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Water Conservation Handbook for Local Governments - Australia

Water Conservation Handbook for Local Governments - Australia



Water Conservation Handbook for Local Governments - Australia

Water Conservation Handbook for Local Governments - Australia



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    Water Conservation Handbook for Local Governments - Australia Water Conservation Handbook for Local Governments - Australia Document Transcript

    • WaterConservation Handbookfor Local Government
    • Water Conservation Partnership Project AcknowledgmentsDepartment for Environment and Heritage The Department for Environment and Heritage on behalf ofGPO Box 1047 Adelaide South Australia 5001 the project partners of the Water Conservation Partnership Project (WCPP) would like to thank the following groups andJuly 2005 individuals for their valuable contribution.ISBN 0 7590 1055 2 Project Management Group:Disclaimer Martin Allen (DWLBC)The views contained in this handbook do not necessarily Marilla Barnes (SA Water)represent those of the Department for Environment and Natasha Davis (NABCWMB)Heritage or the South Australian Government or the partners Janet Inman (OCWMB)engaged in the Water Conservation Partnership Project. Tanya Miller (Office of Sustainability, seconded from the City of West Torrens)The Water Conservation Partnership Project Stephen West (City of Burnside)2000- 2004 partners were: Consultants:• Local Government Association of South Australia Sustainable Focus Pty Ltd (LGA) 11 Gething Crescent, Bowden SA 5007• River Murray Urban Users Local Action Planning Tel (08) 8340 8666 Committee (RMUULAPC) Email info@sustainablefocus.com.au• Department for Environment and Heritage (DEH) Web www.sustainablefocus.com.au• Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation (DWLBC) Other contacts:• Planning SA Jade Ballantyne (City of Holdfast Bay)• SA Water Graham Brook (City of Tea Tree Gully)• Torrens Catchment Water Management Board Ben Calder (City of Onkaparinga) (TCWMB) Jeremy Cape (CSIRO)• Patawalonga Catchment Water Management Board David Cooney and Graham Webster (Alexandrina Council) (PCWMB) David Cunliffe (Department for Human Services)• River Murray Catchment Water Management Board Trudi Duffield (Murray Darling Association) (RMCWMB) Michael Howley (City of Unley) Tim Kelly (SA Water)• Onkaparinga Catchment Water Management Board Jacob Kochergen (City of Mitcham) (OCWMB) David Lane (Streaky Bay District Council) • Northern Adelaide and Barossa Catchment Water Justin Lang (City of Campbelltown Management Board (NABCWMB) Rima Lauge-Christensen (Hornsby Shire Council• CSIRO Marnie Lynch (City of Prospect)• Natural Heritage Trust Rebecca Neumann (WaterWise) John Salter (City of Adelaide)Project Manager Verity Sanders (City of Port Adelaide Enfield) Phil Donaldson Chris Tually (City of Unley)Office of Sustainability Glen Williams (Adelaide Hills Council) and many others. The assistance of the Graphic Design Unit, Public Affairs Branch (DEH) and the Murray Darling Association is appreciated in the final production of the manual.
    • ForewordThe sustainable use of our water resources is crucial to The case studies contained in the Water Conservationensure that future generations will enjoy the same Handbook for Local Government demonstrate thequality of life that we now enjoy. The stresses on the leadership shown by a number of councils in SouthRiver Murray, a key water resource for Adelaide and Australia to reduce their own water use, and to providemany South Australian country towns, and the pressure water conservation educational and incentive schemeson water resources in the Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo for their communities. The Handbook sets out howIsland regions have become increasingly evident. councils can develop polices and plan for waterRising water salinity, stressed water dependent conservation in their community and within councilecosystems and increasing pollution in our coastal and operations. It provides an opportunity for each councilriverine environments are an indication of the impact in South Australia to mobilise resources to implementwe have had on our water resources. The potential for water conservation initiatives within its community.climate change to alter rainfall in South Australia, The Water Conservation Partnership Project (WCPP)highlights the need for flexible and sustainable partners have been responsible for the production ofmanagement of our water resources. this handbook. The WCPP (2000-2004) has been aAt the same time community expectations in relation to joint partnership between the Local Governmentwater are beginning to change. The community expects Association and local councils, the Department forall levels of Government to assist in protecting water Environment and Heritage, the River Murray Urbanresources. The South Australian Government has Users Committee, the Department of Water Land andintroduced permanent water conservation measures for Biodiversity Conservation, Planning SA, SA Water,the first time and embarked on a WaterCare community Patawalonga and Torrens Catchment Watereducation campaign to increase awareness of the Management Boards, River Murray Catchment Waterprecious nature of our water resources. The community Management Board, Onkaparinga Catchment Wateras a whole is beginning to accept an obligation on all Management Board, Northern Adelaide and Barossausers to become efficient in their water use and to Catchment Water Management Board and the CSIRO.reduce wasteful practices. It was funded through the Commonwealth’s Natural Heritage Trust and with the assistance of the projectThe Water Conservation Handbook for Local partners.Government is a recognition that all sections of theSouth Australian community, including State and Local We recommend this handbook to everyone in SouthGovernment, need to respect our water resources to Australia as an important resource to assist inensure the long term sustainability of the State. The community water conservation efforts. It is anState Government, in response to this need, has excellant resource to focus councils on their efforts tolaunched its Greening of Government (GoGO) policy use their water resources in their community in aframework. The Government has eight priority areas sustainable way.including water conservation and wastewatermanagement. GoGO gives a clear message that theState Government is serious about managing theenvironmental impacts of its own operations and thesustainable use of water resources.Hon John Hill MP Hon Karlene Maywald MPMinister for Environment and Conservation Minister for the River MurrayDate 1st July 2005 Date 1st July 2005Cr John Legoe Colin HillPresident of the Local Government Association of Chairman of the River Murray Urban Users CommitteeSouth Australia Date 1st July 2005Date 1st July 2005 Water Conservation Handbook
    • Water Conservation Handbook i
    • Table of ContentsWelcome 1 SECTION 5How can you implement the ideas in this How to conserve water in CouncilHandbook? 1 operations 21Where can you go for more information? 1 Introduction 21 Approaches 21SECTION 1 A different approach – using an Energy andWhy worry about water? 3 Water Performance Contract 21Why is water conservation important? 3 Planning sheet 1: Undertaking a Water Audit 23Where does our water come from? 3 Planning sheet 2: Irrigation water use 25Where is water used? 4 Planning sheet 3: Facility water use 29What are the benefits of conserving water? 5 Planning sheet 4: Alternative supplies of water 31How can we conserve water? 6 Planning sheet 5: Construction and refurbishments 35SECTION 2 SECTION 6What is happening in water conservation Community programs for waterinternationally, nationally and in South conservation 37Australia? 7 Introduction – Planning your community programs 37The International context 7 Where are the largest savings in householdThe Australian context 7 water use? 38National Water Conservation Labelling How using logic can help with your planning 40Scheme and the Water Services Association Describe and plan the program 42of Australia (WSAA) 7 Options for water conservation activities 43The South Australian context 8Catchment Water Management Boards and SECTION 7NRM Boards 9 References and contact details 49Local Government 9 Resource materials included in Section 7 49 Contacts and resources 50SECTION 3 References 50Planning for water conservation 11Introduction 11Principles 11 Resources on CDThe Planning Process 12 Information sheets and resources developed for this1. Developing your approach 12 handbook:2. Preliminary approval 13 - Best practice water conservation principles3. Investigation and data collection 13 - Rainwater tanks information sheet4. Design 15 - Greywater systems information sheet5. Implementation 15 - Home water self-audit worksheet and manual6. Review – monitoring and evaluation 16 - Community program planning worksheet Water Conservation Partnership Project 2003- 2004SECTION 4 demonstration projectsChanging Council policies and plans 17 Australian and International case studiesIntroduction 17 Other case studiesStrategic Management Plans 17 MaterialsDevelopment Plans 17Internal policies and procedures 18Stormwater 18Council policies and plans related towater management 20 Water Conservation Handbook ii
    • LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLESFigure 1 The natural water cycle 3 Table 1 Possible stakeholders in waterFigure 2 Human impacts on the water cycle 4 conservation 14Figure 3 Regions in South Australia supplied Table 2 Estimated annual water use by by the River Murray 5 dwelling type (1993) 39Figure 4 Adelaide metropolitan water supply 5 Table 3 Indicative savings for using water conservation methods or devices 40Figure 5 Water use in South Australia 5 Table 4 Examples of incentive programs 44Figure 6 The water conservation management hierarchy 11 Table 5 Examples of education and communication programs 46Figure 7 Council policies and plans related to water management 20Figure 8 Example chart of water use at an urban Council depot 23Figure 9 Example breakdown of water use in a Council office building 24Figure 10 Unley Museum Rainwater Tanks Project Demonstration Site 31Figure 11 Aquifer Storage and Recovery 32Figure 12 Laratinga wetlands 34Figure 13 Typical household water use 37Figure 14 Efficient household water use 38Figure 15 Components of a basic program logic model 41Figure 16 Worked example – right-to-left program logic model 41Figure 17 Worked example – left-to-right program logic model 42iii Water Conservation Handbook
    • WelcomeThis Handbook has been prepared as a water Where can you go for moreconservation resource for Local Government staff andelected members. Whether you know a little or a lot information?about water conservation, this Handbook is designed to Section 7 can be found on the attached CD, It containsassist you to: information about organisations that may be able to1. understand why water conservation is important, help you with resources and advice in implementing especially in South Australia (Section 1); water conservation programs. It includes information sheets, a household water audit manual and other2. understand what is happening in water selected resource materials. conservation – internationally, nationally and at a state level (Section 2);3. develop an overall water conservation plan (Section 3);4. alter Council policies and plans to assist water conservation (Section 4);5. improve Council operations so that they conserve water (Section 5); and6. undertake community programs in water conservation (Section 6).The Handbook is an outcome of the WaterConservation Partnership Project 2000- 2004 (refer tothe inside of the front cover for a list of projectpartners).How can you implement the ideasin this Handbook?If you are new to water conservation, you might like toread sections 1 and 2 to understand the issuessurrounding water conservation and the context forLocal Government water conservation programs.Section 2 gives an overview of international, national,State and regional initiatives, current legislationrelevant to water conservation and the context of waterconservation within the South Australian LocalGovernment Act.If you have sufficient time and resources, it is best toprepare a water conservation plan to cover Councilpolicies, operations and community education. Section3 provides guidance on planning your approach towater conservation. If you have limited time andresources, you could focus on changing Council plansand policies, as outlined in Section 4.Saving water in Council operations will reduce yourCouncil’s water bills and the savings can be used inturn to fund other programs. Section 5 providesguidance for saving water in Council operations.Section 6 is an overview of incentive and educationprograms that Councils can run for the community. Water Conservation Handbook 1
    • 2 Water Conservation Handbook
    • S E C T I O NWhy worry about water? 1Why is water conservation water supply will fail World Health Organisation Guidelines for drinking water on average 40% of theimportant? time. The situation will be worse in areas that relyWater is a precious resource that needs to be used solely on the River Murray for their water supply. Inwisely, especially in Australia, which is the driest addition, if action is not taken, increasing streaminhabited continent on earth. At the moment we don’t salinity in the River Murray is projected to raise wateruse water wisely; in fact, we use more water per person costs in South Australia by $17 million a year3. Majorthan every other nation on earth, except for the United interventions such as dredging of the Murray Mouth,States. In addition, salinity and deteriorating water salinity interception schemes and permanent waterquality are seriously affecting the sustainability of restrictions are contributing to the sustainableAustralia’s agricultural production, the conservation of management of our water resources.biological diversity and the viability of ourinfrastructure and regional communities (CoAG Conserving water is an effective way of maintaining anCommunique, see www.coag.gov.au/ for full details). adequate quality and quantity of water for the environment and for future generations. Fortunately,Conserving water is particularly important in South most people in South Australia recognise that waterAustralia because it is the driest state in Australia. On quality and conservation are crucial issues. Foraverage, 48 per cent of Australia receives more than example, in a survey of residents of the West Torrens300mm of rainfall each year, whereas only twelve per Council area, the 200 respondents rated water qualitycent of South Australia does1. As a comparison, the and water conservation as their primary and fourthannual flow of the Murray–Darling River system carries issues of environmental concern (from sixteen options).less water than the Amazon River does in one day2. These issues also rank highly in environmental perspective surveys of South Australians undertaken byThe effects of our high levels of water use have been the Australian Bureau of Statistics.dramatic. For example, currently the lower RiverMurray effectively experiences drought conditions one Where does our water come from?year in two, whereas before European arrival theseconditions only occurred once every twenty years. If Water circulates through the natural environment in anothing is done, reduced flows and increased salinity continuing cycle powered by the sun. This is known as the water cycle and is shown in Figure 1.will mean that within twenty years Adelaide’s mainFIGURE 1 The natural water cycle CLOUD FORMATION SUN CONDENSING WATER VAPOUR SNOW PRECIPITATION HAIL EVAPORATION FROM PRECIPITATION, RAIN SURFACE WATER, RESPIRATION SURFACE (ANIMALS), COMBUSTION (MACHINES), RUNOFF TRANSPIRATION (PLANTS) LAKES EVAPORATION OCEAN CONTRIBUTES INF ABOUT 80% OF TOTAL I LT R A GR TIO N WATER VAPOUR IN AIR OU ND WA TE RESERVOIRS OCEAN R SALT WATER IMP INTRUSION ERV IOU S LA YER Water Conservation Handbook 3
    • FIGURE 2 Human impacts on the water cycleMany human activities impact significantly on the Rural and remote communities rely on a wide varietywater cycle. For example, clearing vegetation degrades of water sources including groundwater, small localwater quality through soil erosion and changes water dams, household rainwater tanks and water piped overflow patterns because of altered rates of evaporation, many kilometres in regional pipeline systems.transpiration and infiltration. Some human impacts onthe water cycle are shown in Figure 2 from Where is water used?www.watercare.net. South Australia uses water for irrigated agriculture,South Australians receive their water from a number of manufacturing, domestic use, dryland farming andmajor water supply systems, some of which rely on mining. Figure 52 on page 5 demonstrates where waterlocal water sources, but many of which rely on the is used in South Australia.River Murray. In an average year, the River Murraysupplies almost half the States urban water needs. In While 80 per cent of water used in the State is used fordry years, the River Murray supplies up to 90 per cent irrigation, reducing water use by Local Governmentof the State’s urban water needs. Major regions in and the community is important in that it shows we allSouth Australia supplied by the River Murray are need to work together when asking irrigators to makedepicted in Figure 3. A recent offtake to the Barossa is efficiency improvements. Water conservation in thenot included. community provides many benefits in addition to water resource conservation.Adelaide is supplied via large pipelines from the RiverMurray and from the Adelaide Hills Catchment area, asshown on page 5 in Figure 45.4 Water Conservation Handbook
