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Health Information Technologies - Market Trends

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  • Drivers1) Operational Efficiency, Reducing Costs- Widespread adoption of Clinical Applications, EMR. Leading markets include Singapore, Australia, Taiwan, S.korea2) Consumer Demand- Are more savvy, increased internet penetration- china largest users Strong demand for healthcare services- IT has come into the core role of “essential” services and maximiseChallengesInteroperability- Most of cUS$tomers have disparate IT platforms. Integration- Connectivity issues between departments especially the pathology dept to obtain real time resultsSkilled Resources- CME programs need to being designed especially for allied staff who may not be IT savvyTake-AwaysHong Kong has US$$ 400 Mil budget for EMR implementation and Malaysia has launched..XXThe human factor, is a key impediment in HIT adoption- Change Management Programs are extremely essentialHongkong and Malaysia are the two countries to watch out in terms of the new health initiatives during 2010-2012

Transcript

  • 1. HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
    Market Overview and Trends
    Pawel Suwinski
    2nd Annual Asia EHR Conference
    2010, Singapore
  • 2. EMR/EHR Emotional Journey
    INFATUATION
    For technologies to be used meaningfully and be accepted they need to become invisible to the intended end-user and work-flow processes.
    FRUSTRATION
    PHYSICAL JOY
    What matters most is the care process and the other person that needs medical attention; anything else is just facilitation.
  • 3. HIT ADOPTION AND GROWTH DRIVERS
  • 4. HIT Adoption and Growth Drivers
    HIT will experience healthy growth in the next 3 years. This high growth path will be possible thanks to 3 main factors
    Innovations
    Government Spending
    Healthcare Demand
    Innovations play a crucial role in blending technologies into healthcare processes. They also are drivers of healthcare services transformation.
    Most regional governments recognised the importance of HIT and are rolling out national programs promoting the adoption of HIT, in most cases as EHR.
    Healthcare Demand will be constantly on the rise as a result of Epidemiological, Demographic, and Life-Style changes.
  • 5. Innovations – The Agent For Change
    Knowledge Management
    Flexible Architecture
    Cloud Computing
    Clinical & Business Intelligence & AI
    Social Media
    SMARTER HESLTHCARE
    Health2.0
    Mobility
    Wireless Solutions
    AI
    Mobile Devices &
    Robotics
    Virtual Reality
    Preventive, Proactive, Personalised, Participatory
    5
  • 6. Global Trends on Governments HIT/HER Initiatives
    6
    South Korea
    USD 46 million– National Healthcare Information Infrastructure Plan to include development of EHR and interoperability standards (2007 to 2010)
    China
    USD 1.8 billion of total HIT investment pledged. Government published EHR policy in 2009.
    EHR projects are now expanded to each province
    Europe
    United Kingdom : USD 12 billion – The National Programme for IT (NPfIT) from 2002 for 8 to 10 years
    Denmark – National EHR since 2006
    France –EHR mandatory by 2008
    The Netherlands – 88 percent of GPs has an EHR
    Sweden – Developing National EHR
    Germany – E-Health card since January 2007
    Canada
    USD 1.2 billion – to set up National EHR
    Japan
    In 2001, “Grand
    Design for the Development of Information Systems in the Health care and Medical Fields”, targeting for EHR to at least 60 % of Japan's hospitals with 400 or more beds by
    2006. (Actual 10% in 2010)
    Hong Kong
    USD 184 million – E-Health Programme. The first phase of the project is budgeted at USD 98m from 2010 to 2014. E-Health Record Office to be established with total recurrent spending of about USD 45m for the years 2010 to 2012.
    US
    USD 19 billion– Meaningful Use of EHR.
    Thailand
    No legislation governing the use of EMR/EHR in the country. Less than 50% EHR utilization, mostly in public health institutions.
    USD 140 million – To revolutionize public hospital information system
    Malaysia
    USD 27 million – Telehealth Programme: started 1997 . Halted in 2003 and reactivated in 2007. National roll-out by 2020.
    Singapore
    USD 140 million - National Electronic Health Record (NEHR) project / 10 yrs
    Australia
    USD 470 million – Under NEHTA guidance to develop Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record.
