Expanding Opportunities for Smart Textiles
 

Expanding Opportunities for Smart Textiles

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Smart textiles are a vital emerging technology impacting key applications, such as:

- Healthcare
- Sports and fitness
- Fashion
- Military
- Homeland security

Smart textiles, a building block of wearable electronics, are enabled by miniaturization of electronics and conductive materials. Exciting developments are under way in smart textiles, including wearable textiles with embedded sensors for monitoring vital signs or other physiological parameters, energy harvesting textiles, personal protective garments, etc. This presentation will highlight emerging trends, opportunities, and developments for smart textiles.

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Expanding Opportunities for Smart Textiles Expanding Opportunities for Smart Textiles Presentation Transcript

  • Expanding Opportunities for Smart Textiles Materials able to Adapt and Respond to Changing EnvironmentalMaterials able to Adapt and Respond to Changing Environmental ConditionsConditions Peter Adrian, Principal AnalystPeter Adrian, Principal Analyst Technical Insights June 19, 2014 © 2014 Frost & Sullivan. All rights reserved. This document contains highly confidential information and is the sole property of Frost & Sullivan. No part of it may be circulated, quoted, copied or otherwise reproduced without the written approval of Frost & Sullivan.
  • Today’s Presenter Peter Adrian, Principal Analyst Frost & Sullivan 2 Over 25 years of market research, consulting, interviewing and analysis experience. Particular expertise in sensors and sensor-based fabrics/materials, homeland security, nanotechnology, advanced manufacturing Extensive experience in identifying and assessing opportunities or challenges for new or emerging technologies
  • Agenda • Significance of Smart Textiles • Definition of Smart Textiles • Key Current and Future Trends • Key Drivers and Challenges 3 • Key Application Areas • Smart Textiles Market • Key Developments or Activities • Summary Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Significance of Smart Textiles • Smart textiles represent a key emerging technology with vibrant growth opportunities. Such materials can reinvigorate the textile industry, providing value-added hi-tech products • Smart textiles will increasingly impact applications such as healthcare, sports and fitness, fashion and entertainment, military/defense, homeland security • Smart textiles is a key building block of wearable electronics (devices small enough to be worn on the 4 • Smart textiles is a key building block of wearable electronics (devices small enough to be worn on the body), which have been proliferating in the marketplace • Smart textiles will generate opportunities for various types of stakeholders, including developers, providers, or integrators of materials, nanotechnology, sensors, energy harvesters, and sensing or communications electronics • This presentation will highlight key trends, developments, and opportunities in smart textiles. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • What is a Smart Textile? • Smart textiles are materials that can react or adapt to external stimuli or changing environmental conditions. • The stimuli can include changes in temperature, moisture, pH, chemical sources, electric or magnetic fields, or stress. • Advanced smart textiles can have embedded computing, digital components, electronics, energy 5 • Advanced smart textiles can have embedded computing, digital components, electronics, energy supply, and sensors. • Basic components of smart textiles include sensors and actuators • There is a need to be able to more seamlessly integrate the manufacturing of the textiles and the electronics, and for conducting materials with greater flexibility Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Key Current and Future Trends in Smart Textiles Smart textiles currently tend to use conducting or semiconducting yarns, as well as fabrics sensitive to deformation Materials can include optical fibers, conductive polymers, metals, or nanoparticle coatings (to provide water-repellency, UV protection, self-cleaning, or anti-bacterial properties). Other innovative materials include auxetic materials, which, under stress, expand in a perpendicular direction of the applied force; and quantum tunneling composites—an electrically conductive material that combines metal fillers and elastomeric binders and is able to transform from an insulator into a conductor under applied pressure. A key market and growth area for smart textiles has been designs for personal protective and military clothing. 