The Boundaries of God’s Garden “ Anatole explained it this way: Like a princess in a story, Congo was born too rich for he...
The “African Dilemma” <ul><li>Africa is commonly viewed as a backward continent in need of Western aid. However, Africa ha...
Modern Issues in Africa Outlined in  “Somalis Waste Away as Insurgents Block Escape from Famine.” <ul><li>“ They can beg f...
Modern Issues in Africa Outlined in “Somalis Waste Away as Insurgents Block Escape from Famine.” <ul><li>“ The Shabab Isla...
Modern Issues in Africa Outlined in “Somalis Waste Away as Insurgents Block Escape from Famine.” <ul><li>“ Shabab fighters...
Political Turbulence in Africa <ul><ul><li>“ The King of America wants a tall, thin man in the Congo to be dead. Too many ...
Cultural Instability in Africa <ul><ul><li>“ Mobutu’s army was known to be ruthless and unpredictable” (416). </li></ul></...
African Famine <ul><ul><li>“ This is not Brussels or Moscow or Macon, Georgia. This is famine or flood” (524). </li></ul><...
Use of Allegorical Figures <ul><li>Barbara Kingsolver raises issues concerning the mistreatments of Africa by the Western ...
A Classical Case of Allegory:  The Prioress’ Tale <ul><li>Allegory relies on the depiction of certain races or groups in i...
<ul><li>Classical examples of allegory can be seen in the characters of Chuacer’s Th e Prioress’ Tale. </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Allegory in Black and White <ul><li>In the same manner as  The Prioress’ Tale ,  The Poisonwood Bible  relies on represent...
Who Represents Whom in  The Poisonwood Bible ? <ul><li>Nathan Price: the White Man. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adah, Leah, ...
Allegory and Reality <ul><li>Kingsolver’s allegory and allusion to the “real-life” problems in Africa are enriched through...
Introducing the Motif <ul><li>“ We aimed for no more than to have dominion over every creature that moved upon the earth. ...
Extending the Motif <ul><li>“ In the beginning we were just about in the same boat as Adam and Eve. We had to learn the na...
Western Insurgency <ul><li>“ We are supposed to be calling the shots here, but it doesn’t look to me like we’re in charge ...
Upending the “White Man’s Burden” <ul><li>“ Anything that ever was white is not white here” (50). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ki...
Africa Will Not Be Dominated <ul><li>“ The way I see Africa, you don’t have to like it, but you sure have to admit it’s ou...
What is the Message? <ul><li>By highlighting “real life” problems in Africa in  The Poisonwood Bible , and through the use...
<ul><li>ויגרש את האדם וישכן מקדם לגן עדן </li></ul>
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Tata jesus is bangala