  • 7. Despite HIT Shortcomings Sustained and Long Term Demand for Healthcare Services will support HIT Growth
    7
    Demand Drivers
    Increased Supply of
    HIT
    Increased Demand for Healthcare Services
    Increased Supply of
    Healthcare Services
  • 8. CHALLENGES TO HIT ADOPTION
    8
  • 9. Acceptance of End User is the Key to HIT Implementation and Adoption Success
    The main challenge in HIT adoption is the resistance of end users due to lack of technological fit into operational processes.
    TAM2
    Subjective Norm
    Image
    Perceived Usefulness
    Job Relevance
    Actual Use
    Behavioral Intention to Use
    Output Quality
    Perceived Ease of Use
    Results Demonstrability
    This, on the other hand, is caused by the complexity of business processes.
    And lastly, the beneficiaries of healthcare services still exert weak demand for the use of computerised technologies by the healthcare providers.
    Holden J. Richard, Karsh BenTzion. The Technology Acceptance Model: Its past and its future in health care,. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 2010; 43:59-172.
  • 10. Technology Must Be Invisible to the End User
    Despite Healthcare Delivery Industry having much to gain from Information and Communication Technologies, it is the slowest from all industries in the adoption. There are many reasons for IT failures in healthcare environment, but the single most important cause is the HIT capability mismatch to address work processes within healthcare service organisation.
    Until today, for more than 20 years ICT and healthcare service organisations have been locked in a Love-&-Hate affair with neither being able the break the stalemate. It could be down to that we spent too much time on design and implementation and not on how end user react to already implemented HIT solutions.
    HIT investment will only be successful if the fit between IT and clinical processes will be close to matching, which will be reflected by the acceptance or rejection of end users.
    In the short history of HIT the emergence of new, disruptive technologies play a crucial role in closing the capability gap and gaining more acceptance from the main users.
    The latest innovations are changing not only how the medical care is organised, practiced and delivered but are also redefining host of other qualities including changing patient-physician model and facilitating the emergence of new industry players within the value chain.
  • 11. Evolution of Healthcare Information Technologies
    80’
    00’
    2010
    90’
    2015
    PMI
    EMR
    eHealth
    Smart
    eHealth
    Health
    Informatics
    Stand Alone Applications
    Stand Alone Applications
    Hospital Information
    System – Single EMR
    E-Health – Lifetime
    Health record
    Personalised E-Health
    Personalised Health Record
    Limited Functionality
    Extended Functionality
    Full Functionality
    Full Functionality, POC
    Full Functionality, Home
    Monitoring
    No interoperability
    Limited interoperability
    First Healthcare Standards
    Full interoperability within
    The same location
    Country and regional
    interoperability
    Full Interoperability
    Focused on Back-office
    Flow: Financial,
    Inventory & Patient
    Master Index
    Focused on Administrative
    Flow :ADT, Scheduling
    Pharmacy
    Focused on advanced
    Clinical Flow and
    Business Intelligence
    Systems
    Focused on Knowledge
    Management/ Complex
    BI and AI Systems
    Focused on integration of
    Administrative and Clinical
    Flows
    11
  • 12. Complex Environment of HIT
    Healthcare Information Technologies can be defined as any computer based products and services that are specifically designed and developed for Healthcare Industry. This broad classification includes infrastructure, software, devices, and services that are used by all the participants within the healthcare value chain. As we later will see, the major consumer of HIT are the healthcare services organisation – the care givers, and their will be our main focus when discussing the HIT.
    HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    Life Sciences
    Resource Management
    Patient related
    Financial
    Clinical
    GL
    AR
    AP
    Billing
    PO
    Third Party Payer
    Insurance
    Bio-Informatics
    Gene-Sequencing
    Gene-Analytics
    Library IS
    College IS
    Research IS
    ADT
    PMI
    EMR
    HER
    PHR
    Health Portal
    CIS
    Hospital Departmental Systems
    LIS
    RIS
    PACS
    Pharmacy
    Decision Support System
    Inventory
    HR
    Scheduling
    Facility Management
    Reporting
    Business Intelligence
  • 13. Collaboration and Sharing is the Key Function of Entire Healthcare Value Chain
    Financial and Billing Systems
    Resource Management Systems
    Clinical Systems
    Patient Management Systems
    Life Sciences Systems
  • 14. Industry Practice
    Characteristics
    Unmet Needs
    Met Needs
    Capability Gap
    Full capture. POC Capture/ Retrieval
    Non-disruptive to work processes/ Relevant Retrieval
    Large quantity of
    data/information
    Partial Capture/Store/Retrieval
    Sensitive Data/ Information
    Partial Security/ Confidentiality/ Privacy (PKI, Biometrics, SSL)
    Full Security/ Confidentiality/ Privacy
    Non-disruptive to work processes and lifestyle. Remote sensors and automated capture/ retrieval/ alerts
    Mobility
    Mobile Devices/ Wireless Connectivity
    Limited integration – not all processes automated. Long implementation times and high failure ratio. Limited customisability.
    Follow work processes : improve on but do not disrupt. Easy to implement and customize by the user.
    Complexity
    One lifelong health record collating all wellness and illness parameters.
    Limited Interoperability mostly at local level – EHR/PHR
    Collaboration
    Partial analytics (mostly non-clinical)
    Analytics that deliver accurate and relevant information at the POC. Non-disruptive to work processes.
    Mission Critical
    Capability Gap
  • 15. HIT Development/Adoption Cycle
    Source: Frost & Sullivan.
    Customer Satisfied
    The ICT has entered into Healthcare Delivery Industry with “big bang” of excitement .
    HIT Cycle
    Requirements fully Implemented
    Excitement
    Requirements not Implemented
    Disappointment Threshold
    With new innovations on the horizon, the credibility credit has been rebuilt. We might be looking upwards and finally climbing the slope.
    Decade later, the moods were running low as the technologies failed to meet the expectations. The ride has been continuously downwards.
    Customer Dissatisfied
    2010
    1980
    1990
    2000
    2020
    15
  • 16. MARKET OVERVIEW
    16
  • 17. Lifesciences & Healthcare IT, US$ Bn, 2009-2012
    Asia Pacific Life sciences and Health IT Market*
    Interoperability challenges hinder adoption
    Market Drivers
    • Strong and sustained demand for healthcare services
    • 18. Demand for higher quality of healthcare and access to information
    CAGR
    7%
    62.5
    58.4
    54.6
    50.6
    Market Restraints
    CAGR
    11.3%
    • Interoperability of discrete medical equipment
    • 19. Bandwidth
    • 20. Lack of skilled resources for implementation
    14.5%
    15.7%
    APAC Share
    *Healthcare IT includes: Software, Hardware, IT services and Lifesciences IT
    Note: All figures are rounded; the base year is 2009. Source: Frost and Sullivan
  • 21. Global Total HIT Market Size by HIT Sector
  • 22. Global Trends on Expenditure on HIT
    19
    • The delivery of care depends on information made available to both: the caregivers and executives. The more accurate and timely data the better decision-making processes, and therefore better operational strategies and clinical outcomes can be attained.
    • 23. The adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is essential for modern healthcare delivery systems to gain greater efficiency, reduce overall healthcare costs and improve patient safety.
    • 24. In recent years, the acquisition of computer technologies by healthcare organizations has increased substantially with the spending showing upward tendency placing the industry as one of the major consumer of ICT products and services.
    • 25. In 2009, the Global expenditure on Healthcare Licensed Applications by healthcare providers stood at USD 3Billion for North America, USD 1.9 Billion for Western Europe, and USD 0.8 Billion for Asia Pacific. All three regions will experience high growth rate (on average CAGR ~10%) due to increased demand for healthcare services.
    License Software Spent by Healthcare
    Providers in 2010 in USD Billion
    3.0
    USD 3 Billion
    1.9
    USD 1.9 Billion
    0.8
    0.8
    APAC:
    Europe:
    North America:
  • APAC License Software Market (TMP) By CountryUS $ (MM) and 4 Year CAGR (%)
    4 Year CAGR (%)
    Licensed Software Spend in US $ (MM)
    Japan, Australia and China are the biggest markets while China, Malaysia and Thailand presents the most significant market growth in APJ 2010 – 13.
