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Utah Native Plant Propagation Handbook

Utah Native Plant Propagation Handbook



Utah Native Plant Propagation Handbook

Utah Native Plant Propagation Handbook



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    Utah Native Plant Propagation Handbook Utah Native Plant Propagation Handbook Document Transcript

    • 1
    • TABLE OF CONTENTSGrowing native plants by seed………………………………………………………………………….…..….3Purdue University protocols for propagating by cuttings……………………………………......5“Water” you doing with your water?............................................................................................17Native Bees……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..19Waterwise and native plant resources…………………………………………………………………....20Demonstration gardens……………………………………………………………………………………….....21Indoor Light Garden Construction……………………………………………………………………….....22Building a modified mist bench……………………………………………………………………………...23Plant Fact Sheets…………………………………………………………………………………………………….29 2
    • Growing Utah Native Plants from SeedSusan E. MeyerIntroduction The purpose of this propagation workshop is to introduce you to some plants that arenot ordinarily found in gardens, but that can be very beautiful additions to home landscapes,particularly waterwise home landscapes. It will also provide you with the opportunity to becomefamiliar with the process of development from seed to plant for plants that are adapted tosurvival in the real world of Utah‟s semiarid climate and rocky, infertile soils. Native plants areenjoyed by many people in the wild, yet they rarely think about how good these plants wouldlook in a landscape setting. You will have the opportunity to learn to grow some of theseplants from seed, and hopefully to enjoy the plants you have produced after transplanting theminto your own garden.Growing Tips While there are many similarities between growing native plants from seed and growingmore familiar garden plants such as vegetables and annual flowers, there are some importantdifferences. The first thing you will notice about these growing containers is that, unlike flats used forvegetables and cultivated flowers, these containers are much deeper than wide. This helpsthe plants develop the long roots they will need to become established and drought-hardy asquickly as possible. First developed for forest tree seedlings, these containers and others ofsimilar shape, such as Ray Leach containers have proven ideal for most Utah native plants.Drought-hardy natives generally invest much more in root than plants that require a moistgrowing environment. These containers give them room to do that. The book planters havethe added advantage that you can open them to examine the roots or to remove the seedlingsat out planting time. And the channeled sides of these „root-trainer books‟ direct the roots togrow downward, not to spiral as they would in traditional shallow, smooth-sided containers. Another thing that natives need even as small seedlings is STRONG LIGHT. In fact,there are three things that native seedlings really need most: light, light, and LIGHT. PleaseDon‟t think that a winter windowsill will be adequate. Fluorescent shop lights--the kind you canget at K-Mart for ten dollars or so, will work great, and will also give you a good place to growvegetable transplants. We have chosen a small flat size so that you will be able to providegood light. The light should be placed only an inch or two above soil level and raised as theplants grow. If fluorescent tubes are more than a year old, they should be replaced with newones--you can use the old ones in an application where maximum intensity isn‟t so important. Our soil mix is made up mostly of peat moss, vermiculite, sand, and calcinedmontmorillonite clay (turface or kitty litter)--regular potting mix will have to be cut with coarsematerials like sand or turface, as many of these seedlings are susceptible to damping off if thesoil is too soggy. We have used a slow release fertilizer (Osmocote) in the mix, so you will nothave to worry about fertilizing during the three or four months the plants will live in thesecontainers. If you make your own mix, any fertilizer that works for vegetable seedlings will dojust as well. The new seedlings must be kept moist but not soggy--overwatering is a serious risk.Because of the container shape, the soil dries out slowly, especially when the plants are smalland not using much water themselves. It is OK to let the surface dry out for a day or sobetween waterings. By the time the cotyledons (seed leaves) open, most of these plants willalready have roots that are an inch or more long. Most of these plants emerge in nature in thecool temperatures of very early spring. If you keep the flat in a cool place (50-70F), the plantswill be happier, and drying out will be less of a problem. When you do water, it is best to water 3