    • FIGURE 3 Regions in South Australia supplied by FIGURE 4 Adelaide metropolitan water supply the River MurrayWhat are the benefits ofconserving water?There are benefits for Local Government across thetriple bottom line (economic, social and environmental)from conserving water. FIGURE 5 Water use in South AustraliaEconomicConserving water within your own Council’s operationscan reduce water bills significantly – see Section 5(page 21) for a case study. The implementation ofwater conservation measures can also delay the need toaugment water supply and disposal infrastructure.Social/communitySocial and community benefits of water conservationinclude the flow-on savings of reduced water bills (andenergy bills where hot water is conserved) to residentsand the conservation of water resources for futuregenerations (contributing to inter-generational equity).In addition, water conservation ensures food and other Irrigated agriculture 80%goods can continue to be grown and manufactured atcurrent prices. Industry, manufacturing, services 6% Dryland farming and rural living 4%Water conservation improves people’s quality of life as Urban domestic water services 9%it enables them to enjoy recreational activities such as Mining 1%fresh water fishing, boating and water sports.By taking action on water conservation LocalGovernment can meet community expectations anddemonstrate local leadership. Water Conservation Handbook 5
    • Environmental 2. Structural and operational measuresConserving water helps to improve environmental Three types of structural measures for waterflows in our rivers and reduces demand on conservation exist:groundwater sources. This in turn improves river and • the use of more water efficient plumbing fixtures inecosystem health and groundwater quality, decreases buildings and within the water supply system;salinity and maintains biodiversity. Conserving wateralso has end-of-pipe benefits for the environment. For • more efficient use of water outdoors; andexample: • access to alternative water sources such as reuse, rainwater and groundwater.• reducing indoor water usage decreases sewage volumes, leading to a reduction in treated and Local Government can demonstrate leadership by untreated effluent discharges to water bodies; and improving the performance of its own operations. Refer to Section 5 for further information about• capture and use of rainwater reduces stormwater improving water conservation in Council operations. volumes, leading to reduced volumes of street run­ off. This may reduce flooding, erosion and 3. Community programs – education and environmental damage to our streams and coastal incentives waters. Education and incentive schemes can be used by Local Government to encourage the uptake of waterConserving water can also help to reduce greenhouse conservation practices and technologies, see Section 6gas emissions. In addition to the energy saved from for further information.reduced use of hot water, electricity use and associatedgreenhouse gas emissions are reduced because less 4. Economic instrumentswater is being pumped from the River Murray to urban Economic instruments are market-based mechanismsareas in South Australia. Currently, the energy required such as pricing, tradeable property rights and economicto do this is 906 kWh/Ml (three times the Australian or enforcement incentives to encourage water users toaverage) and the associated greenhouse emissions are modify their behaviour to achieve sustainability.in excess of 200 000 tonnes per annum (this is Economic instruments can be established by Federalequivalent to the annual emissions from 40 000 cars)8. and State Governments and water utilities, and are seldom used by Local Government.How can we conserve water? Overall, Local Government has an important role inCouncils are increasingly being encouraged by their facilitating water conservation as it is:communities to address water conservation as a priorityenvironmental issue. Conserving water means using • responsible for the provision of infrastructure andwater resources more wisely. In the water industry this services;is known as ‘demand management’. Demand • responsible for local environmental managementmanagement can often be undertaken without changing and regulation; andthe way we live or dramatically changing our lifestyles. • able to provide opportunities for local education,Four major types of demand management instruments public participation and local action.exist to encourage water conservation. NOTE:1. Regulatory instrumentsThe State and Federal Governments have a role inregulation through methods such as mandatory A national mandatory water efficiency labellinglabelling of the water efficiency of appliances and and standards scheme is likely to be in operationrestricting the sale of non-water efficient devices. from 1 July 2005.There are various regulatory methods that LocalGovernment can use to encourage water conservation, The scheme will ensure consumers havesee Section 4 (page 17). South Australia has in place knowledge about water efficiency of domesticthe capacity to introduce water restrictions which products, such as dishwashers, taps, showerpermit or prohibit certain water use behaviour, see systems and washing machines in the firstSection 4 for details instance.6 Water Conservation Handbook
    • S E C T I O NWhat is happening in water 2conservation internationally,nationally and in South Australia?The international context These have included charging for the full cost of supplying water, creating a market to allow theConserving water is one of the many challenges for water to move to higher value crops or uses, andhumanity in moving towards sustainability. At an separating the regulatory and supply functions ofinternational level, there have been a number of water management agencies. Since 1996, thereagreements and events that have focused on the has been some progress in most states andimportance of water conservation including: territories. Reforms are not yet fully and• the UN Conference on the Human Environment equitably implemented, however. For example - (Stockholm, 1972); users of urban water largely meet the environmental costs of urban water supply in• the International Drinking Water Supply and most states and territories, but the costs of rural Sanitation Decade launch (Mar del Plata, 1977); water generally do not account for the full• the World Conference on Water and the environmental cost of extraction. For details go Environment (Dublin, 1992); to www.deh.gov.au/soe/2001/water.html.• the UNCED Earth Summit - Agenda 21 (Rio de Janeiro, 1992); In 2002, a Senate Inquiry into Australias Urban Water• the Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation Management made recommendations for Conference on the Implementation of Agenda 21 Commonwealth-led reform of urban water management (Noordwijk, Meeting of Ministers, 1994); in Australia. The Senate Report The Value of Water is available at www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/• the Global Water Partnership meeting (Stockholm, ecita_ctte/water/report/contents.htm. 1996);• the 1st World Water Forum of the World Water At its meeting on June 25 2004, COAG agreed to a Council (Marrakesh, 1997); National Water Initiative (NWI), covering a range of• the World Summit (Johannesburg, 2002); and areas in which greater compatability and the adoption• the 3rd World Water Forum (Japan, 2003). of best practice approaches to water management nationally will bring substantial benefits. Key elementsThe Australian context of the NWI include the return of over allocated systems to sustainable levels and actions to better manage waterThe Commonwealth Government has a limited role in demand in urban areas.water conservation, as resource issues are generally the www.coag.gov.au/meetings/250604jurisdiction of State and Local Governments. InFebruary 1994, the Council of Australian Governments A potentially powerful regulatory role for the(COAG) consisting of the Prime Minister, Premiers, Commonwealth Government and its agencies is theChief Ministers and the President of the Australian Building Code of Australia (BCA), which can be usedLocal Government Association agreed to implement a as a significant tool to ensure water efficient appliances‘strategic framework to achieve an efficient and are standard in new buildings. For example, under thesustainable water industry’. BCA only dual-flush cisterns can now be installed in Australia. The COAG Water Reform Framework aims to improve water management and to ensure that the extraction of water is sustainable. Governments have introduced a range of reforms to the water industry (see www.deh.gov.au/water/policy/coag.html Water Conservation Handbook 7
    • National Water Conservation The Waste Control Regulations come into effect inLabelling Scheme and the Water those areas where the SA Water Corporations sewageServices Association of Australia services are not available. About one third of South Australians (400 000 people) are serviced byMany water efficient products are rated under a wastewater systems administered under the WasteNational Water Conservation Labelling Scheme Control Regulations. The Waste Control Regulationsadministered by the Water Services Association of are administered by Local Government or authorisedAustralia (WSAA). Under the scheme products can be officers of the Department of Health with delegatedlabelled from ‘A’ (a moderate water efficiency rating) authority from the Minister of Health, depending onto ‘AAAAA’ (the best rating of all). Many products are the type of system. For details refer toavailable that are rated at least ‘AAA’. www.dh.sa.gov.au/pehs/branches/wastewater/wastewate r-legis.htmThese include showerheads, washing machines, toilet All public water supplies (including communalsuites, flow restrictors and some other appliances and rainwater tanks) are subject to the Food Act andfixtures. A listing of products certified under the Regulations.Scheme is available on the WSAA websitewww.wsaa. asn.au.Refer to Section 7 for further contact details. Water supply and treatment Water supply and infrastructure in South Australia isThe Department of Environment and Heritage managed by SA Water. There are some exceptions(Commonwealth Government Department) will where water is supplied by private companies, forintroduce a national mandatory water efficiency example at Skye, Coober Pedy, Leigh Creek, Woomeralabelling and minimum water efficiency standards and Roxby Downs. In turn, rainwater tanks are(WELS) for domestic appliances, fixtures and fittings managed by individual householders or businesses.as a method of reducing urban water consumption. Seewww.deh.gov.au/water/urban/final-report.html for SA Water manages the bulk of the state’s reticulationdetails. systems, especially in the metropolitan area and large country towns. There are some private reticulation systems in smaller country towns (e.g. WeeroonaThe South Australian context Island).LegislationThe Water Resources Act 1997 sets the legislative SA Water also manages the bulk of SAs wastewaterframework in South Australia for water resource treatment. There are some private wastewater treatmentmanagement. It includes a requirement for the State and re-use schemes and many smaller country areasGovernment to prepare and keep an up-to-date State have septic tank effluent disposal system (STEDS)Water Plan (the current plan was released in September schemes operated by Councils. In country areas many2000) and provides the powers for the creation of households and businesses have individual on-siteCatchment Water Management Boards with delegated wastewater treatment systems.authority to prepare Catchment Water ManagementPlans. Other Acts which contain provisions relevant to Stormwater infrastructure is managed by localwater management include the Environment Protection Councils. Refer to Section 4 for details.Act 1993 (water pollution), Sewerage Act 1929,Waterworks Act (restrictions) and the Public and State Government bodies and partnershipsEnvironmental Health Act 1987 (sanitation and The Department of Water, Land and Biodiversitydrainage). The Natural Resources Management Act Conservation (DWLBC) is the principal Department2004, has recently been passed which will eventually which assists the Minister responsible for thereplace the Water Resouces Act 1997 and allow for the administration of the South Australian Water Resourcesdevelopment to Natural Resource Management Boards Act 1997. Through effective administration of the Act,instead. the Department seeks to encourage use of water for its highest and best return within sustainable limits.The safe collection, treatment and disposal of non­industrial wastewater (sewage and wastewater of The Environment Protection Authority (EPA) regulatesdomestic origin) is managed in South Australia under and prosecutes for water pollution activities and alsothe Sewerage Act administered by SA Water or the provides water education programs for business and thePublic and Environmental Health Act (Waste Control community including Codes of Practice for StormwaterRegulations) 1995. Pollution Prevention.8 Water Conservation Handbook
    • SA Water is a corporation wholly owned by the Adelaide Hills catchments and groundwater resourcesGovernment of South Australia (with United Water also face competition for water from the various waterand United Utilities as subcontractors) responsible for using sectors. The second issue is Adelaide’s increasingreticulated water supply, wastewater treatment and thirst.infrastructure throughout much of South Australia. Although South Australia is at the forefront of waterPlanning SA is a State Government agency, part of the conservation and reuse initiatives, in the absence ofDepartment of Transport and Urban Planning, further action, as foreshadoweed in the draft Waterresponsible for guiding and administering the South Proofing Adelaide strategy - the trend of increasingAustralian Planning and Development Assessment demand for water in Adelaide would be expected toSystem. Planning SA has developed a Stormwater continue. The Water Proofing Adelaide documentPlan Amendment Report and guidelines for Local provides strategies for ensuring our water supplies areGovernment, as well as information on good sustainable well into the future through better landresidential design and planning frameworks. management and in developing alternative water suppliesThe Environmental Health Service of the Department For more information go to:of Health provides a range of scientific, engineering www.waterproofingadelaide.sa.gov.auand technical services related to public andenvironmental health, specifically in the areas of Catchment Water Managementdrinking water (including rainwater), sanitation and Boards and NRM Boardswastewater management. This includes administrationof the Waste Control Regulations, assessment and The Catchment Water Management Boards (Riverapprovals for wastewater systems and reclaimed water Murray, Patawalonga, Torrens, Northern Adelaide andre-use systems, and support for Local Government in Barossa, Arid Areas, South East, Eyre Peninsula andthe administration of the Public and Environmental Onkaparinga) have three main legislative functions:Health Act and Regulations. • to prepare and implement Catchment Water Management Plans;The River Murray Urban Users (RMUU) Group is a • to provide advice to the Minister and Councils aboutlocal action planning group addressing natural water resource management; andresource management issues in the Murray-DarlingBasin in South Australia, to help to preserve and • to promote awareness and involvement in bestrestore the health of the River Murray. The RMUU practice water management.Group target area is all of the regions outside theMurray-Darling Basin that receive piped River Catchment Boards may fund or part-fund stormwaterMurray water in South Australia. pollution prevention officers in their areas. For more information on Catchment Water Management BoardsThe Water Conservation Partnership Project (WCPP) visit www.catchments.net.(1999–2004) was administered by the Department forEnvironment and Heritage on behalf of a number of The system of Catchment Management Boards is beingState, Local Government and community revised and will be replaced with Regional Naturalstakeholders. The Project aimed to reduce urban Resource Management (NRM) Boards - which willdependency on River Murray water in the RMUU produce Natural Resources Management Plans for theirregion by increasing water use efficiency and the respective regions. A NRM Reform Unit has beensustainable use of alternative water supplies. Twelve established by the State Government within theLocal Government and community based pilot water Department of Water, Land and Biodiversityconservation education and incentive projects and Conservation to implement the NRM Integrationdemonstration sites, a symposium and several studies Project. For more details, seeand publications were funded. www.dwlbc.sa.gov.au/nrm_reform/.Water Proofing Adelaide is a South Australian Local GovernmentGovernment initiative that seeks to establish ablueprint for the management, conservation and The important role of Local Government in promotingdevelopment of Adelaide’s water resources to 2025. sustainability initiatives is acknowledged through theAdelaide faces several significant issues. The first is Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment,the escalating risks facing our environment. The River Local Agenda 21 and the following sections of theMurray, which we rely heavily for our mains water in Local Government Act 1999:South Australia, is under continued stress as is the Water Conservation Handbook 9
