Academic dishonesty


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Academic dishonesty

  1. 1. Frontier School<br />of Midwifery & Family Nursing<br />presents<br />Mary Breckinridge, Founder<br />Frontier Nursing Service, 1925<br />
  2. 2. Academic DishonestyMary R. Nichols, PhD, Lisa Chappell, PhDJulie Marfell, DNP<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br /><ul><li>Academic dishonesty has grown into an ethical & time-consuming concern
  4. 4. Advances in technology provide students with rich & varied resources but has also facilitated an increase in academic dishonesty (Bassendowski & Salgado, 2005; Kiehl, 2006)
  5. 5. Frontier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing (FSMFN) is a web-based distance education program</li></ul><br />
  6. 6. Problem<br />Is there a consistent thread of dishonest through all levels of education?<br /><br />
  7. 7. Problem<br /><ul><li>Cheating begins early with 66% of high school students reporting cheating as a problem and 47% reported that they had cheated on a test (Paulos, 2007).</li></ul>www<br />
  8. 8. Problem<br />There is a growing concern that academic dishonesty erodes: the integrity of individual students students as a whole educational institutions the profession of nursing the conscientious provision of care<br /><br />
  9. 9. Scope<br />Arhin and Jones (2009) surveyed 161 undergraduate students from several disciplines about perceptions of academic dishonesty. Nursing students most frequently recognized behaviors of academic dishonesty, but had difficulty recognizing dishonesty in 50% of presented scenarios <br /><br />
  10. 10. Scope<br />Seventy-five to ninety percent of nursing students have reported acts of academic dishonesty (Faucher & Caves, 2009; Kolanko et al., 2006; Paulos, 2007).<br />The detection and management of academic dishonest places an enormous stress and burden on nursing faculty (Fontana, 2009).<br /><br />
  11. 11. Incidence<br />In a survey of academic dishonesty by McCab (2009) 18 nursing school across the U.S. participated.<br />Fifty-eight percent of undergraduate and 47% of graduate nursing students self-reported at least one of 16 academic dishonesty behaviors (McCab, 2009).<br /><br />
  12. 12. Academic Dishonesty Behaviors (McCab, 2009)<br />Collaborating with others when asked for individual work<br />Copying a few sentences from a written or Web source without citing<br />Getting questions or answers for a test/exam form someone who took it earlier<br />Receiving help that is not permitted on an assignment<br /><br />
  13. 13. Academic Dishonest Behaviors (McCab, 2009) <br />Falsifying or fabricating laboratory or research data or a bibliography<br />Using a false or forged excuse to delay a test or submission of an assignment<br />Helping someone cheat on an exam or test<br />Copying a paper (all or part) from another student or written source<br /><br />
  14. 14. Definitions<br />Plagiarism<br />a. American Psychological Association: <br />may not present the work of another as your own<br />original author must be given credit<br />always acknowledge a source including personal communication (APA, 2010)<br /><br />
  15. 15. FSMFN Definition<br />Plagiarism<br />Infraction of academic integrity<br />Considered an Honor Code violation<br /><br />
  16. 16. FSMFN Definition<br />Submitting a paper, examination, or assignment written by another. <br />Word-for-word copying (including cutting and pasting) portions of another’s writing from the World Wide Web, from hard copy text, from personal communication, without enclosing the copied passage in quotation marks and acknowledging the source in the appropriate APA reference format. <br />The use of a unique term or concept taken from another source without acknowledging that source. <br /><br />
  17. 17. FSMFN Definition<br />The paraphrasing or abbreviated restating of someone else’s ideas without acknowledging that person. <br />Changing a few words in someone else’s sentence does not make it your own, even if the reference is provided at the end of the sentence. Either use quotes or synthesize the information and write your own completely new sentence with appropriate referencing. <br /><br />