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Tata jesus is bangala

  1. 1. The Boundaries of God’s Garden “ Anatole explained it this way: Like a princess in a story, Congo was born too rich for her own good, and attracted attention far and wide from men who desire to rob her blind. The United States has now become the husband of Zaire’s economy, and not a very nice one. Exploitive and condescending, in the name of steering her clear of the moral decline inevitable of her nature” (564). --Leah Price Ngemba, Kinshasa 1974
  2. 2. The “African Dilemma” <ul><li>Africa is commonly viewed as a backward continent in need of Western aid. However, Africa has its own culture and ways that must be respected. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Modern Issues in Africa Outlined in “Somalis Waste Away as Insurgents Block Escape from Famine.” <ul><li>“ They can beg for help from a weak and divided transitional government in Mogadishu, the capital.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African nations are subject to the rule of unstable governments. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Modern Issues in Africa Outlined in “Somalis Waste Away as Insurgents Block Escape from Famine.” <ul><li>“ The Shabab Islamist insurgent group, which controls much of southern Somalia, is blocking starving people from fleeing the country and setting up a cantainment camp where it is imprisoning displaced people who were trying to escape Shabab territory.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various African nations are subject to the influence of militant insurgent bodies. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Modern Issues in Africa Outlined in “Somalis Waste Away as Insurgents Block Escape from Famine.” <ul><li>“ Shabab fighters are blocking rivers to steal water from impoverished villagers and divert it to commercial farmers who pay them taxes. The Shabab are intercepting displaced people who are trying to reach Mogadishu and forcing them to stay in a Shabab-run camp about 25 miles outside the city. The camp now holds several thousand people and receives only a trickle of food.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Famine is a problem that constantly ravishes Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Militant organizations are taking advantage of African hardships. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Political Turbulence in Africa <ul><ul><li>“ The King of America wants a tall, thin man in the Congo to be dead. Too many pebbles cast for the bottle. The bottle must be broken” (297). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Congo is under an unstable government--often a puppet government. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cultural Instability in Africa <ul><ul><li>“ Mobutu’s army was known to be ruthless and unpredictable” (416). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurgent bodies terrorize Congo for a large part of time covered in the novel. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. African Famine <ul><ul><li>“ This is not Brussels or Moscow or Macon, Georgia. This is famine or flood” (524). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famine regularly ravages Africa. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Use of Allegorical Figures <ul><li>Barbara Kingsolver raises issues concerning the mistreatments of Africa by the Western world. Allegorical figures are used to represent in microcosm the results of the relationship between the “civilized” nations--particularly the United States--and Africa. </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Classical Case of Allegory: The Prioress’ Tale <ul><li>Allegory relies on the depiction of certain races or groups in individual characters to make a statement concerning the group as a whole. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Classical examples of allegory can be seen in the characters of Chuacer’s Th e Prioress’ Tale. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young boy: a Jesus figure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy’s mother: Mary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The murderer of the young boy: The representative Jew who is a symbol of all Jews charged with the death of Jesus. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Allegory in Black and White <ul><li>In the same manner as The Prioress’ Tale , The Poisonwood Bible relies on representative figures to carry the messages of exploitation and misguided judgment that have ravished Congo, and the greater continent of Africa. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Who Represents Whom in The Poisonwood Bible ? <ul><li>Nathan Price: the White Man. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adah, Leah, Rachel, Ruth May, Orleanna: Oppressed women, as well as Africa. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Eeben Axelroot: the American government. </li></ul><ul><li>The African Villagers: representative Africans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tata Kuvudundu: the traditional, “isolationist” African. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anatole: the “Westernized” African still connected to his roots. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Allegory and Reality <ul><li>Kingsolver’s allegory and allusion to the “real-life” problems in Africa are enriched through biblical references and a continuing Eden motif. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Introducing the Motif <ul><li>“ We aimed for no more than to have dominion over every creature that moved upon the earth. And so it came to pass that we stepped down there on a place we believed unformed, where only darkness moved on the face of the waters” (10). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbara Kingsolver draws a parallel between the opening of the Bible and Africa. Thus, at the outset of the novel, Africa is illustrated as Eden, unable to be dominated by the West. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Extending the Motif <ul><li>“ In the beginning we were just about in the same boat as Adam and Eve. We had to learn the names of everything…Our very own backyard resembles the Garden of Eden” (101). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa is described as paradise through comparison to the biblical Eden. In essence, Africa is God’s garden. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Western Insurgency <ul><li>“ We are supposed to be calling the shots here, but it doesn’t look to me like we’re in charge of a thing, not even our own selves” (22). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Western “insurgents” in Africa are unable to tame Africa, according to their values. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Upending the “White Man’s Burden” <ul><li>“ Anything that ever was white is not white here” (50). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingsolver uses the narrative of Ruth May, the naïf, to allude to the disappointment of the Western efforts to convert Africa, culturally and politically. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Africa Will Not Be Dominated <ul><li>“ The way I see Africa, you don’t have to like it, but you sure have to admit it’s out there. You have your way of thinking, and it has its, and never the train ye shall meet!” (516). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The West needs to approach African aid and African culture open-mindedly, not with conviction in Western ideals. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What is the Message? <ul><li>By highlighting “real life” problems in Africa in The Poisonwood Bible , and through the use of classical literary techniques—such as allegory—Barbara Kingsolver offers insight into the “African problem.” This insight can be gained by tracing the biblical elements and Eden motif throughout the novel. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>ויגרש את האדם וישכן מקדם לגן עדן </li></ul>

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