    • Principal role of CouncilsSection 6 (b) outlines Council’s roles to provide and The ICLEI Water Campaign is based on the Localco-ordinate various public services and facilities, and Government water code known as The Lisbonto develop its community and resources, in a socially Principles. Further information on the Water Campaignjust and ecologically sustainable manner. is available in Section 7 (on CD).Functions of CouncilsSection 7 (e) outlines Council’s functions to manage, For more information go to www.iclei.org/water.develop, protect, restore, enhance and conserve theenvironment in an ecologically sustainable manner.Objectives of CouncilsSection 8 (d) outlines Council’s objectives to give dueweight in all its plans, policies and activities toregional, State and national objectives and strategiesconcerning the economic, social, physical andenvironmental development and management of thecommunity.Section 8 (f) outlines Council’s objectives to encouragesustainable development and the protection of theenvironment and to ensure a proper balance within itscommunity between economic, social, environmentaland cultural considerations.A Statement of Joint Intent (SOJI) can be used tosupport the development of partnerships in LocalGovernment to undertake water conservationinitiatives. A sample SOJI is included in Section 7.The International Council of Local EnvironmentalInitiatives (ICLEI) has developed a new program forCouncils, the ICLEI Water Campaign. ICLEI will buildon the work of the WCPP to facilitate councilsundertaking the ICLEI Water Campaign. The Water Campaign provides Local Governments with a framework for addressing their unique local water management concerns while contributing to an international effort to mitigate the current global water crisis. It was developed in response to the mandate that ICLEI was given by its membership in 1995 to develop an international campaign focusing on water. The Water Campaign focuses on the need to improve dialogue between water managers and water users. This dialogue begins with improved water management within Local Government itself, and extends to the community and the watershed area. Improving Local Government service delivery places value on community input and participation. This participatory approach to water management recognises that modern water management solutions are increasingly non- technical in their emphasis.10 Water Conservation Handbook
    • S E C T I O NPlanning for water conservation 3Introduction First Principle – Avoid This principle seeks to encourage, where possible, theThis Section provides some guidance on planning your use of waterless options where they exist. This isapproach to water conservation. If you have the time achieved through the use of alternative techniques toand resources, it is best to develop a comprehensive reduce dependency on reticulated water such aswater conservation plan, including changing Council sweeping paths and pavements, instead of hosing them,policies and plans, improving Council operations and and using dry composting toilets.undertaking community programs. You can use theplanning framework provided here to develop your Second Principle – Reduceplan. This principle seeks to reduce the amount of water useIf you only have limited time and resources, start with through:some targeted initiatives that you can build into • water efficient building and garden design whichexisting programs. You can use parts of the planning can be achieved through practices such asframework provided to design these initiatives. appropriate plant selection with preference to local indigenous species and efficient irrigation practices;Principles • the efficient use of locally collected and alternative water supplies, for example collecting and usingThe Water Conservation Partnership Project worked rainwater for irrigation and internal buildingwith Local Government to develop the five Best purposes;Practice Water Conservation Principles. These arebased on the waste management hierarchy (avoid, • the installation of water efficient devices, such asreduce, re-use, recycle and disposal). Understanding low flow showerheads, dual flush toilets, low flowthe Principles may be useful in developing your taps and front-loading washing machines; andCouncil’s approach to water conservation, they are • adopting ‘water conservation managementoutlined in Figure 6. practices’ that educate residents and Council staff.FIGURE 6 The water conservation management hierarchy AVOID WATER USE Where possible avoid use of water where waterless options exist REDUCE WATER USE Reduce water use through the sustainable use of alternative water supplies and through reducing the amount of water used from reticulated supply RECYCLE WATER Recycling treated wastewater originating from reticulated supply DISPOSAL OF WATER Disposal of un-recycled or untreatable FEEDBACK AND wastewater in an appropriate manner ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT so as not to cause detrimental A continuous feedback loop impact on the receiving on Councils implementation environment of water conservation initiatives leading to adaptive management Water Conservation Handbook 11
    • Third Principle – Recycle 1. Developing your approachThis principle seeks to use wastewater or reclaimed This part of the planning process will determine yourwater from one application such as wastewater overall approach to water conservation.treatment for another application. When using recycledwater, Councils must ensure that they comply with the What is the context for water conservationEnvironment Protection Policy 2003 (Water Quality). in your Council? The water conservation initiatives you decide toFourth Principle – Disposal develop and implement will depend on many factorsThis principle seeks to ensure that the disposal of water including the location of your Council, the level ofor treated wastewater that is not recycled or reused senior management support for water conservationdoes not cause degradation of catchment, coastal, initiatives and the funding available. It is worthmarine or terrestrial environments. This principle considering your Council’s context by thinking aboutshould be employed as a last resort. questions such as:Feedback and Adaptive Management • is water conservation important in your Council?Feedback and adaptive management is a continuous • how is water conservation incorporated into existingapproach used by Councils in determining the success Council plans and operations (if at all)?of implementation of the best practice principles. • are there any specific drivers or anticipated circumstances that will heighten the importance ofRefer to Section 7 on the CD for a full description of water conservation in your Council?the Best Practice Water Conservation Principles. • can you realise any synergies between delivering stated Council objectives (such as Strategic Goals)The Planning Process and water conservation initiatives?Developing a plan for your Council’s approach to • how can Council address the different levels ofwater conservation will assist you to take a strategic water restriction?and systematic approach to the business of savingwater. Your plan will help you to gain support for water Some of the drivers for promoting water conservationconservation initiatives within your Council and the at your Council might include:community and to achieve the most significant • water supply security and/or reliability;outcomes possible given your level of resources. A • constraints on water treatment/supply, wastewaterwell-developed plan will help to establish shared treatment, peak demand (i.e. the demand for waterexpectations, roles and responsibilities and generate on hot, dry days);ownership. • flood mitigation through stormwater detention;It is useful to consider your plan as a ‘living’ • community service (e.g. through the provision ofdocument. A good plan is reviewed and modified on a information and low-cost products and services toregular basis and used to report on progress, highlight householders);successes and identify areas for improvement. • water quality issues;The following generic planning process is suitable for a • drought response/management; andcomprehensive water conservation plan, but the areas • demonstrating Council’s commitment to sustainableof emphasis and level of detail that you put into your development.plan will depend on the size and structure of yourCouncil, the available funds and human resources and It is valuable to identify where water conservation mayyour particular water conservation goals. You may wish link to, or generate benefits for, other programs,to refer to more specific approaches such as the initiatives or objectives being implemented by yourimplementation of the Best Practice Water Council (for example, greenhouse programs, such asConservation Principles or the ICLEI Water Campaign. Cities for Climate Protection, community environmental education programs or infrastructure upgrades). This will increase both opportunities for support and funding for water conservation initiatives. Where will your approach to water conservation within the Council exist?12 Water Conservation Handbook
    • You need to decide whether you will develop a 3. Investigation and dataseparate water conservation plan or whether you willintegrate water conservation into other Council collectionplanning processes. For example, your approach to This stage of the planning process provides thewater conservation could be integrated into your structure and background that will help you select andEnvironmental Management Plan. develop specific programs.Assess resources Develop an overview of waterAt this stage you should make a preliminary conservation initiativesassessment of the human and financial resources that You can learn a lot from water conservation programsare likely to be available for Water Conservation Plans that have been undertaken elsewhere. You will findand initiatives. This is where you can begin to case studies throughout this Handbook and you can useunderstand the scope of your plan. your Local Government networks. However, each Council is unique and you should also investigate what2. Preliminary approval has already been done within your Council. This will be important for maintaining your credibility withinThis stage of the planning process outlines what you Council.will need to consider in seeking approval for yourapproach to water conservation. Collect data In planning your approach to water conservation it isIdentify internal partners crucial to understand how much water is used, where,Developing and implementing water conservation by whom and how. Council water use data is availableinitiatives by yourself is hard work. If possible you from SA Water – refer to Section 5 (page 23) forshould identify members of staff to work with. This details. Water data specific to your Council can becould include, for example: broken down into residential, non-residential and commercial sectors. The non-residential data includes• a member of senior management (or an elected Council, State Government and industrial water use. member) with a genuine level of commitment to supporting water conservation initiatives; or Relevant data to collect might include:• a cross-functional team of Council staff who can work with you to develop and implement water • average household usage (indoor and outdoor, or by conservation initiatives across Council and within end-use); the community. • Council consumption (buildings, facilities, parks and grounds);Create a business case for involvement • population growth and the projected demand forTo obtain approval for developing and implementing water (and possible implications);your approach to water conservation you may need to • other Council information: demographics, area, etc;put together a business case for Council senior • water supply source(s) cost of water, groundwatermanagement (and elected members) stating the broad information etc.;goals of the Water Conservation Plan and the resourcesthat will be required. • wastewater treatment, recycling, effluent discharges, water quality, costs; andGain approval to proceed • stormwater volumes, infrastructure costs, upgradeDepending on the scope of your plan you may need requirements etc.approval and commitment from senior management(and possibly elected members). This could include: It is important to identify the usage by sector in each Council, so that the right priorities are targeted. For• formal approval of staff-time to work on the project; example in the City of Port Adelaide Enfield, two• initial funding to undertake any investigations thirds of water consumption is by the commercial and required; and industrial sectors, so education programs focussed• a commitment to invest in identified projects (within purely on residential use may have minimal impact on agreed capital costs and returns on investment, water consumption. where appropriate). Once you have collected this data you can start toWithout this commitment, initial time and funds may identify water conservation opportunities that will bebe wasted. most effective and give ‘value for money’. Water Conservation Handbook 13
    • For example, if outdoor water use in your area is high, Select and design water conservationthen a program targeted at this will have the greatest initiativespotential for saving water. Current consumption data The range of water conservation programs are outlinedmay also be necessary for setting and monitoring as follows:targets. 1. Changing Council plans and policies – refer toWork with stakeholders Section 4 (page 17 ) for details. 2. Saving water in Council operations – refer toThe value of your plan, and the success of its Section 5 (page 21) for details.implementation, will be strengthened by involving the 3. Community programs – refer to Section 6 (page 37)community and other stakeholders in its development. for details.This involvement is the key to capacity building, whichwill support, promote, contribute to and sustain your When reviewing and selecting programs, assess whichWater Conservation Plan. The effort you put into are most strategic for your Council in terms of:involving stakeholders will depend on the scope ofyour plan. • links to your Strategic/Corporate Plan; • achieving significant reductions in water use;It will be important to include some stakeholder groups • the provision of community services;directly in the process, while others may just be keptinformed. Potential stakeholders to include in the • establishing partnerships with government bodiesdevelopment of your plan are outlined in Table 1. and the private sector; and • promoting your Council as responsible.Understanding stakeholders is critical to designing andimplementing appropriate and effective water The most effective Water Conservation Plans areconservation programs. This involves understanding generally implemented through a variety of programwho will influence the implementation of your Plan, types. If you have limited resources, it is best to focustheir level of understanding, values, perception and on one or two initial programs.practices in relation to water conservation, and howyou can ensure they support your goals. Gatheringknowledge about your community is explored furtherin Section 6.TABLE 1 Possible stakeholders in water conservationStaff and elected members Community representatives• Management, staff and elected members • Local environment groups & branches of• Finance, corporate support, grounds staff, State/National groups property and facilities management, • Schools procurement etc • Education (e.g. TAFE) • Community groups (e.g. Lions Club, Rotary) • Catchment groupsPrivate sector Government bodies• Council’s contractors • Water suppliers (wholesale and retail) (SA Water)• Local retailers of water using products (e.g. nurseries, • State Government agencies (Department for garden supplies & irrigation equipment specialists) Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation etc)• Hardware retail outlets • Federal Government agencies (Environment• Electrical retail outlets (e.g. washing machines, Australia, Australian Greenhouse Office etc) dishwashers) • Catchment Water Management Boards• Manufacturers / importers of water using products• Landscape businesses• Local builders and developers• Energy suppliers14 Water Conservation Handbook
    • CASE STUDY: Rous Water Rous Water, a bulk water supplier in northern The program was so successful that some outlets NSW, initiated a program offering householders a produced their own promotional material, $150 rebate on the purchase of a water efficient including window displays, or supplemented the front loading washing machine with an energy offer with additional ‘cash back’ on some brands. rating of four stars or above. The program was run Since the start of the program there has been in partnership with the NSW Sustainable Energy interest from both washing machine manufacturers Development Authority and the local energy and retailers to join the partnership and contribute provider NorthPower, with each contributing $50 to the rebate. For further information contact John to the rebate. Local electrical goods retail outlets Rutledge on (02) 6621 8055. participated in the program.4. Design 5. ImplementationAt this stage of the planning process you can fully This is the important part! Your plan should providedevelop specific water conservation initiatives. you with the steps to follow through the implementation phase. However, during theDo a detailed design implementation phase you will most likely need toRefer to Sections 4, 5 and 6 for details on changing adjust your plan to take advantages of opportunities asCouncil policies and plans, improving Council they arise and to manage unforeseen events.operations and undertaking community programsrespectively. Choose the programs that will suit your Remember that implementing your plan is what youcircumstances and adapt them to the resources and should spend most of your time doing. It is importantcontext of your Council. to find the right balance between planning and action.Set targets It is likely that your Council will already have management systems or processes in place, and youTargets specific to each initiative may be set. Targets should integrate your plan with these where possible.should be SMART:Specific: clearly state what you aim to achieve. Manage and review dataMeasurable: ensure that the data is available and that Data management is the most commonly neglected partsystems are in place to manage the data. of water conservation programs. It is crucial to set up aAchievable: assess if it is possible to meet the goal tailored data management system that collects waterwith the available resources and timeframe. use data as it is generated, to monitor the success ofRealistic: set targets that are possible to achieve for the water conservation initiatives.type of program you are implementing.Timely: set a timeframe for achieving each target and The water use data should be reviewed regularly to:goal, and monitor on a regular basis. • ensure that water conservation initiatives that haveSeek formal approval been implemented are meeting their predicted savings; andAt this stage you may need to seek approval to expendfunds on the delivery of the Water Conservation Plan • identify any unexpected changes in use as thisPlan. You should have enough information by this enables quick rectification if required (for example,stage to provide costs, benefits and a detailed plan. You if there are system leaks).may also be able to apply for external funding throughthe Office of Local Government, Local Government When analysing water use data, you will need to takeAssociation, National Heritage Trust, Community climate variability and varied usage patterns intoDevelopment Grants, Catchment Water Management account. Water savings may not be reflected initially inBoards (or NRM Boards) etc. the water use data. For example, if you implement water saving initiatives during an unusually hot year (as in 2002), consumption may appear to increase when water is still being saved relatively speaking Water Conservation Handbook 15