6 • Promising materials for smart textiles include carbon nanotubes (for enhancing mechanical properties); embedded fiber optics for healthcare monitoring, as well as photovoltaic fibers for supplying energy. Nanotechnology can enable integration of the energy supply, communication, and protection into textiles • Opportunities for E-textiles (textiles with electronic properties in the textile fibers) using such materials as carbon nanotubes that can provide renewable power and data communications. • Sports and fitness and healthcare (e.g., home health monitoring) applications are anticipated to experience more rapid growth in the • smart textiles market, at least over the relative short term • Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Deployment of personal protection garments (e.g., physiological and location monitoring) for first responders; E-textiles for military; Further Greater proliferation in healthcare (tele-health); flexible electronic or photonic components, Greater use of CNTs Technology Roadmap-Smart Textiles 7 2014 2019 2024 Personal protective and Military clothing design and testing; Health and Fitness; lighted textiles military; Further advancements in energy harvesting and storage Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Key Drivers Conductive materials for integrating Need for improved fitness and athletic performanceData networks/energy harvesting in uniforms can reduce battery and cable 8 for integrating electronics; Enhancements In wireless technology (e.g., Bluetooth Low Energy) for communication with devices Can facilitate tele- medicine to reduce healthcare costs Miniaturization of electronic components weight Boosts opportunities in the Textile industry through innovation Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Ease of Incorporating power Need for standardization in product design and manufacture Need easy integration for garment makers Need user friendliness; and performance and safety standards for products Key Challenges 9 supplies Incompatibility of textile and electronics Manufacturing processes Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Key Applications Healthcare (including home monitoring) Protection and Military Clothing Automotive & Transportation (e.g., heated seats). Fashion/Lighted Textiles Growth Applications include Sports and Fitness; Healthcare; Protective Clothing; Fashion/Lighted textiles 10 Sports and Fitness Architecture/Infrastructure Construction/Home.etc. Future Applications include automotive smart textile interfaces such as an electroluminescent pattern on steering wheel to inform driver about ecological driving perfromance or fatigue detection interface (thermochromic pattern on dashboard to notify driver about physical condition); robotics (e.g.. E-textiles allowing huminoid robots to match their color to that of those they are among); security; architecture (e.g., hospital interiors); infrastructure Future Applications include automotive smart textile interfaces such as an electroluminescent pattern on steering wheel to inform driver about ecological driving perfromance or fatigue detection interface (thermochromic pattern on dashboard to notify driver about physical condition); robotics (e.g.. E-textiles allowing huminoid robots to match their color to that of those they are among); security; architecture (e.g., hospital interiors); infrastructure Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Smart Textile Market 11 Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Key Developments: Wearable Smart Textile Devices or Garments • Monitors heart rate, oxygen level, skin temperature, sleep quality, provides rollover alert. • Uses Bluetooth 4.0 to wirelessly transmit information over the phone. USB plug -in can be attached to a computer. • Monitors heart rate, oxygen level, skin temperature, sleep quality, provides rollover alert. • Uses Bluetooth 4.0 to wirelessly transmit information over the phone. USB plug -in can be attached to a computer. Owlet Baby Monitor (Smart Sock)Owlet Baby Monitor (Smart Sock) • Wearable touch technology that simulates the feeling of a hug via application of lateral air pressure. • Helps people with sensory processing disorders, such as autism, and attention deficit disorder ,calm down in times of stress or anxiety • The amount of pressure applied by the jacket can be remotely controlled via smart phone or tablet. • Wearable touch technology that simulates the feeling of a hug via application of lateral air pressure. • Helps people with sensory processing disorders, such as autism, and attention deficit disorder ,calm down in times of stress or anxiety • The amount of pressure applied by the jacket can be remotely controlled via smart phone or tablet. T.JacketT.Jacket • By tapping the thumb to finger touch pads along the sides of the glove’s fingers, can play or pause music, • By tapping the thumb to finger touch pads along the sides of the glove’s fingers, can play or pause music, BearTek Gloves (from Blue Infusion Technologies)BearTek Gloves (from Blue Infusion Technologies) Move (from ElectricFoxy)Move (from ElectricFoxy) 12 sides of the glove’s fingers, can play or pause music, skip forward/back, fast forward/rewind and accept or reject calls, using Bluetooth wireless sync module. sides of the glove’s fingers, can play or pause music, skip forward/back, fast forward/rewind and accept or reject calls, using Bluetooth wireless sync module. • The garment includes4 stretch and bend sensors that read the body’s position and muscle movement and , it offers haptic feedback for correction • Garment