  18. 18. FSMFN Definition<br />Falsely citing a reference that was never actually consulted, or making up a citation. Functioning web links in assignments are important for this reason. <br />Falsely reporting data that was never actually collected or which showed contrary results. <br />Unacknowledged multiple authors or collaboration on a project or paper. (FSMFN, 2010)<br /><br />
  19. 19. Question<br />What are the student and faculties perspectives on academic dishonesty?<br /><br />
  20. 20. 3. Survey: Students and Faculty <br />Questions asked of students: demographics<br />Scope of academic dishonesty<br />Solutions<br />Recommendations<br /><br />
  21. 21. Qualitative Data [cont’d]<br />Questions asked of faculty: demographics<br />Perceptions of the scope of the problems<br />Solutions<br /><br />
  22. 22. Data Results: Student Perspectives<br />N= 67<br />Age: range: 23-56 years<br /> mean: 37 years<br />92% female<br />52% first year graduate school<br /><br />
  23. 23. 1. Students :What do you think is the scope of academic dishonesty?<br />45% thought that ¼ of students cheat<br />41% thought that no students cheat<br />14% thought that more than ½ of students cheat<br /><br />
  24. 24. 2. Students: Perceptions of clinical cheating<br />91% feel there is no cheating in clinical education experiences<br />Types of cheating that does happen:<br />“Invent” clinical assignments<br />Not reporting an error<br />Dishonest about the number of clinical hours<br /><br />
  25. 25. 3. Students: Have you ever been personally involved in any type of professional or academic dishonesty?<br />No (70.5%)<br />Yes (29.5%)<br /><br />
  26. 26. 4. Students: Is academic dishonesty ever acceptable?<br />Never (97%)<br /> Yes (3%)<br /><br />
  27. 27. 6. Students: What can be done to decrease or prevent academic dishonesty?<br />Themes: total = 51 responses<br />53% Student focused (n=27 responses)<br />29% Assignment focused (n=15 )<br />18% Faculty focused (n=9)<br /><br />
  28. 28. Is clinical dishonesty ever acceptable?<br />No (100%)<br /><br />
  29. 29. Examples of Student focused themes<br />45% improve student education about the issue (“address at the beginning”; “provide examples”)<br />37% consequences (“zero tolerance”; strong consequences”)<br />18% other (“screen applicants”; “sign a pledge”)<br /><br />
  30. 30. 7. What can faculty do to prevent academic dishonesty?<br />Themes: (n= 72 responses*)<br />61% Student help from faculty [44 responses]<br />32% Assignment design to prevent cheating [23]<br />7% Other [5]<br /><br />
  31. 31. 7. Examples of responses<br />Student help from faculty: <br />“prepare students for assignments and exams” ; “more spoon-feeding”<br /> “more communication>> about expectations”;<br /> “educate about plagiarism”; teach integrity”; <br />“change teaching methods”<br /><br />
  32. 32. 7. Examples cont’d<br />Assignment design:<br />“change assignments every term”; <br />make assignments: “Fun” relevant” <br />use “flexible timing” for assignments<br />“open-book exams” “timed secure exams”<br /><br />
  33. 33. 8. Students: adverse outcomes of cheating?<br />Themes: ( n= 70 responses)<br />35% Student-related<br />12% School-related<br />23% Clinical practice related<br /><br />
  34. 34. 8. Examples of responses<br />Student-related: <br />“Guilt and shame” “failure to acquire needed knowledge” “disadvantage for board exam/failure of comps” “student is cheating self” “loss of self-respect” “professional trust and integrity”<br /><br />
  35. 35. 8. Examples of responses cont<br />School-related:“integrity and reputation of school harmed”“lowers quality of education”“skews grades in favor dishonest person”“professor distrusts students”<br /><br />
  36. 36. 8. Examples of responses cont<br />Clinical practice-related:<br /> “lower quality of providers”“harm to integrity of profession”“dishonesty in other areas”“malpractice issues”<br /><br />
  37. 37. 9. Students: Additional thoughts on academic dishonesty<br />Themes (n= 23 responses)<br /> 52% Student issues 47% Faculty issues<br /><br />