    • very thoroughly and deeply, until you can see water dripping out of the bottom of the books.This ensures that the entire soil profile is wetted, not just the top layer. Appropriate planting depth is determined by seed size--the bigger the seeds, the deeperthey should be planted. For fine seeds, less than an eight of an inch of soil, just barely tocover, is sufficient. An old rule of thumb that also works well for natives is to plant the seeds ata depth twice their maximum diameter. For long slender seeds like grass seeds, place theseeds vertically in the soil nose-down, so that their tops are flush with the surface. If you are planting germinated seeds, pick the seeds with the shortest radicles, as theyare the easiest to plant without damage. Make a hole first with the tip of a pencil, and lay theseedling into the soil by placing the seed on the edge of the hole with the radicle hangingdown. Always pick the seedling up by the seed coat to avoid injuring the tender radicle. Oncethe seedling is placed, press the soil gently around the radicle from the side. If you have planted extra seeds in each cell to ensure the presence of a plant, it may benecessary to thin, once the plants are big enough that their survival is likely. The best way tothin in these small cells is by cutting the extra plants off at or just below ground level with a pairof nail scissors. This prevents disturbance of the root system of the remaining plant, whichcould weaken it and make it less likely to survive after transplanting. If you are planting several different species in the same box, group them according totheir growth rates. Put the fast growing grasses and shrub at one end of the box, and slowgrowing plants like succulents at the other. It is OK to clip the grasses if they get so tall that isdifficult to get the other plants in the box close to the lights. Once the plants have grown for a few weeks and you think they might be outgrowingtheir containers, check their roots by opening the books. If the plants are well-rooted and theroot ball holds together when lifted, it is OK to transplant, either to larger containers or to theirplace in the garden. Native seedlings require hardening before planting out just as vegetableseedlings do, though they are usually not as delicate. The plants may be held in the books forseveral additional weeks after they are well-rooted, but the watering must be watched verycarefully, as larger plants in books tend to dry quickly.Native Plants from Cuttings Plant grown from cuttings have an advantage in that they are a genetic equivalent fromthe parent plant, displacing any variations from plants. Certain species of plants are easilygrown from cuttings with little treatment. Other species can be propagated by cuttings usingseveral methods that increase the success of rooting. Cuttings can be taken throughout the year. Cuttings of woody plants taken when theplant is dormant are called hardwood cuttings. These generally have no leaves, and are lesssusceptible to drying out. Not mist bench is needed. Cuttings can either be directly stuck in theground during the dormant season, where they will root out in the spring, or forced to root in agreenhouse with added heat. Cuttings of woody plants taken when the plant is actively growing or non-dormant aresoftwood cuttings. These cuttings have leaves that actively photosynthesizing, and transpiring,and henceforth are very prone to water loss. These cuttings are generally rooted on a mistbench, or other controlled environment. Cuttings are generally stuck in a tray with porous material like vermiculite or apeat/perlite mix. When they root, they are then transplanted to a container. In order to getcuttings to root, several treatments are used. Different species are often more likely to rootwhen taken at specific times of the year, or from specific places on the plant. The end of thecutting is often treated with a rooting hormone compound including IBA, gibberellic acid, andNAA (Dip N‟ Grow, Roottone, Hormex etc.) 4
    • Purdue UniversityConsumer HorticultureDepartment of Horticulture and Landscape ArchitectureHO-37New Plants from CuttingsMary Welch-Keesey and B. Rosie Lerner*Plants can be propagated, or multiplied, in several different ways. Most people are familiar with growing new plants from seeds, butnew plants can also be created by cutting off a portion of an established plant. This "cutting" is placed in an environment that encour-ages it to produce new roots and/or stems, thus forming a new, independent plant.There are several advantages to propagating plants using cuttings:1. The new plant will be identical to the parent plant. For example, if the parent plant has variegated (multi-colored) foliage, the newplant grown from the cutting will have the same foliage. If the parent plant is female (as a holly or ginkgo might be), the new plantwill also be female. Propagating a plant by cuttings will allow you to keep the special characteristics of that plant. Plants grown fromseed will often be different from the parent plant and from each