2. Definition of Discourse Analyis Originally the word “discourse” is taken from Latin “discursus” means “language beyond the sentence” and the word “analysis” means the method of preceding something. So, the analysis of discourse is typically concerned with the study of of language, both in texts and conversation. Example: Trains collide, the two die and ten injured No shoes, no services
3. INTERPRETING DISCOURSEANALYSIS Discourse analysis is not only about method; it is also a perspective on the nature of language and its relationship to the central issues of the social sciences. It is an effort to interpret what the writer or speaker intended to convey with in a sensitive social context.Example: Father: Is that your coat on the floor? Son : Yes (goes on reading)
4. Even if the utterances or sentences areungrammatical the Discourse Analysis makes upgrasp the intended meaning.My natal was in a small town, very close toRiyadh capital of Saudi Arabia. The distantbetween my town and Riyadh 7 miles exactly.The name of this Almasani that means in EnglishFactories. It takes this name from the people’s
5. DEVICES FOR DISCOURSEANALYSIS1. Cohesion Cohesion refers to the ties and connections which exist within texts that link different partys of sentences or larger unit of discourse. Example: My Father once bought a Lincoln convertible. He did it by saving every penny he could. That car would be worth a fortune nowadays. However, he sold it to help pay for my college education. Sometimes I think I’d rather have the convertible.
6. Cohesive Devicesa) Anaphoric RelationExample: He did that thereb) Cataphoric RelationExample: Here is the 9 O’clock news
7. 2. Coherence• The key to the concept of coherence is something which is not exist in the language, but something which exists in people.• Example:• Everything fitting together well• Her: That’s the telephone• Him: I am in the bath• Her: O.K
8. 3. Parallelism Parallelism means side by side. In some piece of literature some comparisons or contrasts go side be side wioth each other. Example: In Jane Austen’s ‘Pride and Prejudice’, good marriages and bad marriages are compared and contrasted on parallel levels
9. • Speech Events• Speech events are mainly concerned what people say in different environment e.g. Debate, interview, discussions, quiz, etc are different Speech Events.• Conversation Analysis• Conversation is an activity where for the most part two or more people take turn at speaking. In these turn at speaking one has to pick up the completion point to take his turn to speak.
10. Example Summons—answer Can I get some help here? On my way. Offer—refusal Sales clerk: May I help you find something? Customer: No thank you, Im just looking. Compliment—acceptance Your hair looks very lovely today. Thank you. I just had it cut.
11. Turn takingTurn taking is a signal that we use to inform the audience that we are still talking and intend to continue our speech.The purpose of turn taking is to prevent interference in the middle of our speech.The example: er, em, uh, but, and,
12. The co-operative principleCo-operative principle can be divided into four maxims, called the Gricean maxims:1. The quantity maxim: - Say no less than conversation requires - Say no more than conversation requires2. The quality maxim: - Don’t say what do you believe to be false - Don’t say things for which you lack evidence 3. The relation maxim: - Be relevant 4. The manner maxim: - Be clear - Don’t be obscure - Be brief - Don’t be ambiguous - Be orderly
13. Example of co-operative principal I am sorry that our team lost.
14. HedgesHedges can be define as words or phase used to indicate that we’re not really sure about what we’re saying. Such as; perhaps, may, can, could, possible, likely, and etc.Example of expression in conversation:- I’m not pretty sure about …,- As far as I know …,
15. Example of Hedges• Perhaps the medicine can help you to recover quickly.
16. ImplicaturesTo make something understood without expressing it directly.Example:Carol: Are you coming to Jill’s birthday party tonight?Lara : I’ve got exam tomorrow.
17. Background knowledge• We interpret based on our expectations of what normally happens.
18. Example of background knowledgeJohn was on his way to school last Friday.He was really worried about the math lesson.We inference these sentences that John is probably a schoolboy.
19. Last week he had been unable to control the class.From this sentence, most readers think that John is a teacher, because he unable to control the class.We will quickly abandon the inference before, if it doesn’t fit anymore.
20. It was unfair of math teacher to leave him in charge.Suddenly, John revert to his schoolboy status, and the inference that he is a teacher is quickly abandon.The final sentence of the text contains a surprise.
21. After all, it is not normal part of a janitor’s duties.
22. Schema and Scripto Schema is conventional knowledge which exists in memory.o Script is essentially a dynamic schema in which conventional action takes place.
23. Schema exampleFor instance, if you hear someone describe what happened one day ‘in the grocery store’, you don’t have to be told what can be normally found there.You already have a ‘grocery’ schema (many stands, various kinds of vegetables and fruits, sellers and customers and other conventional features).
24. ExampleTrying not to be out of the office, Suzy went into the nearest place, sat down and ordered a sandwich. schema script
25. Schema tells us: Suzy may be an office girl. The nearest place is some restaurant.
26. Script tells us:About the action she performed as: Firstly, she unlocked the door. Secondly, she walked to the nearest restaurant. Thirdly, she opened the door of the restaurant. etc.