  38. 38. 9. Examples of responses<br />Student issues:“concerns about accidental plagiarism”“disheartening to students with strong ethic code”“with technology cheating seems anonymous and will continue” “concern about working in LT and the risk of honor code violations”<br /><br />
  39. 39. 9. Examples of responses, cont<br />Faculty issues:“honest students should not be penalized”“continuing education about academic dishonesty”“if faculty showed more personal integrity, the cheating would be greatly decreased”“too much time spent on plagiarism” “frustrating when those who have cheated are allowed to continue”<br /><br />
  40. 40. Data Results: Faculty Perspectives<br />N= 25<br />100% female aged 32-67 years<br />Faculty experience:<br />40% = 11 or more years<br />20% = 6-10 years<br /> 40% = 5 years or less<br /><br />
  41. 41. 1. Faculty: consider academic honesty to be an issue<br />100% Yes<br /><br />
  42. 42. 2. What % of students do you estimate have had issues with academic dishonesty?<br />83.3% faculty estimate ¼ of students<br />12.5% estimate ½ of students<br />4.2% estimate ¾ of students<br /><br />
  43. 43. 3. Describe the kinds of academic dishonesty you’ve encountered<br />n= 66 responses*<br />32% plagiarism [ 21 responses]<br />29% cheating on exams [19]<br />18% copying/sharing/using other student work [12]<br />14% incorrect citations [9]<br />7 % other [5]<br /> * responses > 25 due to multiple responses<br /><br />
  44. 44. 4. Faculty: Reasons for student academic dishonesty<br />Themes: (n= 48 responses*)<br />31% Educational issues [15 responses]<br />27% Student characteristics [13]<br />21% Lack of Knowledge [10]<br />21% Time issues [10]<br />* responses > 25 due to multiple responses<br /><br />
  45. 45. 4. Examples of responses<br />Educations issues: “pressure for grades” ;“ease of cheating”; stress to perform”<br />Student characteristics: “laziness”; “poor judgment”; lack of honesty…integrity”<br />Lack of knowledge: “does not know: how to write…APA”; lack of understanding about academic honesty”<br />Time: “feel rushed”; “expediency”; “life overload”<br /><br />
  46. 46. 5. Faculty: Ramifications for studentsn= 76 responses*<br />45% =Professional issues [34 responses]<br />25% = Educational issues [19]<br />18% = Personal issues [14]<br />12% = Institutional reflection [9]<br />* responses > 25 due to multiple responses<br /><br />
  47. 47. 5. Examples of responses<br />Professional issues: “dishonesty to professional role and work”; “will not pass Boards”; “lack of professional knowledge” <br />Educational issues: “poor education”; “devalue nursing education”; ‘inadequate knowledge acquisition”<br />Personal issues: “lack of integrity”; mistrust”; “low self-esteem”<br />Reflection on institution: “diminish the schools’ reputation”; “loss of program integrity”<br /><br />
  48. 48. 6. What prevents faculty from monitoring or detecting academic dishonesty?<br />Themes: (n= 62 responses*)<br />37% Workload/class size [23 responses] <br />26% Administrative issues [16]<br />23% Distance-education environment [14]<br />14% Tools for detection [9]<br />* responses > 25 due to multiple responses<br /><br />
  49. 49. 6. Examples of responses<br />Workload and class size: “lack of time to check references”; “ large class sizes”; “too many students, not enough time”<br />Administrative issues: “lack of support from administration”; fear of confrontation”; “if no support-why bother?”<br />Distance education issues: “cheating is rampant everywhere”; “so many ways a student can cheat”; <br />Tools needed: “need tools to help detect”; “Turn-It-In may help”<br /><br />
  50. 50. 7. Faculty: what can be done?<br />Themes (53 responses)*<br />38 % Institutional commitment [20 responses]<br />26% Tools needed [14]<br />25% Faculty issues [13]<br />11% Student issues [6]<br /><br />
  51. 51. 7. Examples of responses<br />Institutional commitment: “institution intolerance for academic dishonesty”; “environment not conducive to dishonesty”; “improve honor code”<br />Tools needed: “Turnitin”; “detection tools”<br />Faculty issues: “revise assignments”; “reinforce APA style”; “monitor student work closely”<br />Student issues: “writing center for students”; “contracts for honesty”<br /><br />