  • 38. APACJapan, Australia, China, Korea, India, Malaysia, Thailand & Singapore
    • Key Countries Diving IT Spending
    • 39. Among the APAC countries, Japan, Australia, Korea and Singapore lead the region in technological advancement in HIS systems followed by Malaysia and Thailand and lastly by India and China
    • 40. Japan has the biggest market in the region (348.7 million in 2009) but is almost stagnant in terms of growth with only 2.87% CAGR
    • 41. Australia is the regions second biggest market (120.88 million in 2009) with 10.32% growth rate
    • 42. China, India, Thailand and Malaysia show double digit growth. In terms of market size, China leads the group followed by Malaysia, Thailand and India.
    • 43. Between Korea and Singapore, Korea has a bigger market size with 6.84% growth where as Singapore with a smaller market size with 9.31% growth.
    • 44. Key Drivers by Region
    • 45. Demographic Pressures - Rise in Chronic Diseases, Aging Population
    • 46. Medical Tourism
    • 47. Growth in Private Health Insurance
    • 48. Increase in Revenue for Private Hospitals leading to Focus on Organizational Performance and a Competitive Environment among Private Hospitals
    • 49. Interest and/or Lack thereof, of Government Initiatives
    • 50. Greater Per Capita Healthcare Spending
    • 51. Increase in Number of Internet Users
    • 52. Promotion of Telemedicine
    • 53. Encouraging Adoption of EMR and Move towards Centralized EHR’s
  • 22
    1
    5
    2
    3
    4
    1
    5
    2
    3
    4
    1
    5
    2
    3
    4
    1
    5
    2
    3
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    1
    5
    2
    3
    4
    1
    5
    2
    3
    4
    China will focus on improving the standard of its healthcare sector and government focus is key to realising the growth
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Denotes the expected market growth >>>>>>>>
    Denotes high CAGR (>15%)
    Denotes medium CAGR (10-15%)
    Denotes low CAGR (<10%)
  • 54. 23
    All countries – particularly China and India – will make significant progress in relation to HIT adoption over the next 10 years >> investments will be made
    Present and Future HIT Adoption Level
    Clinical Decision Support Systems
    Resource
    management
    Image management
    PHR
    EMR
    Financial management
    Patient management
    Patient Administration
    CIS
    EHR
    Integrated healthcare delivery
    Administrative IT solutions
    Clinical IT solutions
    • Japan represents the most mature and saturated market for HIT; however, it lacks interoperability between the sites (EHR). Presently, the government is focusing on facilitating the integrative efforts to provide seamless exchange layer for the EHR.
    7 – 12 years
    0 years
    • Singapore has already implemented EMR infrastructure in public and private sectors, and currently is focusing on providing collaborative platforms to link both into nationwide EHR. The small size of the market allows for faster progress toward EHR.
    5 – 10 years
    0 years
    • Most of India’s hospitals operate some kind of HIT; however, the full blown EMR/site is still 15 years away. Assuming that India’s economy remains strong and that the medical tourism trend remains, India may progress more quickly.
    0 years
    15 years
    20 years
    • South Korea is finalizing its deployment of EMR and will move very fast into interoperability phase to achieve nationwide EHR. The HIT market is mature but isolated due to cultural and language barriers.
    0 years
    8 – 16 years
    • China is in hot pursuit of the other APAC countries in terms of adoption of HIT. The large financial commitment from central government might be a factor to speed up the process.
    0 years
    10 years
    20 years
    30 years
    Source: F&S Research 2010
  • 55. INNOVATIONS
    TRANSFORMING HEALTHCARE DELIVERY THROUGH DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES
    24
  • 56. Extending Care Beyond Hospitals - Connected Healthcare
    Connected Healthcare is a care delivery model that uses technology enabled solutions to expand the care capabilities beyond healthcare institutions to natural human habitats.
    The main aim of Connected Healthcare is to maximize healthcare resources, increase preventive and predictive component of care with the expectation of keeping individuals as healthy as possible and less dependent on curative care.
    It works through deploying sensor – monitoring devices, data storage and analytics, and communication channels to healthcare providers for decision making process, care planning and delivery. It empowers the individuals to self manage medical needs, and provide cannels for more interactive communications with healthcare professionals.