    • because consumption would have been even higher if There are several ways to assess the effectiveness ofyou had done nothing. It is possible to correct your water conservation programs, including:data for climate and usage variations, but this is not • surveys, questionnaires and feedback forms;straightforward and you should seek professionalassistance if this is of interest to you. • statistical analysis; • cost-benefit analysis;It is crucial to manage your data well (both in terms of • participation (or uptake) rates; andwater and budgets) in order to demonstrate savings to • the amount of positive publicity received.management and elected members. It is critical to identify early in the planning processManage roles and responsibilities what information or data will need to be collected orTo generate shared expectations and ownership it is maintained in order to monitor the effectiveness ofimportant to define the roles and responsibilities of programs. It is better to gather more information thanCouncil staff and management, and other stakeholders less, as it is often impossible to collect it after theinvolved in your Water Conservation Plan. Defining program has finished.roles and responsibilities also strengthens commitmentthrough a sense of accountability. Celebrate! And communicate your success In conducting programs for water conservation, it isCommunication is crucial important to celebrate your successes.Regular updates should be provided to management,elected members, staff, stakeholders and the Communicate the success of your programs throughcommunity to inform them about progress. These Council internal and external processes, for example:updates can go beyond reports and be in the form of • Council internal newsletters or via an internal email;staff training and site visits. • at a Council meeting or committee meeting (forWhen addressing communication issues, consider not example, the environment committee);only what information needs to be communicated, but • Council’s state of the environment report (if youalso the audience, the most appropriate communication have one);media (e.g. newsletters, email) and necessary frequency. • meetings with managers and/or directors; • your Council’s page in local newspapers;6. Review – monitoring and • on Council’s web page; evaluation • at Council stalls at festivals and fairs; andMonitoring your plan and individual programs is • public events with the media (for example, whenessential to ensure you are on track to meeting goals new rainwater tanks are installed in communityand targets. It ensures that all the hard work of facilities).designing and implementing water conservationinitiatives is generating benefits, as well as providing You could also ask any stakeholders, sponsors oran opportunity to fine-tune and improve programs. In community groups to include information on thesome instances, particularly for larger, more costly program in their newsletters and publications as well asprograms, it may be appropriate to seek an independent, display information in libraries and customer servicespecialist evaluation. centres.Program evaluation can be used to:• influence elected members, senior management and other Council staff, and funding bodies;• build community capacity and engage communities;• communicate about your successes or failures;• ensure accountability for your work; and• reflect on and improve the program.Plan your evaluation and monitoring at the outset,otherwise you may not be able to get the data orinformation you need.16 Water Conservation Handbook
    • S E C T I O NChanging Council policies 4and plansIntroduction Regular reviews of Councils’ Development Plans are required to be undertaken, via ‘Section 30 Reviews’One of the most effective mechanisms to achieve and under the Development Act 1993. Councils can preparepromote water conservation outcomes in the broader Plan Amendment Reports (PARs) to update or amendcommunity is via the various regulatory, planning and each Plan, based on detailed investigations andpolicy tools that Councils are responsible for consultations with the broad community. Where it isdeveloping and administering. Water conservation can identified that water conservation has become an issuebe integrated into existing frameworks through to be incorporated into planning policy, each CouncilStrategic Management Plans, Development Plans and can, via a PAR, include appropriate planninginternal policies and operations. provisions in its Plan to promote or mandate particular water conservation strategies that are appropriate for itsUnderstanding your Council’s corporate and Council area. These provisions can then be applied tocommunity water consumption, relevant legislation, new developments in the Council area. Encouragingdemographics and community opinion will help you to water sensitive urban design is an important issue forprovide justification for changes to your Council’s Local Government.policies and plans. Planning provisions to reduce water (and energy)Figure 7 on page 20 depicts a typical Council Strategic consumption through the planning and regulatoryand Policy structure. It may be useful to draw this framework may include requiring or encouraging well-diagram for your organisation and consider the changes designed rainwater collection systems in newnecessary to facilitate water conservation. developments, and requiring existing buildings that are being renovated to be fitted with water efficientStrategic Management Plans devices. The Building Code of Australia is also an important tool, particularly regarding the provision ofAll Councils are required by the Local Government Act water efficient fittings in new buildings, such as the1999 to prepare Strategic Management Plans, that standard requirement for dual flush toilets.should provide direction and accountability in Councilachieving its functions and responsibilities under the The State Government can prepare a Ministerial PARAct. These functions include ‘to manage, develop, that will, on adoption, be applied to all or selectedprotect, restore, enhance and conserve the environment Council Development Plans in a synchronised wayin an ecologically sustainable manner’, and to ‘seek to across the State.facilitate sustainable development and the protection ofthe environment’. Environmental and natural resource CASE STUDY:management issues (including water conservation) are Marrickville City Council (NSW)now a core statutory focus for Councils, and should bereflected in Council’s strategic planning processes and Marrickville Development Control Plan No 32 –documents. Energy Smart Water Wise contains requirements for energy and water efficiency in both newCouncils also prepare profession-specific strategic developments and in alterations and additionsmanagement plans, which can include water to existing buildings. The main water efficiencyconservation considerations. controls are dual flush toilets and AAA rated water fixtures. A Comprehensive Water CycleDevelopment Plans Assessment and a Water Efficient Landscaping Assessment are required for majorCouncils administer urban planning policies and developments. For further information refer toregulate development through reference to a Section 7 on CD.Development Plan that is prepared for each Councilarea. Water Conservation Handbook 17
    • Water conservation strategies that are appropriate to CASE STUDY:Council could therefore be implemented via a South AustraliaMinisterial PAR. Local Government can collaboratewith the State Government (Planning SA) to develop Permanent water restrictions in South AustraliaMinisterial PARs to address the issue on a regional or were enacted on 26 October 2003 and predictedState-wide basis, as well as amending its own to result in a maximum reduction of 20% ofDevelopment Plan to reflect the particular needs and water use across the board (including irrigators,opportunities of its Council area. industry, residential and government). There will be four levels of restriction addressing:Internal policies and procedures • private gardens, lawns, paved areas, sportsCouncils can integrate water conservation into day-to- grounds and recreation areas;day business through altering internal policies and • fountains, ponds, pools and spas;procedures to incorporate water conservation. • vehicle washing, building development and construction activities; andFor example, water conservation considerations can be • farm dams and rainwater tanks, commercialincorporated into Purchasing and Procurement Policies nurseries, garden centres and poultry sheds.and Standard Operating Procedures. SA Water has begun a community educationAlterations to the Purchasing and Procurement Policy program and the level of restrictions will becan reduce the environmental impacts of goods and determined based on seasonal variations inservices purchased by Council. Some Councils include demand, river levels and rainfall. Refer toan overall environment statement within this policy, www.sawater.com.au/restrictions/index.html.referring to a number of key outcomes such as waterconservation, pollution prevention, minimising andrecycling wastes and minimising greenhouse gas CASE STUDY:emissions. For example, changes to this policy may Barwon Waterlead to your road reconstruction contractor usingmachinery that vacuums up and recycles the water used Barwon Water is the first Victorian waterin the wet saw road cutting process. The more specific authority to introduce a Water Conservation By­you can be about how environmental impacts are to be law, which came into effect from 1 Februaryminimised the better. 2003. Eighteen months community consultation into the future of the regions water supplyStandard Operating Procedures are the procedures preceded the by-law’s introduction. Throughoutwritten to govern many Council activities. These were the consultation process there wasoften written initially due to the need to make overwhelming support for water conservation.procedures clear for new staff members and/or the need The by-law is a permanent measure to conserveto protect staff from Occupational Health Safety and water now and for future generations. ItWelfare risks. These procedures may be changed to involves restrictions on watering gardens,incorporate water conservation outcomes. For example, cleaning vehicles, cleaning driveways and pathsan irrigation procedure may be altered so that and construction activities. For further detailssprinklers are only operated between certain times. refer to Section 7 on CD.Obviously these changes should only be made inconsultation with the relevant managers and staff. To Stormwater Infrastructure Planningchange these procedures in a systematic, holistic, Councils are largely responsible for the planning,environmental way some Councils have chosen to development and maintenance of stormwaterundertake an Environmental Management System. infrastructure within their areas. There are opportunities to incorporate water conservation into theOnce you have established good practices, altering planning for new infrastructure, and in the ongoingpolicies and procedures to reflect this is a good way to upgrades and rehabilitation of existing infrastructure.ensure that water conservation gains are maintained. Where greenfield development is occurring (land that has previously been undeveloped or has beenStormwater used for agricultural purposes) there are enormous opportunities for Councils to work with developers inStormwater is a key area for Council action with regard designing stormwater master plans that allow bothto water conservation. stormwater management, and water collection and harvesting ( if site conditions allow).18 Water Conservation Handbook
    • The 2002 Ministerial PAR for Stormwater CASE STUDY:and related documents Urban Stormwater Master PlansPlanning SA has prepared a Stormwater InfrastructurePlanning package to promote an integrated approach to The Cities of Port Adelaide Enfield, Charles Sturtcatchment management. The package includes: and Prospect, supported by the Torrens Catchment Water Management Board, are• Planning Bulletin: Urban Stormwater Infrastructure developing detailed integrated Urban to assist Councils in the process of policy Stormwater Master Plans during 2002–05 for development at the level of zone or policy area by each of the 23 independent water sub- raising awareness and generating debate among catchments in the north-west Adelaide region. stakeholders on catchment water management policy These will include investigations and the issues; identification of opportunities regarding the• Guidelines for Urban Stormwater Management; and best mix of planning, engineering and• Draft Ministers Specification: On-Site Retention of environmental policies and strategies in each Stormwater which is a technical standard to provide sub-catchment to achieve a range of desired cost effective technical solutions to the requirements outcomes, including improved water quality and for on-site retention and detention of stormwater. conservation. For further information contact Verity Sanders (08) 8405 6765.Councils located wholly or partly within the catchmentareas of the Patawalonga and the Torrens CatchmentWater Management Boards are also affected by theStormwater in Urban Areas Plan Amendment(November, 2002). This Plan Amendment Reportprovides a development assessment framework tofacilitate appropriate management of stormwater, andincludes some broad principles regarding waterconservation.The PAR has been incorporated into the relevantDevelopment Plans. For more information, theresources listed above can be accessed from PlanningSA’s website at www.planning.sa.gov.au/publicationsor you can contact Malcolm Govett at Planning SA bytelephone (08) 8204 8394 or emailgovett.malcolm@saugov.sa. gov.au.The State Government’s Guidelines for UrbanStormwater Management include the recommendationfor Councils to prepare Urban Stormwater Master planswhich would allow the integration of stormwaterinfrastructure planning, urban land use plannin, andenvironmental planning into a single long term Plan. Water Conservation Handbook 19
    • FIGURE 7 Council policies and plans related to water management Built Environment and Environmental Design Development Approvals and Control Policy Planners, Environment Planners or Strategic Assessments staff Planning staff Require water conservation measures in new Negotiation with major developers at Master Planning developments or modifications (if specified in the stage regarding water conservation opportunities to be Development Plan) incorporated into major developments Local Environment Strategy (LES) Local Environmental Plan (LEP) Both LESs and LEPs can include provisions for water conservation Council Management Plan and Budget Technical or Engineering Planning Aims and funding related to water conservation should Infrastructure and Asset Plans be included in your management plan and budget Can incorporate water conservation into infrastructure design and construction Allocate funding for a water demand management strategy or other major works Reducing water use in Council operations will save the Parks and Gardens council money Outdoor staff Parks plans of management Social/Community Plan Incorporate water conservation measures into parks plans of management Social planners Teach outdoor staff about water conserving practices Community education or community cultural development programs about water conservation can be undertaken with the assistance of social planners and officers, e.g. youth officer Natural Environment State of the Environment Reporting Environment staff Councils can report on water conservation activities in their state of the environment report Environment Management Systems (EMS) Water conservation measures should be part of any Council’s EMS Community education programs Environment officers can plan and implement community education programs about water conservation20 Water Conservation Handbook