connects to mobile app. The platform connects to cloud service for data tracking • Facilitates optimized, precise movement. • The garment includes4 stretch and bend sensors that read the body’s position and muscle movement and , it offers haptic feedback for correction • Garment connects to mobile app. The platform connects to cloud service for data tracking • Facilitates optimized, precise movement. • Sensor Insole measures pressure distribution and acceleration and motion sequences. • Integrates 13 capacitive pressure sensors, a 3D acceleration • sensor and a temperature sensor. • Wireless data transmission to a PC Applications include sports, rehabilitation. • Sensor Insole measures pressure distribution and acceleration and motion sequences. • Integrates 13 capacitive pressure sensors, a 3D acceleration • sensor and a temperature sensor. • Wireless data transmission to a PC Applications include sports, rehabilitation. Sensor Insole (Moticon)Sensor Insole (Moticon) • .E-textile sensor-filled sock: tracks activity, speed, stride, distance, calories, and how foot lands on the • ground. • .E-textile sensor-filled sock: tracks activity, speed, stride, distance, calories, and how foot lands on the • ground. Sensoria Smart Sock (Heapsalon)Sensoria Smart Sock (Heapsalon) Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Key Developments: Wearable Smart Textile Devices or Garments (continued) • Chest-worn heart rate monitor uses a conductive textile strap • Chest-worn heart rate monitor uses a conductive textile strap Viiiiva Heart rate monitor (4iiii Innovations)Viiiiva Heart rate monitor (4iiii Innovations) • Ankle wrap (placed around running shoes) and vest. Measures impact force, degree of pronation, orientation of the foot. • Measurements, taken up to 400 times per second, are used to determine the optimal shoe for the user. • Used in a retail environment to help customer choose the right running shoes • Ankle wrap (placed around running shoes) and vest. Measures impact force, degree of pronation, orientation of the foot. • Measurements, taken up to 400 times per second, are used to determine the optimal shoe for the user. • Used in a retail environment to help customer choose the right running shoes Achillex System (Xybermind)Achillex System (Xybermind) • Includes sensors that measure heart rate, breathing, movement ,activity, steps walked. Data module records and streams biometric data wirelessly to a smart phone. Shirt has anti-microbial treatment for odor control and moisture • Includes sensors that measure heart rate, breathing, movement ,activity, steps walked. Data module records and streams biometric data wirelessly to a smart phone. Shirt has anti-microbial treatment for odor control and moisture Biometric Shirt (OMSignal)Biometric Shirt (OMSignal) 13 has anti-microbial treatment for odor control and moisture management. has anti-microbial treatment for odor control and moisture management. • Sensor-filled smart shirt tracks health and fitness. Measures • ECG (heart rate), breathing rate and volume, activity level, (steps, cadence, calories), sleep position. • The smart shirt has 3 fabric-based stretchable sensors, including a 3-axis accelerometer • Shirt connects to a small, light-weight device. • Sensor-filled smart shirt tracks health and fitness. Measures • ECG (heart rate), breathing rate and volume, activity level, (steps, cadence, calories), sleep position. • The smart shirt has 3 fabric-based stretchable sensors, including a 3-axis accelerometer • Shirt connects to a small, light-weight device. Smart Shirt (Carre Technologies’ Hexoskin)Smart Shirt (Carre Technologies’ Hexoskin) Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Other Representative Developments in Smart Textile-Based Products • Electro-conductive textile fibers conduct heat for soft, gentle heat distribution without hot spots. Applications include floor heating, furniture, bedding, bath fixtures, work and sports clothing, auto seat heaters, etc. • Electro-conductive textile fibers conduct heat for soft, gentle heat distribution without hot spots. Applications include floor heating, furniture, bedding, bath fixtures, work and sports clothing, auto seat heaters, etc. FiberThermics Heaters (Thermosoft International)FiberThermics Heaters (Thermosoft International) • The Quantum Tunneling Composite (QTC™) pressure/force sensing or switching material, developed and patented by Peratech, is composed of filler particles combined with an elastomeric binder (typically silicone rubber). When placed under pressure, the material is able to change from an electrical insulator to a metal-like conductor. In an unstressed state, the material is an excellent insulator. Under deformation, the material begins to conduct. With sufficient pressure, metallic • The Quantum Tunneling Composite (QTC™) pressure/force sensing or switching material, developed and patented by Peratech, is composed of filler particles combined with an elastomeric binder (typically silicone rubber). When placed under pressure, the material is able to change from an electrical insulator to a metal-like conductor. In an unstressed state, the material