other.2. Propagating a new plant via cuttings avoids the difficulties of propagating by seed. For example, by using cuttings you couldpropagate a young tree that has not yet flowered (and thus has not yet produced seed), a male tree, or a sterile plant such as a navelorange. Additionally, some seeds are difficult to germinate, taking two to three years for the seedling to appear.3. A new plant grown from a cutting will frequently mature faster and flower sooner than a plant grown from a seed.Types of CuttingsCuttings can be made from any part of the plant. Most frequently, however, either a stem or leaf is used. A stem cutting includes apiece of stem plus any attached leaves or buds. Thus, the stem cutting only needs to form new roots to be a complete, independentplant. A leaf cutting uses just the leaf, so both new roots and new stems must be formed to create a new plant.Stem CuttingsStem cuttings can be taken from both herbaceous plants (e.g., garden flowers and houseplants) and woody trees and shrubs. Becausethe new growth of trees and shrubs hardens as the summer progresses, cuttings taken at different times of the year vary in their abil-ity to form roots. Softwood and herbaceous cuttings are the most likely to develop roots and become independent plants, hardwoodcuttings the least likely.1. HerbaceousStem cuttings from herbaceous plants can be taken any time the plant is actively growing.2. SoftwoodSoftwood cuttings are prepared from soft, succulent new growth of woody plants just as it begins to harden (typically May throughJuly). Shoots at the softwood stage will snap easily when bent. The youngest leaves have not yet reached their mature size.3. Semi-hardwood 5
    • Semi-hardwood cuttings are taken from the current seasons growth after the wood has matured. The wood is firm and all leaves arefull size. This occurs in mid-July to early fall for most plants. Many broadleaf evergreens (e.g., boxwood, holly, rhododendron) canbe propagated by semi-hardwood cuttings.4. HardwoodHardwood cuttings are prepared from shoots that grew the previous summer. They are cut in winter or early spring while the plant isstill dormant. The wood is firm and does not bend easily. Some deciduous shrubs and needled evergreens will root from hardwoodcuttings.Leaf CuttingsLeaf cuttings are prepared by taking a single leaf from the plant. This leaf must generate not only new roots, but new shoots as well.The leaf used for propagation usually does not become part of the new plant, but disintegrates after the new plant is formed. Only alimited number of plants have the ability to produce new roots and shoots from just a leaf.Root CuttingsCuttings taken from roots may also be used but only a few species can be propagated this way. Cuttings are taken when the plant isdormant and the roots contain the most stored energy. Each root produces two to three new stems and each stem then produces itsown roots. The original root cutting disintegrates.Propagation BasicsTo successfully propagate plants from cuttings, a number of challenges must be overcome. Once a cutting is severed from the parentplant, it can no longer take up water, and excessive water loss will result in death. The wound from the cut makes it susceptible todiseases. New roots must be formed as rapidly as possible if the new plant is to survive.Decreasing Water LossStart with cuttings that contain as much water as possible. Water the plant well the day before and take the cutting before the heat ofthe day reduces water content.Once the cutting is harvested, excessive water loss must be prevented. To minimize water loss:1. Process the cutting immediately. If this is not possible, stand the cut end in water or place the cutting in a plastic bag with a damppaper towel and store out of direct sun. If the plant is frost-tolerant, store the bagged cutting in the refrigerator.2. For a stem cutting, remove some of the leaves. Most of the water will be lost through the leaves, so by decreasing the leaf surfaceyou also decrease the amount of water loss. A general rule of thumb is to remove 1/2 to 2/3 of the leaves. Cut remaining leaves inhalf if they are large.3. Once the cutting has been prepared and placed in the rooting mix, enclose the pot in a plastic bag. Insert straws or wooden sticksaround the edge of the pot to hold the bag away from the cutting. Place the pot in a bright area, but out of direct sunlight, so theleaves will receive the light they need but the plant will not get overly hot. The plastic bag insures that humidity around the leavesremains high, which slows the rate of water loss.Preventing DiseaseTake cuttings only from healthy plants. To prevent the spread of disease, use clean tools and pots (clean with 10% bleach, rinse, andlet dry thoroughly). Use fresh soilless potting mix since garden soil can harbor plant diseases.Encouraging Root FormationJust like leaves, the roots of plants need air to live. Rooting mix that is continuously waterlogged is devoid of air and cuttings will rot 6