    • S E C T I O NHow to conserve water in 5Council operationsIntroduction There are many approaches to the implementation of water conservation initiatives developed from the auditIt is important for Councils to lead by example in process. These include:implementing water conservation measures. This will • clumping together the initiatives arising from thesave Council money, give staff experience in audit for the purposes of a budget bid. Theimplementing water conservation initiatives and gain advantages of this approach are that you can seekthe respect of local residents. Councils are in an approval for a comprehensive package of measures,authoritative and unique position both to change their include economically marginal initiatives togetherown operational practices and to influence others to do with high return initiatives to give an overall returnthe same through positive role modelling. on investment that is acceptable, and ensure a high- level of integration between the measures.This Section provides guidance on conserving water inLocal Government parks and gardens, buildings and • implementing some high return initiativesother facilities. immediately. The advantage of this approach is that you can quickly demonstrate the value of waterPlanning sheets are provided for: conservation to senior managers, elected members1. undertaking a water audit; and staff and build further support.2. irrigation water use;3. facilty water use; When deciding what actions to take, consider4. alternative water supplies; and initiatives beyond capital projects, for example,5. construction and refurbishment. training staff. In many cases, changing policies and procedures (including Contracting and Procurement Policies) can be effective and lead to far-reachingApproaches water conservation measures. Refer to Section 4:Conserving water within Council operations may be Changing Council policies and plans (page 17).undertaken through a structured approach as part of anEnvironmental Management System, Environmental It is crucial to manage your water and cost saving dataImprovement Program or Water Conservation Plan. well (both in terms of water and budgets) in order toAlternatively, specific water saving initiatives may be demonstrate savings to management and electedundertaken as opportunities arise. members. Refer to Section 3 (page 13) for details.As part of a structured approach a water audit is often A different approach – using anundertaken by either in-house staff or qualified, Energy and Water Performanceexternal organisations. The role of the audit is to assess Contractwater collection, use and disposal and to identifyopportunities for water conservation. However, a water An alternative way to address water conservation isaudit is only part of the process. As a stand-alone through an Energy and Water Performance Contract.activity, audits do not deliver results. You need to This involves the engagement of a third party tosecure management support for the implementation improve the efficiency of a facility (or facilities). Thephase of the program before you undertake an audit – contractor examines the facility, evaluates the level ofrefer to Section 3 for details. Planning sheet 1 details savings that could be achieved and then offers tohow to conduct a water audit. The audit results should implement the project and guarantee the savings over ahelp you to set targets for water use reduction within specified term. For further information on Energy andyour Council operations. Water Performance Contracting see www.aepca.asn.au. Water Conservation Handbook 21
    • CASE STUDY: Hornsby Shire Council Hornsby Shire Council has implemented Australia’s most comprehensive Local Government Energy and Water Performance Contract throughout Council’s buildings and parks. Water conservation measures include eliminating unused water systems, installing tap flow controllers, fitting flush optimisers to toilet cisterns and fitting keyed service taps. Guaranteed savings from the project are a reduction in energy use of 25 per cent and water use of six per cent, with total cost savings of $180 000 pa. For further information contact Rima Lauge-Kristensen (02) 9847 6545.22 Water Conservation Handbook
    • Planning Sheet 11 Undertaking a Water Audit Introduction Often it will be difficult to obtain water use data from these sources and in many cases water will be provided A water audit can be undertaken in-house or by a ‘free’ of charge – be sure to investigate further as there qualified, external organisation. The purpose of the are often costs that are overlooked. Where these audit is to assess how water is collected, used and supplies are pumped you may be able to estimate disposed and thereby to identify opportunities to supply costs using fuel/electricity and maintenance conserve water. A water audit can range from a broad charges and volumes from pump run times. Check if overview to a detailed study. You may choose to focus your Council uses bottled water, as it comes at a on one large facility, clump similar facilities together or significant cost and may be replaced with rainwater in cover all facilities. some cases. Audits need to be focussed as much on the It is also important to investigate what happens to organisational structure and responsibilities as on ‘used’ water. How is it disposed of? Water disposal can technical solutions. Each site and organisation is cause significant downstream environmental impacts different and presents unique opportunities. In most and in some cases there is a cost to dispose of used organisations individuals have already identified water. For example, water used inside a building ends opportunities for improvement and staff should be up in the sewer, requires treatment and often has involved in the audit through a participatory process. significant impacts associated with disposal. This improves the quality of the audit and also builds ownership of the recommendations within the Once you have the required data: organisation. • determine the average annual water usage and Step 1 disposal costs for each facility and prioritise based on usage and cost; and Assess water collection, use and disposal (and costs) • investigate seasonal patterns of water usage and other trends or events within each facility by The first step is to investigate your Council’s water charting usage against time. supply, usage and disposal. You will need to research You may want to benchmark water consumption how much water your Council uses, from what sources against similar facilities. This will only be useful if and at what unit cost it is provided. there is data available that is specific to the type of the facility you are auditing. Note that benchmarking is CASE STUDY: often complex owing to differing usage patterns, Lismore City Council climate zones etc. Lismore City Council has developed and Figure 8 shows the water use of an urban Council implemented a comprehensive Water depot over the last two and a half years. Conservation Strategy which includes Authority Water Use Conservation, i.e. getting ‘Councils own house in order’. Refer to Section 7 on CD for FIGURE 8 Example chart of water use at an urban Council depot the detailed case study. 300 For mains water, the amount of water used by each meter and the unit cost can be found on your water WATER USE (kL) 250 utility bills. In many Councils, accounts paid are filed by date and uncovering your water bills may be a difficult and frustrating process. If this is the case, SA 200 Water can provide data on request. It is best to collect five years’ data because this enables you to investigate seasonal trends. Contact SA Water on (08) 8207 7739. 150 Jul 00 Jan 01 Jul 01 Jan 02 Jul 02 Jan 03 Other water sources include rainwater, stormwater, DATE bottled water, groundwater, treated greywater and reclaimed effluent. Water Conservation Handbook 23
    • Step 2 CASE STUDY:Assess the breakdown of water use Tatiara District CouncilThe next step is to estimate the different types of water In 2003 Tatiara District Council undertook ause within each facility. In a perfect world all water participatory environmental audit of Councilusing fixtures and equipment would be sub-metered facilities. After analysing the data, theand this task would be easy. In practice, assessing the consultants who performed the audit held awater use breakdown is based on assumptions made workshop with a cross-organisational group ofabout (or occasionally measurements of) fixture/ staff from within Council. Opportunities raisedequipment usage and volumes/flowrates and then used were investigated and prioritised and furtherto generate the water use breakdown. workshops have presented the findings and developed implementation pathways. ThisFIGURE 9 Example breakdown of water use in a approach aimed at drawing on the extensive Council office building experience within Council and building ownership of the outcomes. For further information contact Rocky Callisto (08) 8752 1044, rockycallisto@tatiara.sa.gov.au. WCs 40% Shower 5% Taps 31% Urinals 23% Leaks 1%Step 3Investigate opportunitiesAt this stage, opportunities for water conservation canbe identified and assessed. There are numerousopportunities for water conservation in Councils, manyof which are discussed in the following Planning Sheets.You can use the Best Practice Water ConservationPrinciples to guide your actions – refer to Section 3 fordetails.Through the audit process a range of opportunities willbe identified. These should be categorised to assist inplanning the implementation phase. For example:Q quick wins that can be implemented immediately (excellent returns with no or minimal capital outlay);C attractive opportunities requiring some capital outlay (senior management approval may be required);L less attractive returns, lower priority initiatives; andI initiatives requiring further investigation.24 Water Conservation Handbook
    • Planning Sheet 22 Irrigation water use Introduction 2. Efficient irrigation Most water used directly by Councils is for the Design irrigation of parklands, reserves, gardens, ovals and All efficient irrigation systems, regardless of the golf courses etc. technology used, start with a good design. In the field there are examples where good technology has been The Cities of Port Adelaide Enfield and Adelaide are used but the design was so poor that no amount of the only Councils using mains water for irrigation that management could make up for its inefficiencies. The are not charged for water used on parklands. SA Water fundamental reason for this problem is that systems are bills the State Government for the water. bought on capital price and not on the basis of a net present value over the life of the system. Irrigation is a specialist field and different irrigation methods are appropriate for different areas. You will Water efficient irrigation systems are designed for the need to work with your parks and gardens or grounds particular plant, soil and site combination under manager (or equivalent) to decide the best action to consideration. A good design is critical and Councils take to reduce irrigation water use. These staff often should investigate developing a good specification that have extensive experience that will significantly takes into account the annual operating costs as well as increase the chance of your program being successful. the initial capital cost i.e. a lifecycle costing approach. In general, the options to consider in reducing The Irrigation Association of Australia (IAA) irrigation mains water use are: www.irrigation.org.au/ provides contact details for all 1. choosing areas to receive less irrigation; Australian and New Zealand IAA qualified Certified Irrigation Designers. 2. efficient irrigation; 3. water efficient landscaping; and Management 4. using alternative supplies of water (refer to Correct management by properly trained and qualified Planning Sheet 4). staff is essential for efficient irrigation. When drip irrigation systems were first installed in many 1. Choosing areas to receive less locations, management was not capable of operating (or no) irrigation them correctly so systems were left on for far too long. In agriculture, a well-managed gravity fed system can Maintaining lush, green lawns and gardens requires be more efficient than a high-tech drip system. water. At the most fundamental level you can investigate reducing the amount of lawn and/or high Training staff on irrigation system auditing and water using gardens within your Council and changing scheduling is a key step that Councils can take. the type or reducing the quality of selected lawn areas. These options need to be carefully negotiated with stakeholders within Council and the community, as there are likely to be strong opinions on the way things should be done in this area. There is a planning role here vis-à-vis clearly defining the function of CASE STUDY: individual open space areas. Irrigation training at five local Councils Potential issues include perceived negative changes to In November 2002, thirty staff from the Cities of the aesthetics of parks and gardens and loss of amenity Playford, Adelaide, Charles Sturt, Salisbury and in public spaces. In addition, changes to irrigation Tea Tree Gully completed two-days training on water use are likely to involve changes to the working auditing and scheduling irrigation systems practices of grounds staff so they need to be involved through the Irrigation Association of Australia. throughout the process. Therefore, a consultative For further information contact Jeremy Cape, approach to changing irrigation water use is essential. CSIRO, Jeremy.cape@csiro.au, (08) 8303 8552. You can strengthen your case if you can demonstrate how much water will be saved (dollars and litres), the benefits to the environment and that low water use areas can be aesthetically pleasing. Water Conservation Handbook 25
    • Technology once when it is raining to turn sprinklers off. FullyOnly after the design and management are correct automatic control often has reliability issues and can beshould suggestions about the various available disempowering for staff on the ground. A certaintechnologies be made. System scheduling should be amount of on-the-ground work appears to be requiredbased on the objective measurement of plant water with the balance, between automatic and manualneeds, not according to timers. control depending on the specific situation.Drip irrigation is the most effective way of delivering Basic irrigation control strategies include wateringwater where it is needed with minimal losses. during the evening or early morning to minimiseHowever, drip systems may not be suitable for a evaporation losses where possible, and watering up tospecified application in some cases: and not beyond the point of field capacity, i.e. where any more water applied would drain out of the soil• where drip lines need to be close to the surface they through gravity, runoff or remain on the surface. In may be easily damaged in some applications; addition, vandal-proof taps in parks and gardens are• where soils in South Australia have a high clay excellent water savers. Where taps are used for service content (as often occurs) distribution problems may purposes only they can be key locked. be experienced with drip systems; and• where the cost of replacing sprinkler equipment is Good irrigation control is a complex issue dependent prohibitive. on many factors. For example: • watering may be required in the heat of the day forSpray irrigation is the most common form of irrigation new plantings, cricket pitches and where an oval isand can be used more efficiently by: served by multiple lines from one supply;• testing monthly for sticking valves; • systems are often controlled to turn off at a rainfall• inspecting regularly to confirm the units are setpoint which means that the sprinklers will operate functioning correctly; until the rainfall reaches this setpoint or the watering cycle is complete as many rain events provide• ensuring uniformity of coverage; and insufficient water; and• avoiding runoff through intermittent watering • excess water may be applied to specific areas for cycles - for example, if 30 minutes watering pest treatment purposes, in preference to chemical is required for a park this can be applied in three 10 spraying. minute cycles at one hour intervals. Therefore, it is best to ask before making conclusionsControl about your Council watering practices.There is a balance to be reached between manual andautomatic control. Fully manual control tends to resultin wastage, as grounds staff cannot be everywhere at It is important to discuss with SA Water appropriate CASE STUDY: City of Unley Michael Howley has 25 years experience with Michael has installed rain sensors (approximately irrigation at the City of Unley. He says, $50 each) at larger sites. These are linked to Irrigation is an important part of horticulture, but it controls to turn off the irrigation system can be expensive if not monitored correctly. As part automatically when a specified setpoint of rainfall of my programming of Unley Council’s controllers I is recorded (usually greater than 10mm, but cut the irrigation back once the soil temperature altered with the season). The irrigation controls starts to drop below the mid-twenties. This ensures are remote controllable within 1km of each site. that the turf is put out of its comfort zone, allowing the soil to dry to the point that when we receive For further information contact Michael Howley, the winter rains the soil hasn’t reached saturation Team Leader, Sport Recreation Parks & Gardens, point. During winter months the controllers are set City of Unley, mhowley@unley.sa.gov.au, for two minutes each line once a fortnight to flush 0413 449 621. the valves and sprinklers. This maintains the irrigation equipment in a serviceable state.26 Water Conservation Handbook
    • watering times and when restrictions are in place, and There are many excellent references available. Forif necessary to obtain an exemption for watering example, refer to:outside of the required times. • Macdonald G, Peate N, Talbot A, 1997 Grow What Where, Lothian Books.3. Water efficient landscaping • Handreck, K ,1993 Gardening Down-under: BetterWater efficient landscaping is using plants and garden Soils & Potting Mixes for Better Gardens, CSIROdesigns that look attractive and use little water. Your Publications.Council landscape gardeners may have experience with • SA Water website fact sheets atwater efficient landscaping. If not, think about how www.sawater.com.au/.opportunities could be created for them to learn aboutwater efficient landscaping.In designing Council gardens you could consider:• minimising the area of lawns, flower beds and high water using plants;• locating plants with similar water needs together;• reducing surface run-off by considering elevations and flow patterns; and• avoid planting trees and shrubs where they can cause damage to pipework, paths or buildings.Good management will make your gardens and parkshealthier and reduce their water requirements.One of the keys is mulching. Mulching can reduceirrigation water use by as much as 70 per cent. A50 mm layer of organic mulch spread over garden bedswill break down slowly and feed plants, restrict weedgrowth, prevent wind and water erosion, and shade theground. Allow a space around the stems and trunks ofplants.Prepare soil before planting. Organic matter mixedthrough the top layer will dramatically improve bothwater and nutrient holding capacity. Do not force feedplants with large amounts of strong fertilisers. Theseproduce lush growth that has a high water transpirationrate and is more prone to insect and fungal attack.Compost and slow release fertilisers are better.Irrigating lawns accounts for the bulk of water use.Seek professional advice regarding species andmanagement. Some ‘low water use’ species are notsuitable for the South Australian climate and performpoorly. Select plant species suitable for the local areaand soil type that have low water use requirements. Water Conservation Handbook 27