is an excellent insulator. Under deformation, the material begins to conduct. With sufficient pressure, metallic Quantum Tunneling Composite™ (Peratech Ltd.)Quantum Tunneling Composite™ (Peratech Ltd.) • As part of the 10.2 M euro (about US$13.8 M at the current exchange rate) Polytect project (which ended in 2010), • As part of the 10.2 M euro (about US$13.8 M at the current exchange rate) Polytect project (which ended in 2010), Seismic Wallpaper (D’Appolonia and partners)Seismic Wallpaper (D’Appolonia and partners) 14 begins to conduct. With sufficient pressure, metallic conductivity levels can be attained. • Advantages over carbon conductive composites include ability to be used as a solid-state switch (in the off state, it is a good insulator; in the on state, it is a good metal conductor); can detect very small changes due to compression, tension, etc.; able to carry significant current. • The QTC material has been used in jackets and knapsacks for such applications as iPod control. Peratech is not currently very active in smart textiles. In smart textiles using conductive fabrics, the cost of the sensor can be a high percentage of the total garment cost. begins to conduct. With sufficient pressure, metallic conductivity levels can be attained. • Advantages over carbon conductive composites include ability to be used as a solid-state switch (in the off state, it is a good insulator; in the on state, it is a good metal conductor); can detect very small changes due to compression, tension, etc.; able to carry significant current. • The QTC material has been used in jackets and knapsacks for such applications as iPod control. Peratech is not currently very active in smart textiles. In smart textiles using conductive fabrics, the cost of the sensor can be a high percentage of the total garment cost. exchange rate) Polytect project (which ended in 2010), developed seismic wallpaper—an intelligent composite for reinforcement, strengthening, as well as monitoring of civil infrastructure vulnerable to earthquakes. Embedded sensors could be used for fiber optic static or dynamic measurements. • ...... exchange rate) Polytect project (which ended in 2010), developed seismic wallpaper—an intelligent composite for reinforcement, strengthening, as well as monitoring of civil infrastructure vulnerable to earthquakes. Embedded sensors could be used for fiber optic static or dynamic measurements. • ...... Roctest and TenCate have collaborated on development of the Geodetect geotextile monitoring solution. Fiber optic sensor technologies (e.g., fiber Bragg gratings, Brillouin or Raman scattering) can be built into GeoDetect to measure strain, strain and temperature, or temperature in soil structures • ...... • ...... Roctest and TenCate have collaborated on development of the Geodetect geotextile monitoring solution. Fiber optic sensor technologies (e.g., fiber Bragg gratings, Brillouin or Raman scattering) can be built into GeoDetect to measure strain, strain and temperature, or temperature in soil structures • ...... • ...... GeoDetect® (TenCate)GeoDetect® (TenCate) Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Other Representative Developments in Smart Textile-Based Products (continued) • Advances in material science have spearheaded development of smart fabrics with the ability to regulate temperature and moisture of the fabric or garment. Phase change materials can help manage heat and reduce moisture in textiles for enhanced comfort. • Outlast® technology, initially developed for NASA, uses phase change materials to absorb, store and release heat for maximized thermal comfort. The microencapsulated phase change materials (Thermocules™) are permanently enclosed and protected in a polymer shell. The Thermocules can be incorporated in fabrics and fibers to absorb, store, and release excess heat and regulate the skin’s microclimate. Heat is absorbed as the skin get shot and released as the skin cools. • Advances in material science have spearheaded development of smart fabrics with the ability to regulate temperature and moisture of the fabric or garment. Phase change materials can help manage heat and reduce moisture in textiles for enhanced comfort. • Outlast® technology, initially developed for NASA, uses phase change materials to absorb, store and release heat for maximized thermal comfort. The microencapsulated phase change materials (Thermocules™) are permanently enclosed and protected in a polymer shell. The Thermocules can be incorporated in fabrics and fibers to absorb, store, and release excess heat and regulate the skin’s microclimate. Heat is absorbed as the skin get shot and released as the skin cools. Thermal Regulating Smart Fabrics (Outlast Technologies)Thermal Regulating Smart Fabrics (Outlast Technologies) 15 heat and regulate the skin’s microclimate. Heat is absorbed as the skin get shot and released as the skin cools. • In contrast to wicking technology, which manages moisture by pulling sweat away from the skin, Outlast technology can proactively manage heat and control moisture production before it starts • The technology can be incorporated in a coating, inside a