    • rather than form roots. A mixture of 50% vermiculite/50% perlite holds sufficient air and water to support good root growth, but anywell-drained soilless potting mix is acceptable. If your cuttings frequently rot before they root, you know the mix is staying too wet.Add vermiculite or perlite to increase its air- holding capacity.Cuttings use energy to form new roots. If the cutting has leaves, most of the energy comes from photosynthesis. Expose these cut-tings to bright light, but not direct sunlight, during the rooting period. If you use hardwood cuttings that have no leaves, the energywill come from reserves stored in the woody stem. For best results, select shoots that are robust for the species. Since you want allthe energy to go into the new roots, make sure you cut off any flowers or fruits that would compete for energy.Auxin, a naturally occurring plant hormone, stimulates root formation. Several synthetic forms of auxin are sold as "rooting hor-mone." Though some plants will root readily without treatment, application of rooting hormone to the base of the cutting will oftenimprove your chance for success. Two synthetic auxins, IBA (indolebutyric acid) and NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) are most fre-quently used. They are available in several concentrations and in both liquid and powder form. 1,000 ppm (0.1%) is used most oftenfor herbaceous and softwood cuttings; 3,000 ppm (0.3%) and 8,000 ppm (0.8%) are used for semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings.Liquid formulations can be used at low or high concentration for softwood or hardwood cuttings, respectively. To determine the ap-propriate concentration for your cutting, follow the instructions on the product label and the general guidelines just given, or consultthe references listed at the end of this publication.To use rooting hormone, place the amount needed in a separate container. Any material that remains after treating the cuttings shouldbe discarded, not returned to the original container. These precautions will prevent contamination of the entire bottle of rooting hor-mone.Cuttings will root more quickly and reliably in warm rooting mix. Keep your cuttings between 65°F and 75°F, avoiding excessiveheat. If your area is too cold, consider a heating mat or cable especially designed for this purpose.How to Make Herbaceous and Softwood Stem CuttingsMany houseplants, annuals, perennials, and woody plants can be propagated by stem cuttings when they are in active growth and thestems are soft.1. Cut off a piece of stem, 2-6 inches long. There should be at least three sets of leaves on the cutting.2. Trim the cutting in the following way:a. Make the bottom cut just below a node (a node is where the leaf and/or the bud joins the stem) (Figure 1).Figure 1: Herbaceous and softwood: cutting below a nodeb. Remove 1/2 to 2/3 of the leaves, starting from the bottom of the cutting. Cut large leaves in half (Figure 2). 7
    • Figure 2: Herbaceous and softwood: trimmed shoot tipc. Remove all flowers, flower buds, and fruit.3. (optional) Dip the lower inch of the cutting in rooting hormone.4. In a pot of damp, but drained, rooting mix, make a hole for the cutting using a pencil. Put the cutting in the hole and firm the root-ing mix around it. If any leaves are touching the surface of the mix, trim them back. Several cuttings can be placed in the same pot aslong as their leaves do not touch.5. Enclose the pot in a plastic bag, making sure the bag does not touch the leaves.6. Place the pot in a warm, bright spot but out of direct sunlight. Every few days, check the rooting mix to make sure it is damp, andwater as necessary. Discard any water that collects in the bottom of the bag.7. After two or three weeks, check to see if roots have formed by working your hand under the cutting and gently lifting (Figure 3).If no roots have formed, or if they are very small, firm the cutting back into the mix, rebag, and check for roots again in one to twoweeks.Figure 3: Herbaceous and softwood: checking for roots8. Once roots have formed, slowly decrease the humidity around the plant by untying the plastic bag and then opening it a little moreeach day. When it is growing well without a plastic bag, pot in a good quality potting mix and move to its permanent location.How to Make Semi-hardwood Cuttings 8