    At present, It is directed at chronic diseases, aged population, and dependency. The scope, however, is rapidly expanding to include entire population to mange health rather than to monitor illness. Smart homes, the mush up of real estate and healthcare is a natural expansion of Connected Healthcare.
  • 57. Connected Healthcare – Uses and Benefits
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Products/Services
    Growth Potential
    • Telehealth
    • 58. Wired/wireless sensors
    • 59. Nursing Alarms/Alerts
    • 60. Enterprise Mobility Solutions
    • 61. GSM/Wimax healthcare applications
    • 62. Voice Communication
    • 63. Pagers
    3
    2
    3
    2
    1
    4
    1
    4
    2.0
    4.0
    5
    5
    0
    0
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Growth Potential
    Practical Applications
    • Outreach Programmes for underserved locations: Telehealth and Telemedicine
    • 64. In-building Communication – providing common infrastructure for all voice and data communication
    • 65. Preventive and predictive measures against Hospital Acquired Infections
    • 66. Patient monitoring within hospital and outside (home monitoring)
    • 67. Remote consultation and supervision.
    • 68. Emergency medicine – alerts/alarms
  • Empowering Patients/Individuals - Interactive Healthcare
    With the adoption of Web 2.0, collaborative technologies were introduced allowing unprecedented level of social interactivity. The use of Web 2.0 applications and resources for health related purposes is called Health 2.0
    Health 2.0 has become very popular and important platform for patients and consumers to find health information, interact with each other in virtual communities, and communicate with care givers. It empowers individual to manage own health according to personal preferences.
    Health 2.0 provides communication platform to healthcare organisations to reach out to their existing and potential clients. Hospital Portals and presence in the Social Networking Medias (e. g. Facebook, Twitter) has redefined marketing and sales strategies.
    According to the Pew Internet & American Life Project, 83 percent of Internet users have looked online for health information. New data released by Pew this week show many people are now using cell phones to search for health information - 29 percent of cell phone owners age 18 to 29, and 17 percent of cell owners overall. It's the first time Pew has surveyed health searches on cell phones.
  • 69. Interactive Healthcare – Uses and Benefits
    Products/Services
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Growth Potential
    3
    3
    2
    2
    1
    1
    4
    4
    1.5
    3.5
    5
    5
    0
    0
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Growth Potential
    Practical Applications
    • Provider – Consumer Relationship: influence on Consumer by providing relevant information
    • 76. Provider: Promotion and Marketing Activities
    • 77. Medical Tourism : enabling decision making about the desired destination
    • 78. Consumer: source of information on healthcare related topics
    • 79. Consumer: Support groups
    • 80. Provider/Researcher: analytical tools
  • Making Care More Efficient - Cloud Healthcare
    Cloud Computing is an IT architecture model that virtualises computing resources to deliver them on demand and in required quantities. These resources are highly scalable (almost infinite) and highly available (24/7).
    The main characteristics of cloud computing are:
    User does not own hardware, network, and application resources
    Computing resources are provided through remote data centres on a subscription basis (on demand).
    The infrastructure and services are delivered, accessed by user, via web browser (cloud).
    In cloud computing architecture, user is running services not on the local terminal but remotely. It means that instead of transferring data from remote host to be processed on the local terminal all transactions take place outside the local terminal.
    Healthcare industry is just exploring the capabilities and benefits of cloud computing. The main concern is over security of medical information as all is residing off-site in remote datacenter. However, the economic advantages to healthcare providers are making some to venture into the virtual realm of cloud computing.
  • 81. Cloud Healthcare – Uses and Benefits
    Products/Services
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Growth Potential
    • Software as a service (SaaS)
    • 82. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
    • 83. Platform as a service (PaaS)
    3
    3
    2
    2
    1
    1
    4
    4
    0.5
    1.5
    5
    5
    0
    0
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Growth Potential
    Practical Applications/Benefits
    • Back office applications (Resource Management) , Office Automation and Productivity Tools can be easily accessed already without costly investments.
    • 84. Providers do not need to maintain infrastructure
    • 85. Clinical Applications and Patient Management can be delivered using Private Cloud where all data is protected. Such network can be created with data-centre within organisation.