    • 28 Water Conservation Handbook
    • Planning Sheet 33 Facility water use Introduction Showerheads Many of the opportunities for water conservation Frequency of shower use in Council facilities varies within Council owned and/or operated facilities are considerably, ranging from rarely to multiple daily similar to opportunities in the home. However, water uses, depending on the facility. Installing low-flow usage from fixtures such as taps and showers is showerheads can halve shower water consumption. much more variable than within households. For further information refer to Section 7 (on CD). Swimming pools Taps Swimming pools are large water users. Water Tap usage and applications vary considerably, leakage from pools can be a significant issue, as ranging from bathroom taps to taps in service areas. demonstrated in the following case study. The other Installation of key-locked, vandal-proof taps in main opportunity is to use a pool cover to minimise service areas and automatic shut-off taps in public evaporation losses – this also reduces heat loss from use areas are a good investment, both in water the pool (and energy requirements for pool heating). savings and reduced maintenance. Good quality tap washers pay for themselves in CASE STUDY: reduced maintenance and water use costs. The use of City of Unley flow reduction washers is also effective, particularly in bathroom taps. For further information refer to The City of Unley closed its Olympic swimming Section 7 (on CD). pool after experiencing significant leakage problems. The pool had a capacity of around CASE STUDY: 1 million litres and was built in the 1960s (along City of Tea Tree Gully with many other pools in Adelaide). It was temporarily shut after losses of up to 300 000 The City of Tea Tree Gully installed special tap litres/day were noted from the drop in the water washers to more than 1200 taps in over 100 level of the pool. Attempts were made to patch buildings during 2003-2004. The tap washers the pool but the water losses were still excessive. provide a precisely controlled, even flow of water, For further information contact Chris Tually delivering savings on water and energy use and (08) 8372 5163. virtually eliminating tap maintenance. Indications from other installations indicate a saving of 25 per cent in water use. Toilets The Council is collecting and compiling data to Many flush toilets in Council facilities are used verify their water savings. For further information frequently. Opportunities for water conservation in contact Michael Burke on (08) 8397 7271. toilets include repairing leaks and reducing flush volume by installing dual flush cisterns or cistern weights. Refer to Section 7 (on CD) for more information. Urinals You could also consider installing waterless Urinals can be operated by cyclic flush, pull cord or composting toilets, particularly in new facilities and button operation, or automatically according to rural and remote areas. Many approved composting demand, and can be surprisingly large water users. toilet systems are now available. They have been A cyclic flush urinal, supplied by two 12 litre successfully used in National Parks (such as Flinders cisterns operating 24 hours per day, can use nearly Chase and the Coorong) with good public response 2 ML/annum, which is about six times the average and low maintenance requirements. Refer to Section annual household water use9. 7 (on CD) for approval requirements for composting toilets. Water Conservation Handbook 29
    • Opportunities to conserve water include modifyingflush control, reducing flush volume and conversionto waterless urinals. There are many different flushcontrol options – refer to Wise Water Management,see Section 7 (on CD) for further details.Though relatively new to Australia, waterless urinalshave been used for some time in Europe and theUSA. Urine passes through a special trap cartridgewith an oil seal, which prevents undesirable odoursfrom escaping. The cartridges are replaced afterabout 8500 uses and cost about $40 a year for eachurinal10.Other equipmentOther water using equipment includes depotwashing bays and washdown areas, fire equipment(testing and other usage), street washing, fountainsand domestic equipment such as dishwashers andwashing machines. In country areas, road buildingby Councils is a significant water use.30 Water Conservation Handbook
    • Planning Sheet 44 Alternative supplies of water Introduction FIGURE 10 Unley Museum Rainwater Tanks Project Demonstration Site You can complement water conservation measures by reducing the use of mains water with alternative water supplies. Alternative water supplies include: 1. rainwater tanks; 2. aquifer storage and recovery; 3. greywater and blackwater; 4. reclaimed effluent; and 5. groundwater. 1. Rainwater tanks The capture, storage and use of rainwater can significantly reduce stormwater flows to the street and augment supply to Council owned and occupied buildings. Specific considerations for Local Government include: • although treatment of rainwater for residential purposes is uncommon you will need to consider treatment if installing a commercial system that provides drinking water (Contact the Department for Human Services for requirements on commercial systems). As Ultra-violet (UV) sterilisation is a proven technology ideal for rainwater treatment (owing to the low turbidity of rainwater); CASE STUDY: • rainwater tank systems are most effective at City of Prospect saving mains water and reducing stormwater A 91 000 litre underground rainwater tank is flows where they are fully utilised; and being installed as part of the City of Prospect’s • the cost-effectiveness of rainwater tank systems Civic Centre upgrade. Rainwater collected will be increases dramatically where rainwater is also used for toilet flushing and irrigation of grounds. used to replace bottled water. For further information, contact Marnie Lynch (08) 8269 5355. CASE STUDY: CASE STUDY: City of Unley 60 Leicester St, Carlton, Victoria (60L) The Unley Museum Rainwater Tanks Project Two 10 000 litre tanks store water harvested Demonstration Site demonstrates three separate from 60Ls roof. This system will collect 500 approaches to rainwater harvesting and use, kilolitres of water in an average rainfall year, including a pressure pump system for indoor which is 90 per cent of the building’s total needs. water needs and a gravity-fed toilet system. After collection, rainwater is micro-filtered and Expected savings are around 80 kL/annum plus sterilised for use in taps (including drinking irrigation savings. For further information, water), showers and appliances. For further contact the City of Unley on (08) 8372 5120. information refer to Section 7. Water Conservation Handbook 31
    • 2. Aquifer storage and recovery CASE STUDY: Aquifer Storage Recovery as part of aAquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a way of re-use schemeartificially recharging underground aquifers usingstormwater or treated wastewater. The water stored Stormwater from Dry Creek will be passedin the aquifers can then be pumped out and reused through a gross pollutant trap and pumped towhen required. ASR offers a comparatively low cost the nearby Pooraka Triangle wetlands. Oncemethod of storing water as an alternative to surface there, the reed-beds will continue the filteringstorage and it reduces stormwater flows. process before it is pumped into an underground T2 aquifer. This recycled stormwater will beAlthough widely used in the USA, Israel and the available for irrigation within the reserve,Netherlands, the potential for ASR in Australia has reducing the amount of mains water being usedonly been recently recognised. However, South at present by approximately 30 megalitres. ForAustralia is leading the way and there are currently further information, contact Keith Smith on (08)more than a dozen projects in place. 8285 2033.Smaller scale ASR schemes are of most relevance toLocal Government. ASR should be used whereappropriate rather than where convenient – in some 3. The treatment and reuse ofcases highly saline aquifers have been used with greywater and blackwaterpoor results. Greywater and blackwater from Council facilitiesCouncils interested in ASR can contact Russell can be treated and re-used for irrigation and, withMartin, Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity more effort, for specific indoor uses. Indoor re-use isConservation (08) 8463 6948. generally limited to toilet flushing, is quite complex and is best built-in to facilities at the design stage.FIGURE 11 Aquifer Storage and Recovery Image taken from Peter Dillon presentation from the Water Symposium 200232 Water Conservation Handbook
    • For information on the treatment and re-use of Examples of Councils in South Australia whichgreywater refer to Section 7 (on CD). For currently re-use treated effluent include:information on reclaimed effluent for irrigation refer • District Council of Berri and Barmera, which usesbelow. For other inquiries, contact the Department treated septic tank effluent for irrigation of parks,of Human Services Environmental Health Branch gardens, and the race course and golf course.(08) 8226 7100. Your own Council Environmental Additional effluent is evaporated and the sludgeHealth Officers may also be of assistance. used as fertiliser. • The City of Holdfast Bay, where a small amount CASE STUDY: of treated effluent from the Glenelg Wastewater 60 Leicester St, Carlton, Victoria (60L) Treatment Plant is used for reserve irrigation. • Onkaparinga Council – McLaren Vale and Wastewater from basins, sinks and showers in 60L McLaren Flat, effluent is pumped to the Willunga is collected in an underground tank, together STEDS and treated effluent is used to irrigate the with all the sewage from the toilets. This golf course. combined effluent is then successively treated by sedimentation, digestion, bio-filtration and • Streaky Bay Council – all treated effluent is used clarification before being discharged into a water for foreshore irrigation. storage tank for reclaimed water. This reclaimed • City of West Torrens uses about 4 ML/year on the water is pumped through a separate two-stage airport grounds plus 20–30 ML/year on the filtration and UV sterilisation system to make it university sports playing fields. suitable for flushing all toilet pans and for use in • City of Port Adelaide Enfield – several industries sub-surface irrigation of the roof garden and are using reclaimed water for landscape irrigation. other landscape features. For further information refer to Section 7. Further information on using reclaimed effluent for irrigation is contained in the booklet ‘South Australian Reclaimed Water Guidelines – Treated CASE STUDY: Effluent’, Department of Health and Environment New Haven Village Protection Agency, 1999. You can also contact: • Department of Health (08) 8226 7100 Domestic wastewater and ‘first-flush’ stormwater are treated on-site before being re-used for sub­ • Environment Protection Authority (08) 8204 surface irrigation. Wastewater receives aerobic 2097. treatment, sand filtration and UV disinfection prior to storage. For further information, contact CASE STUDY: Verity Sanders at the City of Port Adelaide District Council of Mount Barker Enfield (08) 8405 6765. Effluent from two townships with a population of 14 000 will be treated at a microfiltration4. Reclaimed effluent for irrigation plant before passing into the purpose built Laratinga Wetlands. After at least 200 days ofThe use of reclaimed effluent for irrigation by detention the treated effluent will be sold forCouncils is quite common and presents an excellent irrigation on adjacent market gardens11. Foropportunity to conserve mains water. Large-scale further information, contact Atis Berzins – STEDSreuse of treated municipal wastewater from SA Manager (08) 8391 1633.Water treatment plants also occurs in areas north andsouth of metropolitan Adelaide. Opportunities andcosts for local Council reuse need to be considered 5. Groundwateron a site-by-site basis. The use of groundwater will become a critical issueOpportunities for re-use of treated STED (Septic in the near future as residents respond to waterTank Effluent Disposal) lagoon effluent include oval restrictions and shortages by wanting increasedand golf course irrigation and irrigation of other access to groundwater supplies.public open space areas. Irrigation re-use is quitecommon among South Australian non-metropolitanCouncils. Water Conservation Handbook 33
    • Councils should be aware of this demand anddevelop requirements for the sustainable extractionof groundwater (where appropriate and if they havenot already done so) in collaboration with StateGovernment.FIGURE 12 Laratinga wetlands34 Water Conservation Handbook
    • Planning Sheet 55 Construction and refurbishments Introduction The construction of new facilities and the Regular project team meetings are an important part refurbishment of existing facilities is an unparalleled of the process. opportunity to introduce water conservation initiatives. During construction, water conservation Consider your communication and influencing skills. can be integrated into a facility in the most cost Many of the stakeholders in construction projects effective way. Unfortunately, the magnitude of the are from engineering related professions and may opportunity is often matched by the barriers to respond differently to staff that you generally work achieving water conservation. Despite the rhetoric, with. Awareness of this may allow you to use most water conservation specialists can walk into a different approaches and improve your effectiveness. newly constructed ‘green building’ and identify For example, cost benefit figures and financial significant opportunities for water conservation that returns may be more persuasive than emotional have been missed, some of which will still be cost- arguments in some cases. effective to retrofit. Design Why is this the case? There are several contributing factors, including: Involve external specialists who are independent of • mismatches between Council’s stated water the design team, and have designs cross-checked for conservation objectives and the procurement and the inclusion of water conservation initiatives. If construction process as water conservation is possible get a representative on the design team. either left completely out of the brief or is not a Trust your own knowledge base, seek second priority; opinions and be wary of ‘experts’ who may have a conflict of interest. • a shortfall in industry capacity as water conservation is not core business for design and Integrated design is time consuming and complex. construction companies and there is limited As a result, corners are often cut and the savings expertise available; made on design are dwarfed by the additional • perceptions of in-house expertise as both the construction costs. It is worth putting in the effort at construction industry and Council staff believe the design stage. that everything has been covered by the design team, whereas this may not be the case; and Costing • the sheer logistical difficulties involved in any construction project where coordination of Construction projects are driven by the up-front multiple stakeholders and trades is required ­ capital cost. However, as owner-occupiers (or long- often something ‘has to give’ and this term tenants) your Council should be concerned ‘something’ is typically environmental initiatives. with both capital costs and running costs over the life of the building. Costing methodologies should Despite these factors, the benefits of incorporating be used that reflect this lifecycle approach. Clear water conservation outweigh the barriers. Some guidelines for costing should be provided. considerations for successfully integrating water conservation into construction projects follow. Establishing and managing contracts Communication Establish clear guidelines for the inclusion of water Don’t wait to be asked to be involved – you won’t conservation measures and ensure that these are necessarily be. Get involved at the earliest possible included in the contract and regularly reviewed opportunity. This goes beyond expressing an throughout the contract. interest; you will need to be assertive and make sure that you are involved at each step of the process. Ensure that water conservation is included in the You may be able to add value beyond the inclusion development of the initial brief and concept, in of water conservation initiatives by ensuring choosing the design team and throughout the effective communication and cooperation. construction project. Water Conservation Handbook 35
    • It is important to go beyond general statementsabout incorporating water conservation principlesand to be specific about initiatives that will beincluded and targets for water consumption.For refurbishment or upgrades, document currentwater consumption and use the redevelopment as anopportunity to stabilise or reduce that consumption.You might investigate the inclusion of bonuses orpenalties for water consumption targets and Energyand Water Performance Contracts are one way toachieve this. Refer to the beginning of Section 5(page 21) for details.36 Water Conservation Handbook