  52. 52. Solutions and Procedures<br />Institutional<br />Honor Code Council<br />Student driven, members volunteers from Student Council<br />Decision made by the Administrative Team if a violation has occurred then Honor Code Council is convened<br />6 students, decision must be made in 45 days<br />Student may appeal decision<br /><br />
  53. 53. Honor Code<br />The FSMFN regards academic honesty and scholarly integrity to be essential to the education of our students; violations are not tolerated.<br />Cheating<br />Plagiarism<br />Unprofessional or criminal conduct<br /><br />
  54. 54. Tools<br />Turnitin<br />Implemented as a student learning tool <br />Student submits work to TII prior to submitting work to faculty<br />Students have the opportunity to submit the paper to TII twice before sending as final paper<br /><br />
  55. 55. Tools<br />Evaluation of Turnitin<br />Used for one term<br />30% of students found it to be helpful<br />30% found it not to be helpful at all<br />40% neutral<br /><br />
  56. 56. Tools<br />Turnitin<br />Students unclear on process <br />Tutorial done as part of orientation to program<br />Utilization of orientation provided by Turnitin not sufficient<br /><br />
  57. 57. Tools<br />Turnitin<br />Optional for some assignments<br />Only 50% of students utilized this when optional<br />Used for some assignments<br />Major written assignments work best<br />Does not work for case studies<br /><br />
  58. 58. Plagiarism course<br />All student complete a plagiarism course prior to beginning the program at FSMFN<br />How to Recognize Plagiarism<br />Upon completion a certificate is placed in the student’s portfolio<br /><br />
  59. 59. Faculty Solutions<br />Monitor student work for plagiarism<br />Students are given one warning letter if plagiarism is suspected<br />Placed in student file<br /><br />
  60. 60. Faculty Solutions<br />Course redesign<br />Innovative ways to complete case studies<br />Allowing for collaborative work between students<br /><br />
  61. 61. Summary<br />Students and faculty may both under-estimate the actual scope of academic dishonesty<br />Students feel that faculty are the solution to the cheating problems<br />Faculty feel that workload issues prevent more attention to preventing and identifying academic dishonesty<br /><br />
  62. 62. Summary<br />Solutions in process<br />Continued evaluation of effectiveness of implemented process<br /><br />
  63. 63. References<br />Arhin, A., & Jones, K. (2009). A multidiscipline exploration of college students’ perception of academic dishonesty: Are nursing students different from other college students? Nursing Education Today, 29, 710 – 714.<br />Bassendowski, S., & Salgaod, A. (2005). Is plagiarism creating an opportunity for the development of new assessment strategies? International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 2(1), 1 -13. Retrieved from <br /><br />
  64. 64. References<br />Faucher, D., & Caves, S. (2009). Academic dishonesty: Innovative cheating techniques and the detection and prevention of them. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 4, 37 – 41.<br />Fontana, J. (2009). Nursing faculty experiences of students’ academic dishonesty. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(4), 181- 185. <br /><br />
  65. 65. References<br />Kiehl, E. (2006). Using an ethical decision- making model to determine consequences for student plagiarism. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(6), 199 – 203. <br />Kolanko, K., Clark, C., Heinrich, K., Olive, D., Serembus, J., & Sifford, K (2006). Academic dishonesty, bullying, incivility, and violence: Difficult challenges facing nurse educators. Nursing Education Perspectives, 27(1), 34 – 43.<br /><br />
  66. 66. References<br />McCabe, D. (2009). Academic dishonesty in nursing schools: An empirical investigation. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(11), 614 – 623.<br />Paulos, L. (2007). Breaking the rules. Scholastic Choices, 22, 10 -13.<br /><br />
  67. 67.<br />“... to reach wide neighborhoods of men.”<br />
  68. 68.<br />For More Information about theFrontier Schoolof Midwifery & Family Nursing<br /><br />(606) 672-2312<br />P.O. Box 528,195 School St.Hyden, KY 41749 <br />