    • 86. Payment Model is based on subscription or pay-as-you-go.
  • Knowledge care - Business Intelligence in Healthcare
    Business Intelligence (BI) is a broad concept describing the process of transforming data into actionable knowledge. In recent years the term has became a label for information technologies: software and infrastructure that facilitate the BI process. Such applications capture, collate, store, transfer, retrieve, and analyse data to generate best choices for strategic decisions in the form of “what-if” analysis, predictive analytics, and multi dimensional data mining that in a blink of an eye deliver, insightful advises for managerial and clinical use.
    BI applications act as integration platform across the entire organisation. They connect together disparate systems to collect and exchange needed data. They glue the “silo” environment together to provide a seamless framework for information exchange and processing.
    Can be used as Health 2.0 and 3.0 applications linking data sources with analytical capabilities.
    By linking applications that otherwise were not communicating freely the BI is able to reduce the manual process effort used to facilitate exchange of information. The automation significantly can reduce access to data as well the occurrence of unintentional human errors while handling the data.
    BI solutions provide dedicated informational path linking the source of request/query with timely and relevant information.
  • 87. Intelligence in Healthcare - Impact and Uses
    Products/Services
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Growth Potential
    • Reporting
    • 88. Analytics
    • 89. Predictive information modelling
    • 90. Integration
    • 91. Visualisation - Dashboards
    3
    3
    2
    2
    1
    1
    4
    4
    2.0
    4.5
    5
    5
    0
    0
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Growth Potential
    Practical Uses/Benefits
    • Administrators: timely and accurately information on organizational economic performance and resource utilisation.
    • 92. Care Givers: timely and relevant information delivered at the point of care
    • 93. Patients: Improved quality of care
    • 94. Organisation: creating platform for virtual organisation.
    • 95. Public/scientists: utilisation of Health 2.0 analytical capability to conduct custom research
  • Moving Beyond Reality - Virtual Healthcare
    Virtual Reality is the ability to create artificial environment with the ability to act as it was real. It used advanced technologies to generate space and physical fabric and applies artificial intelligence to add interactive component. It is experienced by two senses (presently): sight and sound.
    Lighter version of Virtual Reality – Simulation has been well adopted by most industries including healthcare.
    The major users of these technology are gaming and military industries. It has also been successfully adopted by healthcare for simulations, 3D Image modelling for laparoscopic procedures, treatments, rehabilitation, and assessment.
    Virtual reality can be divided into:
    The simulation of a real environment for workflow processes analysis and design, training, education, therapies.
    The development of an imagined environment for health assessment, capability assessment, and therapies.
  • 96. Virtual Healthcare – Uses and Benefits
    Products/Services
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Growth Potential
    3
    3
    2
    2
    1
    1
    4
    4
    1.5
    3.0
    5
    5
    0
    0
    Maturity/Adoption Level
    Growth Potential
    Practical Uses/Benefits
    • Training for healthcare professionals
    • 101. Simulation for work processes and facility design
    • 102. Disease Control: spread of contagious diseases
    • 103. 3D preoperative and perioperativemodelling
    • 104. Treatment (phobias, rehabilitation, compliance to medication)
  • Technology Impact on Stakeholders and Care Quality
    1
    5
    2
    3
    4
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    2
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    2
    3
    4
    Provider
    Consumer
    Outcomes
    Total
    15 Points
    Connected Healthcare
    10.0
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Cloud Healthcare
    8.0
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Interactive Healthcare
    12.0
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Intelligent Healthcare
    12.0
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Virtual Healthcare
    8.0
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Low
    High
    Key :
    Source: Frost & Sullivan.
    35
  • 105. Smart Healthcare: Communication Trends
    Smart Model: Continuum of Care & Patient Focused.
    HOME CARE
    Smart Homes
    Telehealth
    Aged Care
    Critical Alarms
    Assisted Living
    Home Monitoring
    Current Model: Curative & Provider Focused
    INSTITUTIONAL CARE
    Nursing Homes
    Communication/Data
    Specialty Clinic
    Communication/Voice
    Hospitals
    Tracking/Resource
    Management
    Connectivity
    Source: Frost & Sullivan, Motorola