    • S E C T I O NCommunity programs for 6water conservationIntroduction – Planning your Community programs are also more complex than they appear. Information alone rarely changes whatCommunity programs people do (their behaviour), but it may be anThis section of the Handbook provides details about important part of your overall campaign. To beplanning community household water conservation successful, community programs must be tailoredprograms. The details provided complement the for your local area and the local community.materials provided in Section 5 about improving Different people in the community will haveCouncil’s own operations. Refer to Section 7 (on different understandings of water and theCD) for working with industry information. environment. They will also have different ways different amounts of time and resources that theyIt is important to think carefully about how and why can contribute to learning about water conservationyou want to develop community water conservation and we all learn things in different ways.programs and how they will fit with the strategies ofother government departments and agencies such as If you have considerable time and resources, it isSA Water, the EPA, WaterWise, WaterCare, best to plan a strategy for both incentives andCatchment Water Management Boards and community education. If you only have very limitedindividual community groups. Community programs time and resources, start with a relatively simpleshould not be undertaken by themselves, but to education project that you can build on later, such ascomplement the other water conservation or including information on water conservation inenvironmental strategies that your Council and other existing Council publications, perhaps in aagencies are undertaking. You might want to think community newsletter. Where possible combine orabout working regionally, as the Save Water and link your community programs so that they not onlyPower (SWaP) project did, See SWaP Show case cover water, but also issues like energy and waste,study (page 45). for example, on a household scale.FIGURE 13 Typical household water use Rainfall Roof B A T O L A K I MAINS Runoff T H I L U N T C 380 kL R E D H 80 kL O O T R E Y N MStreet Leaks 60 40 35 15 10 kL kL kL kL kL Garden 220 kL Sewer 150 kL Water Conservation Handbook 37
    • Where are the largest savings in Assigning blanket household water use values to every household, as is often implied in water-household water use? conservation feasibility investigations, can beA ‘typical’ South Australian older-style three misleading. Household water consumption variesbedroom house with three occupants uses 380 considerably between dwelling forms – typicalkilolitres (380 000 litres) of mains water each year. townhouse water use patterns, for example, are veryThis is equivalent to just over 1 000 litres each day different from that of older 1/4 acre suburban blockof the year12. homes. Table 2 (page 39) shows categories for dwelling type and associated water use andBy taking simple actions, a ‘typical’ household can reductions. Table 3 (page 40) shows indicativebecome a water-efficient household using just 200 savings for using water conservation methods orkilolitres of mains water each year. This is devices. They show that setting baseline waterequivalent to 550 litres each day of the year – a consumption data is important to then being able toreduction in mains water consumption of almost 50 estimate the potential savings.per cent.FIGURE 14 Efficient household water use Rainfall Rainwater B A T O L A K I MAINS Tank Use T H I U N T 200 kL L C Up to R E D H O T R E 50 kL O Y N MStreet Leaks 40 20 25 15 0 kL Garden kL kL kL kL 150 kL Sewer 100 kL38 Water Conservation Handbook
    • TABLE 2 Estimated annual water use by dwelling type13Dwelling type#1 Town-houses Small ‘villa’ Moderate size Older ‘large homes#2 new dwellings#3 allotment’ dwellings#4Allotment area, m2 240 300 650 800Roof area, m2 120 120 200 200Irrigated area (incl. trees & shrubs), 40 100 330 400m2Typical number of occupants 2 2 4 3Dual flush WC Yes Yes Yes NoWith or without water Without With Without With Without With Without Withconservation devicesIn-house water use, L/day 239 216 239 216 458 400 413 314Outdoor water use, L/day 72 72 162 147 519 470 618 558Miscellaneous losses 47 47 60 60 147 147 155 155Total indoor and outdoor, L/day 358 335 461 423 1124 1017 1186 1027Total kL/year 130 122 168 154 410 371 433 374Reduction in water use, kL/year 8 14 39 59Present worth benefit of installingconservation measure#5 $135 $135 $337 $395Reduction in water use, percentage 6 8 10 13Notes:#1 Residential flats were not investigated.#2 Small ‘villa-style’ dwelling e.g. modern ‘semi-detached’ medium density dwelling. #3 ‘Broadacres’ houses (typical early 1990s-constructed dwelling in new subdivision).#4 Older large-allotment dwellings, the ‘typical’ (pre-1990s) suburban home, modern-size new dwelling. #5 The present worth is the overall financial benefit that can be expected to accrue over the life of the investment. A positive present worth is considered to be a reasonable investment. Based on 88c/kL mains water, and includes: aerating showerheads or shower flow restrictors (all dwellings), 6/3 litre dual flush toilets (all dwellings), garden timer taps (all dwelling types except townhouses), flow restrictors at kitchen tap, if owner-installed. Water Conservation Handbook 39
    • Indicative savings for using specific water It is useful to create a program logic model to workconservation methods/devices are shown in Table 3. through all the steps of your program to see if orWhen reading these tables note that 1 kL is 1000 how it will contribute to the goal of conservinglitres, equivalent to two medium sized refrigerators water. You can either work left-to-right through thefull of water. model from your inputs through to the outcomes, asking ‘why’ after each step, or right-to-left from theThe information sheets and Home Water Self-Audit outcomes you are seeking, moving back to work outManual (included in Section 7 on CD) provide what inputs are needed (the latter approach is betterguidance on saving water in the home. if you are free to choose what resources you will allocate to a program). Working right-to-left throughHow using logic can help with your logic model ensures that the program activities will lead logically to the outcomes you are seeking.your planningGiven the statistics above regarding possiblesavings, you can start thinking about what kind ofcommunity program might be appropriate in yourCouncil area.A program logic model is a way of setting out in adiagram how your project will proceed, from inputsto the activities that will have outputs and will leadto outcomes (short, medium and long-term) that willcontribute to meeting your goal, see Figure 15 (page41). In this case the overall goal will be to conservewater in your Council.TABLE 3 Indicative savings for using water conservation methods or devices14 Percentage of Typical water Water Approximate cost for Typical water water use in use per year, conserving water conserving saving, kL typical home#1 kL method deviceLawn watering 50% 180 More careful garden $20 45 wateringShower 20% 75 Install a water Typically, no more than 25 efficient shower head an equivalent water or flow control device inefficient showerhead: about $20-$60Washing 15% 55 Replace with a water About $70 per kg dry 25machine efficient washing clothes capacity more machine than a water- inefficient machineToilet#2 10% 35 Replace with a water $200 15 efficient, 6/3 litre dual flush toiletOther 5% 20 Flow control devices variable variable on taps, etcNotes:#1. Water use here assumes a three or four bedroom home, large garden and three occupants.#2. Assumes current toilet is an older 11 litre single flush model. 40 Water Conservation Handbook
    • FIGURE 15 Components of a basic program logic model15 INPUTS INFLUENTIAL FACTORS Investments or resources Surrounding environment in which the program exists (e.g. politics, (e.g. time, staff, volunteers, other initiatives, socioeconomic factors, staff turnover, social norms money, materials) and conditions, program history, stage of development) that can affect its success either positively or negatively ACTIVITIES Events or actions (e.g. OUTPUTS INITIAL INTERMEDIATE workshops, curriculum Direct products OUTCOMES OUTCOMES development, training, of program Short-term Medium-term social marketing, special (e.g. number of effects of results (e.g. events, advocacy) people reached program (e.g. behaviour, or sessions held) knowledge, normative or attitude, skill, policy and awareness changes) changes) GOAL LONG-TERM OUTCOMES Mission or purpose Ultimate impact (e.g. social of program or environmental change)FIGURE 16 Worked example – right-to-left program logic modelWhat is the desired long-term Households in the Council area will use less wateroutcome? How?What is the desired intermediate Water use in the Council area will stop increasingoutcome? How?What is the desired short-term Changes will be made to the appliances and gardens in localoutcome? households so that they use less water How?What activities are needed to achieve Courses in water efficient gardeningthese outcomes? Rebates on timers for garden watering systems How?What inputs are needed to achieve Trainers, model curriculum, facilities, money (and possibly anthese outcomes? agreement with SA Water)You might need to think about these for differentgroups within the community – don’t make themistake of grouping the community all together. Water Conservation Handbook 41
    • FIGURE 17 Worked example – left-to-right program logic modelWhat are the existing inputs? Staff, incentives, materials Why?What are the existing activities? Showerhead rebate program Why?What are the desired short-term Reduced household shower water useoutcome? Why?What is the desired intermediate Reduced indoor water use and changed household behaviouroutcomes? (shorter showers) Why?What is the desired long-term Reduced indoor and outdoor water useoutcomes?Describe and plan the program section of your Council or your public library. Talking to other Council staff will also give you aIn designing your program, think about the outcomes picture of the local population.you are trying to achieve and about the context inwhich the program will be implemented. What is the In understanding your community, it is important tonature of the community you are seeking to work be aware that specific groups, including childrenwith? What languages do they speak? What size (0–11 years), young people (12–24 years), women,households do they have? How much time or older people (55 years and over), people withdisposable income do they have (in general)? What disabilities, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanderpublications do they read (e.g. The Messenger, people, people from culturally and linguisticallyAdelaide Advertiser, Council newsletter etc)? What diverse backgrounds (including racial, ethnic andelectronic media do they listen to and watch? Once ethno-religious minority groups), will have differentyou have finished reading this Section, work through needs. Australia is a multicultural society andthe Community Program Planning Worksheet in developing programs that respect cultural diversitySection 7 on the CD. or are tailored to specific cultural groups is not straightforward. The Multicultural CommunitiesThis planning stage is crucial, especially Council of SA, see Section 7 on the CD, can provideunderstanding the community or communities you’ll advice and assistance on working with differentbe working with and thinking about or finding out ethnic groups. Your local Land Council, Aboriginalwhat barriers exist or what might facilitate effective Corporation or community group can assist if youengagement with the community. If you are new to will be working with people of Aboriginal andyour Council, you might want to talk to other Torres Strait Islander background.Council staff with experience working withcommunities in the area, for example, youth workers Reflect and researchand community development staff. What will work Before you proceed with developing a program, youwith a low socio-economic status community with need to be able to answer the following questions:high unemployment will not necessarily work in awealthier, highly educated community and vice • What do people already know about conservingversa. There may be an opportunity to deliver water?collaborative programs as well. Using existing • Do they care? If not, why not?community networks or information channels is • How do they talk about the problem? (Whatoften an effective and efficient way of delivering language do they use?)community programs. • What do they want to know?General data on demographics is available from the • What do they want to be able to do?Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) • Where do they access information and resources?(www.abs.gov.au), which will describe the age, • Who do they trust?ethnicity, occupation and income of people in your • What are the factors that currently support orCouncil and it should be available from the records, discourage different groups in the community tocommunity development or strategic planning conserve water?42 Water Conservation Handbook
    • • Specifically, are there important social/cultural/ • rebate programs which reducing the normal sale economic factors that influence water use? price of water saving fixtures (e.g. dual-flush• Who or what influences your community(s) in toilets) by offering a rebate or a discount at lifestyle choices? purchase (again, to reduce the up-front cost); • give-away programs offering free water savingTesting your ideas with the community devices (e.g. water efficient showerheads or tapConsider pilot testing any materials or strategies aerators); andwith a small group, particularly if you are planning a • subsidised retrofits offering installation oflarge-scale program. specified water saving fixtures in the home by service providers.It is also useful to reflect on your Council’s currentsituation regarding water conservation and other For more information on all these programs, seeenvironmental education programs. For example, Wise Water Management (details in Section 7 onyou need to be able to answer: CD) .• What has your Council already done vis-à-vis water conservation?• What other environmental programs exsist?• What has been successful in your Council? CASE STUDY:These questions are included in the worksheet. Campbelltown City Council WCPP Incentive SchemeThe case studies included on n the CD will give youa sense of what other Councils have done and if they Incentive for residents to take up rainwaterhave been successful, how this success was harvesting by offering subsidies towards the costevaluated. of rainwater tanks was offered to residents in Campbelltown through this project. A total of 162 inspections were performed during theOptions for water conservation scheme for residents expressing interest in theactivities program and wishing to install a rainwater tank. Of these, 85 proposals were submitted forThere are two main types of community programs, rebates, with six residents proposing anthose that contain incentives of free or discounted installation involving more than one tank.products or services, such as offering discountedwater efficient showerheads, and those that consist Incentives were also offered under a Coolof education and communication programs. Ideally, Communities Action Plan for devices includingthe two should be linked so that community discounted AAA-rated shower heads and tapmembers not only understand water conservation but timers, free flow restrictors, incentives towardare also able to access free or discounted products the purchase of dual flush toilets, incentivesand/or services to reduce water use in their towards the installation of dual flush toilets andhousehold. discounts towards the purchase of front loading washing machines. For more information, contact1. Incentive programs Sarah Gilmour on (08) 8366 9257 orAs the name suggests, incentive programs provide a sgilmour@campbelltown.sa.gov.au.financial or service incentive for people to conservewater. They fall under the general categories of:;• subsidised audits and advisory programs e.g. CASE STUDY: estimates of water use and savings opportunities Sydney Water by a trained person, including checking for leaks, and making recommendations for improvement; Sydney Water’s ‘Every Drop Counts’ program• loan programs, for the purchase of water offered a plumber’s visit and a brand new AAA- conserving appliances, hardware or landscaping, rated showerhead for $22. Normally this water generally large cost items, so that the loan will saving package would cost householders over significantly reduce the up-front cost for $135. Refer to Section 7 on the CD. householders. The loans offered are generally at a low or nil interest rates; Water Conservation Handbook 43
