightweight vehicles
    • The volume car sector should be the focus for lightweight solutions
    • Lightweighting more important with the development of electric vehicles
    • Lightweight solutions present great opportunities for business growth
    • Body panels will be the highest growth market
    • Recycling and end of life are challenges that need to be addressed
    • Ultimately the environmental aspect of a material is very important
  • Chemicals and Materials in Transportation Platform 2011 Key Themes Green fuels and lubricants Electric vehicles and batteries Recycling / end of life lightweighting Emerging Markets Electric Vehicle Materials & Batteries Fuels & Lubricants Green Material Concepts Lightweighting Coatings & Adhesives Emerging Markets Emerging Markets
  • For Additional Information Chiara Carella Head of Communications +44 (0) 2073438314 [email_address]