fiber, or printed onto flat fabric, depending on the application. • Suitable applications include bedding; apparel, footwear, seating, other (e.g., body armor, labeling and packaging, construction) heat and regulate the skin’s microclimate. Heat is absorbed as the skin get shot and released as the skin cools. • In contrast to wicking technology, which manages moisture by pulling sweat away from the skin, Outlast technology can proactively manage heat and control moisture production before it starts • The technology can be incorporated in a coating, inside a fiber, or printed onto flat fabric, depending on the application. • Suitable applications include bedding; apparel, footwear, seating, other (e.g., body armor, labeling and packaging, construction) Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Other Representative Developments in Smart Textile-Based Products (continued) • Hövding (Sweden) developed and sells a bicycle helmet in the form of an airbag integrated in a collar for adults who may be reluctant to wear a helmet that does not look fashionable. The airbag is shaped like a hood and protects the bicyclist’s head. It is triggered by a gyro sensor that tracks angular rotational shifts and an accelerometer that notes sudden changes in a cyclist’s speed. Such sensors detect movement indicating an imminent crash. The sensors are powered by lithium ion polymer batteries. In the event an accident is detected, the airbag inflates and surrounds the head , using an integrated gas inflator with helium. • Hövding (Sweden) developed and sells a bicycle helmet in the form of an airbag integrated in a collar for adults who may be reluctant to wear a helmet that does not look fashionable. The airbag is shaped like a hood and protects the bicyclist’s head. It is triggered by a gyro sensor that tracks angular rotational shifts and an accelerometer that notes sudden changes in a cyclist’s speed. Such sensors detect movement indicating an imminent crash. The sensors are powered by lithium ion polymer batteries. In the event an accident is detected, the airbag inflates and surrounds the head , using an integrated gas inflator with helium. Bike Helmet Integrated in a CollarBike Helmet Integrated in a Collar 16 gas inflator with helium. • The Hövding airbag can be safer than a traditional helmet. The airbag covers a larger area of the head and can cushion a shock better than a plastic helmet. gas inflator with helium. • The Hövding airbag can be safer than a traditional helmet. The airbag covers a larger area of the head and can cushion a shock better than a plastic helmet. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Key Developments: Fiber-Based Flexible Electronic & Photonic Devices Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Circa 2013, MIT researchers found a way to draw fibers that could potentially allow fabrication of electronic and photonic devices within composite fibers, using a variety of materials. This approach was used to make a fine thread that functions as a diode. • The researchers demonstrated a proof-of-concept technique to make new materials during the fiber-making process, including those with melting points much higher than 17 during the fiber-making process, including those with melting points much higher than the temperatures used to process the fibers. It should be possible to incorporate more complex electronic circuits within the structure of the fiber. The fibers could find use, for example, as sensors for light, temperature, or other environmental variables; or they might be woven and used to make a solar cell fabric. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Developments: Flexible Silver Nanowire Antenna North Carolina State University • Circa 2014, researchers at North Carolina State University developed an antenna for wearable health monitors that can be stretched, rolled, or twisted and can return to its original shape. • To create the antenna, silver nanowires were applied in a certain pattern and a liquid polymer was poured over the nanowires. As the polymer sets, it forms an elastic composite with the nanowires embedded in the desired pattern. The resulting patterned material forms the radiating element of the microstrip patch antenna. The radiating layer is bonded to a ground layer composed of the same composite but with a continuous layer of embedded silver nanowires. 18 • By manipulating the form and size of the radiating element, the antenna’s signal transmission and reception frequency can be controlled. The antenna is able to communicate effectively with remote equipment while being stretched. Although the antenna’s frequency changes as it is stretched, its frequency stays within a defined bandwidth, since stretching changes its dimensions. • The antenna can also be used as a wireless strain gauge, as the frequency changes nearly linearly with strain. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Developments: EU Ultra Low-Power Body Area Network in Smart Fabric EU Wear-a-BAN Project) • Started in June 2010 , with a duration of 29 months, this project demonstrated ultra low- power wireless body area network (BAN) technologies to enable unobtrusive human-to- machine interfaces in smart fabrics/integrated textiles, robotics for augmented reality and rehabilitation, and natural interfacing devices for video gaming. • The project aimed to use wireless sensor nodes embedded in garments. The team developed a smart textile solution consisting of a bendable conductive textile-based antenna that could be readily inserted into garments yet provide excellent performance. A batch system-in-package concept is used for the physical realization of the antenna and for the electrical connection between the antenna feeds to the radio module. Embedded in the module are the icycom RF system on a chip, sensors (accelerometer, magnetometer, gyro, microphone) , a crystal, and a coin-cell battery holder. • The icycom system-on-chip that was developed as a complete radio (SoC) with digital, analog, radio frequency functions operating at a low 1 V power supply. 19 analog, radio frequency functions operating at a low 1 V power supply. EU Wear-a-BAN Project) (continued) • The Batmac energy-efficient BAN-oriented communications protocol was developed for networking for targeted BAN applications. The Batmac software includes self-organizing, adaptive, and flexible media access control protocol features that automatically detect the signal-reducing shadowing effect and rapidly adapt the relaying scheduling to BAN changes related to close-to-the-body implementation of sensor nodes. • Icycom is available for integration into innovative products. The platform can be delivered with a comprehensive hardware and software development toolset, facilitating development of next-generation HMI (human machine interface) and BAN applications. • Research has been conducted to further reduce the size of the wireless modules by using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices combined with ICs. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Developments: Firefighting Protective Gear Globe’s WASP Firefighter Protective Shirt • Globe Manufacturing’s WASP (Wearable Advanced Sensor Platform) offers training academies or incident commanders real-time awareness of the physiological status and location and tracking of firefighters. The WASP shirt is made of stretch knit fabric; and physiological sensors are mounted on an adjustable strap embedded within the T-shirt. The TRX location unit, about the size of a deck of cards, is worn on a belt and provides indoor location data in GPS-compromised environments. The Zephyr BioHarness™ 3 electronic module attaches to the outside of the shirt and tracks heart rate, respiration rate, activity level, and other physiological factors. The integrated system was developed by Zephyr 20 level, and other physiological factors. The integrated system was developed by Zephyr Technology (physiological monitoring), TRX Systems (location tracking), Propel (textile development), Skidmore College Health and Exercise Sciences (physiology science) with support from the US Army NSRDE (Natick Soldier R&D Center). • This WASP system was beta tested at several facilities in the US and has been slated for deployment at the Illinois Fire Service Institute in late spring 2014. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Developments: E-Textiles and Wearable Power and Data Network Soldier-borne Carbon Nanotube Electrotextile Power and Data Distribution Network Program • The Soldier-borne Carbon Nanotube Electrotextile Power and Data Distribution Network Program, funded by the US Army and begun this year, is developing uniforms to serve as a data and power bus. • The researchers have aready developed a power and data network using copper wire, and plan to develop a network using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), from Nanocomp. They also plan to develop a hybrid network that uses copper wire and CNTs. The hybrid network is expected to be the best performer. CNT conductors are more flexible and durable than copper; and are more textile-like and wearable. However, the CNTs may not be that easy to integrate with copper. 21 • The network will integrate with kinetic (heel-strike, backpack) and photovoltaic energy harvesting devices and transport data to a central power manager in the soldier’s vest. Initially, the harvesters are expected to be hard wired, but there is interest in wireless technology. • The data network will be integrated in a standard combat uniform fabric (cotton and nylon blend). The data network will be transparent to the system. The system will be demonstated by the US Army in around 18 months. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Developments: Energy Harvesting Textiles University of Bolton: 3D Textile Structures Using Piezo Energy Harvesting Fibers • Researchers at the University of Bolton in the UK, supported by other universities, have made advancements in 3D textile structures that use piezoelectric energy harvesting fibers. The knitted piezo generator includes piezoelectric poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) monofilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver coated polyamide multifilament yarn layers that act as the top and bottom electrodes.The continuous piezoelectric yarns show high flexibility and high mechanical strength. This acheivement can enable piezoelectric fiber that can be woven into intricate and complex structures, such as 3D spacer textiles. The work marks progress in the ability to create wearable structures that can look and feel simillar to conventional fibers. The soft, flexible, fiber-based power generator provides high energy efficiency, mechanical durability, and comfort and has promise for such applications as wearable electronic systems and energy harvesters 22 promise for such applications as wearable electronic systems and energy harvesters charged from the ambient environment or via human movement. • Flexible piezo fibers can generate electricity by harnessing energy created by an impact or movement, such as a footstep , and then converting such mechanical energy into electrical power. The Bolton researchers envision havng commercial energy harvesters based on the 3D textile structures and piezo fibers technology in around 4-5 years.FibrLec, a sustainable energy company working with the University of Bolton to commercialize the smart materials in renewable energy applications, will take the technology to market. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Developments: Smart Fabric Strain Sensing Footfalls & Heartbeats Ltd. (New Zealand) • Footfalls and Heartbeats Ltd., an early stage company, has developed a process for manufacturing smart fabric which uses nano-scale interactions within the textile to make the fabric itself the sensor, avoiding the need for wires or miniature electronics. The process enables control and manipulation of the yarn-to-yarn interaction and the movement of the micromechanical structures that form the basis of the knitted fabrics. • The technology combines mathematically determined textile structures using electrically conductive yearn to form a repeatable, sensitive sensor network. It uses the three dimensional complexity of a textile structure, including interactions of fibers within the yarn itself, to control the electrical resistance characteristics of the sensor structure. The system facilitates customization, allowing varied sensor shapes and sizes, along with redundancy capability. • The technology has initially measured tensile and compressive forces (e.g., strain) and temperature. Additional functionality that has been explored includes tracking movement, bio-electrical outputs 23 Additional functionality that has been explored includes tracking movement, bio-electrical outputs such as heart rate, active or passive skeletal muscle signals, blood oxygen saturation. • The technology can address existing challenges for wearable clothing technology in home-based health monitoring. Such challenges can include the need to maintain flexibility of the textiles while incorporating sensing and computation modules; unwanted electromagnetic noise; lack of signal strength; comfort; durability. Auckland University of Technology and crown research institute AgResearch were involved in developing the fabric. • Potential applications can include, for example, compression socks for wound care management, compression bandages for chronic leg ulcers, aged care, worker injury monitoring, medical devices, ambulatory ECG (electrocardiography) or EMG (electromyography), injury rehabilitation, athlete monitoring, human interfaces for robotics, measurement of mechanical stress in composite structures such as satellites, aircraft wings, wind turbine blades, yacht hulls or foils, high performance car chassis. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Developments: EU PASTA Project Platform for Advanced Smart Textile Applications • Four year project started at end of 2010 with the final outcome expected in 2014. Coordinated by imec (Belgium). Will build on results of the STELLA (Stretchable Electronics for Large Area Applications) project. • PASTA combines research on electronic packaging and interconnection technology with research on an innovative approach to smart textiles. The aim is to enable a seamless, more comfortable and robust integration of electronics into textiles. Key focus areas for development have included a new concept for bare die integration into a yarn via micromachining, new interconnect technology based on mechanical crimping, and development of a stretchable interposer that serves as a stress relief interface between the rigid component and the fabric. A range of components are to be covered, spanning ultra- 24 rigid component and the fabric. A range of components are to be covered, spanning ultra- small LEDS to complex multi-chip modules. Power distribution and system partitioning will be addressed to provide a comprehensive solution for integration of a distributed sensor/actuator system into fabric. • The Diabolo concept and process aims to provide a direct connection from a chip assembly to external wires without using the traditional bonding and packaging stage. Via a limited set of wafer scale operations, one or several chip dies can be assembled and connected to conductive wires directly form the chip’s surface. A fully processed Diabolo assembly results in a spool of chips connected to a flexible wire that can be incorporated into materials through taping, weaving, knitting, extrusion or inclusion in a liquid phase before curing. Such a smart string could be integrated into a textile yearn using twisting technology to reinforce the mechanical strain resistance or inserted directly in a pre-equipped textile. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Developments: EU PASTA Project (continued) Platform for Advanced Smart Textile Applications Applications addressed by the PASTA consortium include: • Home textile safety (textile-based lighting with LEDs integrated in a textile for aesthetic evacuation lighting); • Bed linen incorporating moisture sensors and others in a sensor grid to monitor humidity and detect change in body position for hospital or home care; • Technical textile for monitoring strain in composites; • RFID s for textile process monitoring (integration of RFID tags into textiles during 25 • RFID s for textile process monitoring (integration of RFID tags into textiles during textile manufacturing to allow greater feedback about the process and facilitate anti- counterfeiting); • Seat heating system with integrated microtechnology sensors (temperature sensor integrated in the heating textile having conductive yarns to generate heat; integrated seta occupant detection sensors to control heat speed and spread of heat to where the user sits). Such seat heaters could be used in seats for cars, construction vehicles, electrical cars where power consumption should be limited. Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Key Take-Aways and Recommendations 22 33 11 Key growth markets for smart textiles include sports & fitness, healthcare as well as military/defense. There are also opportunities for smart textiles in such areas a personal protective equipment for first responders, and, over time, in applications such as transportation, etc. Key growth markets for smart textiles include sports & fitness, healthcare as well as military/defense. There are also opportunities for smart textiles in such areas a personal protective equipment for first responders, and, over time, in applications such as transportation, etc. Over the forecast period, increasing opportunities will exist for active smart materials containing low-power sensors, electronics, and energy sources and energy harvesting capability Over the forecast period, increasing opportunities will exist for active smart materials containing low-power sensors, electronics, and energy sources and energy harvesting capability Smart textiles are finding expanding opportunities in key application segments, such as personal protection clothing, military & defense, fashion and entertainment, healthcare, and so on Smart textiles are finding expanding opportunities in key application segments, such as personal protection clothing, military & defense, fashion and entertainment, healthcare, and so on 26 44 55 66 E-textiles with power and data distribution capabilities will emerge and find opportunities in such areas as military uniforms. E-textiles with power and data distribution capabilities will emerge and find opportunities in such areas as military uniforms. There will be increasing opportunities to implement advanced materials (such as carbon nanotubes or embedded optical fibers), and fibers that provide an energy source There will be increasing opportunities to implement advanced materials (such as carbon nanotubes or embedded optical fibers), and fibers that provide an energy source It is recommended that smart textile developers or providers focus on making the manufacture of textiles and electronics more compatible It is recommended that smart textile developers or providers focus on making the manufacture of textiles and electronics more compatible Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
  • Key Take-Aways and Recommendations 88 77 For example, Hövding was founded by two individuals who, as graduate students studying Industrial Design at the University of Lund, investigated the concept of developing a bicycle helmet that people would be pleased to wear in response to a law mandating use for children up to the age of 15 in Sweden, which triggered a debate on whether cycle helmets should also be mandatory for adults . For example, Hövding was founded by two individuals who, as graduate students studying Industrial Design at the University of Lund, investigated the concept of developing a bicycle helmet that people would be pleased to wear in response to a law mandating use for children up to the age of 15 in Sweden, which triggered a debate on whether cycle helmets should also be mandatory for adults . Smart textile developers can also benefit from creatively focusing on addressing a market need, rather than developing technology in search of an application. Smart textile developers can also benefit from creatively focusing on addressing a market need, rather than developing technology in search of an application. 27 Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
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