    • TABLE 4 Examples of incentive programsType of program Examples Application/tipsAudits and advisory Household water audit (may be Free household water audits under-value the service andprograms in conjunction with an energy or are unlikely to be as effective as subsidised audits. waste audit). Marketing should be carefully considered – the term audit may not be well received and some people may be See SWaP and Sydney Water intimidated by letting a stranger assess their lifestyle. case studies.Loan programs Low or nil interest loans for Generally used for large cost items and can assist rainwater tanks, dual-flush householders with upfront costs. May be particularly useful toilets, washing machines. in low-income areas. A simple and effective repayment system is required. Providing information to help residents See Campbelltown case study. select an appropriate tank size for their requirements can also help residents to save money.Rebate (or discount) For fixtures such as water- Excellent cost prices for bulk purchases can often beprograms efficient showerheads, tap arranged through negotiation with product suppliers. aerators, lawn replacement, These can be passed on to consumers with little additional WaterWise landscaping. subsidy required. Commercial sponsorship is worth considering. Alternatively, vouchers can be arranged with See Sydney Water case study. local hardware stores. Again, they may fund part of the cost of the voucher in return for the extra customers.Give-away programs For fixtures such as water- Give-aways can be used as incentives at shows and events. efficient showerheads and tap We do not recommend wholesale give-away programs as aerators. the products tend to be under-utilised and there is little leverage of Council funds. It is best to combine give-aways See SWaP case study. with education programs.Retrofitting Plumbers replace single flush Retrofitting is best integrated with an audit and follow-up toilets with dual flush toilets and advice and education. It provides an excellent delivery install low-flow showerheads. mechanism as the householder receives advice and has the products installed. This fills the gap between subsidised See Sydney Water case study. products (which may not be installed) and advice (which may be ignored). Retrofit packages need to be carefully designed with options as each household is different. For example, some households already have a low flow showerhead or a low pressure hot water system, in which case a low flow showerhead is of little use.2. Education and communication You will need to decide what best meets yourTable 5 on page 46 sets out the range of methods communities’ needs after you have researched theirthat are available to engage your communities needs and understandings (as described above).through education and communication – frominformal learning and engaging activities (often Deciding what methods to usehands-on) to professional development and Don’t simply choose one method – a singlecontinuing education, formal education, initiative, for example producing a fact sheet ispresentations and performances, information, unlikely to have a significant impact on its own. Youartwork and media. Your budget will influence the need to undertake a series of activities to engage amethods you use to engage your community in community. At a minimum you will probably needwater conservation. Also included in the table is a to produce some basic information materials, like incolumn suggesting which group/s each approach is Section 7 (on CD), and send out a media release tobest suited to and in what circumstances. local newspapers.44 Water Conservation Handbook
    • For more comprehensive advice in a similar field CASE STUDY:refer to “Motivating Home Energy Action, an Unley Museum Rainwater Tank Projectoutline of what works” atwww.greenhouse.gov.au/coolcommunities/motivatin The overall aim of the Unley Museum Rainwaterg/index.html. Tank Project was to fit the Unley Museum with 10 000 litres of rainwater tank storage as aWork with other Council officers to plan and demonstration site highlighting waterimplement your community education project. For conservation and the stormwater benefits ofexample, talk to the Council’s media officer, find out retrofitting suburban residential and commercialif there are any graphic designers in-house who may properties with tanks and water efficient fixtures.be able to help with preparing information materials. An educational mosaic was also developed toExplore whether your Council have a training and contribute to the water conservation theme andeducation officer who can help you design a course provide employment and mentoring for youngor workshop. Build on existing Council activities South Australian visual artists.and programs, for example, if your Council isconducting energy audits, see if water audits could The Project began supplying filtered rainwater tobe incorporated at the same time. the Unley Museum and the adjacent Cancer Care Centre on 13 March 2003. Water is being used for toilets, kitchen, drinking and irrigating the new indigenous garden. Interpretive signage is being developed. For more information contact the Environment Officer – Water at Unley Council on (08) 8372 5111. CASE STUDY: Save Water and Power (SWaP) Show In November 2002, a group of nine South Outcomes of the project included the distribution Australian Councils (the Cities of Adelaide, of approximately: Burnside, Holdfast Bay, Marion, Mitcham, • 630 compact fluorescent globes Norwood, Payneham and St Peters, Onkaparinga, Unley and West Torrens, with Mitcham as the lead • 225 AAA shower roses Council) and one State Government Department • 225 kitchen tap aerators (Energy SA), with two funding bodies (WCPP and • 225 lengths of hot water pipe lagging Cool Communities), delivered an innovative • 180 tap timers environmental education and incentive program, • 180 garden trigger nozzles called the Save Water and Power (SWaP) Show. The aim of the SWaP Show was to achieve a • 180 worm farms marked reduction in residential water and energy • 180 home audits consumption by influencing behaviour change and • 180 copies of Your Home: Technical Manual uptake of energy and water efficient products and (see Section 7). services. The project resulted in an increased awareness and The SWaP Show consisted of a humorous, understanding about water conservation amongst theatrical performance delivered within each 400 metropolitan households. Another outcome Council area. The latter part of the show enabled was improved capacity of participating Councils to the audience to ask specific questions of an expert provide water conservation services to their panel regarding issues that they felt were communities through stronger relationships with important. Heavily discounted SWaP Bags product suppliers, peak bodies, and State containing water and energy efficient products Government agencies. For more information and services were available for purchase after each contact Craig Walker, (08) 8372 8855, performance. cwalker@mitchamcouncil.sa.gov.au. Water Conservation Handbook 45
    • CASE STUDY: The Zero Waste Water Project The Zero Waste Water project is a partnership the marine environment. The project is linked to between the District Council of Streaky Bay and the School’s curriculum and a wider education the Streaky Bay Area School, with seed funding program for the community, including a from the Coast and Clean Seas Program and comprehensive water-quality monitoring program. Transport SA. Successful completion of the Project For further information contact Ian Kent, Streaky will move Streaky Bay toward a goal of total water Bay Area School (08) 8626 1202 or Murray cycle management, the sustainable use of water Greenaway, District Council of Streaky Bay resources and reduced wastewater discharges to (08) 8626 1001.TABLE 5 Examples of education and communication programsType of program Examples For whom? When to use?Informal learning Demonstration sites and For the community in general, Build engagement about waterand engaging gardens usually at public events and in conservation into your existingactivities (often Launches public spaces. community events and wherehands-on) Festivals and fairs possible, create new events and Competitions and awards spaces that focus on water Grant programs. conservation. For example, you could launch a new rainwater tank demonstration site with a public celebration of water.Presentations and Talks, presentations, Presentations and performances These are ways of engagingperformances seminars can be run for existing community people, often before they have any Demonstrations groups, e.g. environment groups, detailed knowledge of water Tours community service organisations conservation issues. Performances Performances – street such as Rotary and ethnic-based are great ways of attracting theatre, mime, puppetry, organisations, or publicly attention to an issue and starting singing, storytelling. advertised. These could also be people thinking about the combined with other public events, importance of water conservation. e.g. water conserving gardening demonstrations at fairs.Professional Workshops (e.g. For people already interested in Useful in conjunction with auditsdevelopment/ workshops about water conservation who want to or other incentive programs, suchcontinuing rainwater tanks) change their homes or businesses. as give-aways, rebates or retrofiteducation Courses programs. Study groups Advisory services.Formal education School education For students and teachers. Formal education is expensive and TAFE courses time consuming. It is best to work University education with SA Water and the Training for teachers Department of Education to Community college develop programs for students or courses. teachers. (Continued next page)46 Water Conservation Handbook
    • (Continued from previous page)Type of program Examples For whom? When to use?Information Printed material – Can be tailored to different Use in conjunction with other booklets, pamphlets, fact groups, depending on where it types of programs for maximum sheets, case studies, will be used. For example, effectiveness. stickers, newsletters, booklets and bags for people who Contact WaterCare 1800420820 calendars, postcards, state attend talks, postcards for for information about programs of the environment ratepayers and display materials relevant to your area. reports (or more detailed for people visiting Council offices planning guides to and fairs. support self directed learning) Display material – posters, models, exhibitions Electronic and audio visual materials – websites, CD- ROMs, videos Products – bags, magnets, pens, bookmarks etc.Demonstrations Implementation of water Community centre users, general Can be part of Council showing saving initiatives (for public. leadership (refer to Section 5). example, rainwater tank systems) at community facilities.Signage and Signage at Council For the community in general. Signage and public art can be verypublic art facilities (e.g. at parks effective ways of communicating regarding plantings and with the community in public watering regimes) places, but can be expensive to Community artworks and design, install and maintain. exhibitions (e.g. water Valuable at demonstration sites. sculptures).Media Media releases and articles For the community in general or Media coverage should support Paid advertising (print, specific groups, for example, other initiatives that Council is radio, TV, cinema, web, through ethnic media. undertaking. Issue media releases buses, taxis, dockets) to promote water conservation Council pages in local practices by Council and local newspapers. people.What makes good communication? In general, good communication is respectful,First and foremost, the communication programs attractive, useful, efficient, physically appropriate,you plan must be relevant – to the community and to socially appropriate and productive – in the sense ofcurrent events (for example, if it’s a wet spell, don’t opening up further opportunities for goodsend out a media release exhorting local residents communication (according to David Sless fromnot to water their gardens). You can only judge what CRIA). Think about these criteria when producingis relevant if you know the community, have your community education program. Invite peopleundertaken research or can test the outline of your from the community to help plan and implementprogram or communication materials with people your program. The best communication isfrom the community. This can be as simple as participatory, for example, hosting workshops whichshowing them a fact sheet and asking them what invite participants to take action can build ownershipthey have learnt from reading it. For more and support in ways that sending out informationinformation on testing information, talk to the will not do.Communication Research Institute of Australia(CRIA), refer to Section 7 on C. Water Conservation Handbook 47
    • When preparing information materials make surethat you use pictures as well as words, to cover allliteracy levels. Don’t put too much information onone page and try to avoid technical terms likeretrofitting, unless you explain what they mean.What makes a good media release?A good media release;• states the date issued or ‘embargoed until’ and then the date:• states the name of the organisation (usually your Council) issuing the media release at the top.• has a catchy short title (eight words or less);• is no more than one page;• has a first paragraph that captures the imagination and summarises the story (including who, what, where and when);• two or three short paragraphs explaining the story;• contains at least two ‘quotable quotes’; and• contains contact details (including a mobile phone number).For more details about writing a media release andworking with the media, talk to the media officer atyour Council.48 Water Conservation Handbook
    • S E C T I O NReferences and contact details 7This Section provides a list of contacts, resources • Hunter Valley case studyand references,plus lists the selected resource • Lismore City Council case studymaterials available on the CD. • Denver case study • Seattle case studyResource Materials included on CD • Austin case studyInformation sheets and resources • Streaky Bay case studydeveloped as part of this Handbook• Community program planning worksheet Other case studies• Water Conservation Partnership Project Best • 60L 10 point tour and brochure Practice Water Conservation Principles • Barwon Water – by-law information• Greywater systems information sheet. • Marrickville Energy Smart – Water Wise• Rainwater tanks information sheet Development Control Plan summary• Home water self-audit worksheet • Sydney Water brochure• Home water self-audit manual Water Conservation Material • SA Water Conservation BrochureWater Conservation Partnership Project • SA Water and Adelaide Botanic Gardens2000-2004 • SA Water WaterWise GardensDemonstration projects • SA Water WaterWise Plants• Burnside Sustainable Garden • SA Water Micro Irrigation Brochure• Campbelltown Incentive Scheme • SA Water Smart Water Use• Goyder Council Incentive and Education Program • SA Water Managing your soils• Jamestown Community School’s Water • Water Wise in the household Conservation Partnership Project • Water Wise in the commnity• City of Norwood, Payneham, St Peters Residential Water Re-use Project • Water Wise in the Workplace• District Council of Peterborough Water Recycled Water Information sheets Conservation Re-use Site • Department of Health publications on greywater,• City of Playford ‘Garden Green, Water Wise’ reedbeds and composting toilets Outdoor Water Conservation Guide • Grey Water Application Form• City of Salisbury Water Conservation Through • Domestic Grey Water Reuse Chart Home Assist • Sodium and phosphorous concentration in laundry• SWaP Show products• Unley Museum Rainwater Tanks Project• West Torrens Rainwater Tank Project Community Information Guides• Whyalla Water Efficient Demonstration House • Community consultation manual• Sample Statement of Joint Intent (SOJI) • National Water Conservation Rating Scheme brochure and buyers’ guideCase studies • Water Proofing AdelaideAustralian and International case studies • Rainwater Tank guideline• Mt Victoria case study• Shellharbour case study International Campaign for Local Environmental Initiatives Water• Hasting Council case study Campaign Information• Kalgoorlie/ Boulder case study Water Conservation Handbook 49
    • Contacts and Resources ReferencesIn addition to the contacts and resources referred to 1. Adapted from Department for Water Resources throughout the Handbook and included in Section 7 (2000), State Water Plan.the following may be of use. 2. WaterWise in the Community, Information Sheet Number 4, WaterWise.Technical resources 3. The Wentworth Group (2002), Blueprint for a • WCPP Review of domestic and local council Living Continent. water conservation, roof runoff, ASR and 4. NSW Environment Protection Agency website, wastewater reuse opportunities, at www.epa.nsw.gov.au/soe/soe2000/bw/bw_fig_ www.deh.sa.gov.au/sustainability/pdfs/ 2. htm WCPPReview.pdf 5. SA Water website, www.sawater.com.au/ • Best Practice Water Conservation Principles at Our_Water_System/index.html. www.deh.sa.gov.au/sustainability/ 6. Adapted from Department for Water Resources • Water Symposium 2002: Working on Water - (2000), State Water Plan. New Trends in Water Resources Management, from Households to Catchment, at 7. SA Water, Environmental Report 2002. www.deh.sa.gov.au/sustainability/ 8. Water Services Association of Australia (1998), conservation.html#wcpp Wise Water Management: A Demand Management• Department of Health www.health.sa.gov.au/ Manual for Water Utilities.• Sydney water website www.sydneywater. 9. The Green Building Partnership (2003), 60L com.au/everydropcounts/ brochure.• Save Water, at www.savewater.com.au 10. Adapted from Local Government News, April 2003.• The SA Water website has tips and fact sheets for saving water at home, at www.sawater.com.au/ 11. Eyre Peninsula Catchment Water Management Our_Water_System/index.html Board, Saving Water – What Can You Do?• The Plumbing Industry Association of South 12. Adapted from Allen, M. (1994) cited in Water Australia (08) 8292 4000 will be able to suggest a Conservation Partnerships Project – Review ofreputable WaterWise plumber in your Council area Urban Domestic and Local Council Water Conservation, Roof Runoff, ASR and• The Your Home Guide includes water saving Wastewater Reuse Opportunities. information and can be viewed on-line at www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/index.htm 13. Adapted from Allen, M. (1994) cited in Water Conservation Partnerships Project – Review of• www.watercare.net is a comprehensive schools Urban Domestic and Local Council Water education resource which links to a large number Conservation, Roof Runoff, ASR and of water conservation sites around Australia. Wastewater Reuse Opportunities.Communication resources 14. US Department of Health and Human Services Center for Disease Control and PreventionMulticultural Communities Council of SA (2002), Physical Activity Evaluation Handbook.(08) 8410 0300web: www.multiwebsa.org.auemail: mccsa@ozemail.com.auMigrant Resource Centre of South Australia(08) 8223 3604email: mrcsa@bigpond.comCommunication Research Institute of Australiaweb: www.communication.org.auAn excellent, comprehensive resource on CommunityEngagement in the NSW Planning System is availableon line at www.iplan.nsw.gov.au/ engagement. 50 Water Conservation Handbook
    • Water Conservation Handbook 51