    • Follow the same steps as described for herbaceous cuttings. Semi-hardwood cuttings may need a higher level of rooting hormoneand may take longer to form roots. Wounding the base of the cutting sometimes stimulates root initiation (see Step 5 in "How toMake a Hardwood Cutting" below).How to Make Hardwood CuttingsTake hardwood cuttings in winter or early spring. Deciduous plants (those that lose their leaves every winter) have no leaves at thistime. Thus, water loss is not a serious problems with these cuttings, unless the buds open. Hardwood cuttings are more difficult toroot than softwood cuttings, and it may take two to four months for roots to form. The technique does work well with some shrubssuch as forsythia, privet, and willow. Needled evergreens can also be propagated using hardwood cuttings, but care must be taken toreduce water loss.Preparing Deciduous Hardwood Cuttings1. Select a robust stem.2. Cut off a length of stem that was formed over the past summer (depending on species, it may be 1-2 feet long).3. Trim the cutting in the following way:a. Working from the base of the stem, cut just below a node (Figure 4).Figure 4: Hardwood: cutting below a nodeb. With a pencil, gently make a line 2 inches above this cut. The portion of the stem between the cut and the line will be in the root-ing mix (Figure 5). 9
    • Figure 5: Hardwood: 2-inch markc. Make a second cut 2-6 inches above the line, making sure that this segment contains at least two buds.4. Remove buds from the bottom 2 inches of the stem so they will not grow during the rooting period.5. Wound the cutting by removing two 1-inch slices of bark from opposite sides of the base of the stem. Cut deeply enough to exposethe green layer under the bark, but not so deeply that the stem is cut in half (Figure 6).Figure 6: Hardwood: wounding6. Apply rooting hormone to the lowest 1 inch of stem and place it into damp rooting mix up to the pencil line. Firm the rooting mixaround it.7. It may be possible to get two to five cuttings from each stem. Repeat steps three through six if the remaining stem is long enough.Make sure you keep track of which end of the cutting is the base and which is the top. The base of the cutting, not the top, shouldalways be the end placed in the rooting mix.8. There are now two options, depending on the facilities and equipment available.a. If you have a cold garage and a heating system to warm the rooting mix, place the pot on the heating system in the cold garage.The cold air will keep the buds from opening and forming leaves, and the heater will keep the mix warm enough for roots to form(65 to 75°F). It is acceptable for the air temperature to go below freezing as long as the heater can keep the rooting mix between 65°F and 75°F. For information on constructing heated beds, refer to HO-53: Hot Beds and Cold Frames (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/ext/Pubs/HO/HO_053.pdf).b. If you do not have a cold garage with a heating system, place the pot in a plastic bag as you would for herbaceous cuttings, andplace in a warm room. In two or three weeks the buds will open, but the plastic bag should keep humidity around the leaves high andprevent excess water loss. Make sure the pot is in a bright spot, that it does not overheat, and that the rooting mix is moist but not 10
    • waterlogged.9. Check for roots every two to three weeks.10. Acclimate rooted cuttings to warmer, less humid conditions as described for softwood cuttings (Step #8).Preparing Needled Evergreen CuttingsNeedled evergreens are often propagated as hardwood cuttings. Because they still have leaves (needles), these cuttings are handled ina different manner than hardwood cuttings of deciduous plants.1. Use shoot tips only, making the cutting 6-8 inches long.2. Remove the needles from the bottom 3-4 inches of the cutting. To reduce water loss, trim the remaining needles so that they justcover the palm of your hand (Figure 7).Figure 7: Needled evergreen: trimmed needles3. Wound the base of the cutting by drawing a knife point down the lower inch of stem on two sides (Figure 8). Cut into the stem butdo not split it. Apply rooting hormone to the lower inch of the stem and place about 2 inches of the stem into the rooting mix, mak-ing sure that no needles touch the surface of the mix. Firm the mix around it.Figure 8: Needled evergreen: woundingThe potted cuttings may be placed in an unheated area with a heating element to warm the rooting mix if the area is well lit. If not,cover the pot and cuttings with a plastic bag and place in a warm, brightly lit room, as with deciduous hardwood cuttings. Providinglight is essential for successful rooting of these cuttings. Check for roots once a month. It may take three or four months for roots todevelop. Acclimate rooted cuttings as described above. 11
    • How to Make Specialized Stem CuttingsSome houseplants can be propagated most easily using these variations of stem cuttings.CaneCane cuttings are used for Dieffenbachia, Dracaena (including corn plant), and other plants with thick stems. The stem, or cane, iscut into segments and placed into rooting mix. New shoots emerge from the buds that are on the cane; roots grow from the portion ofthe cane in the rooting mix (Figure 9). The initial absence of leaves reduces water loss.Figure 9: Cane: Dieffenbachia bud and roots1. Cut the cane into segments that contain several buds (usually 2-3 inches in length).2. Select a healthy bud and place the cane horizontally into the rooting mix so that this bud points up and only the bottom half of thecane is in the rooting mix. The portion of the cane placed in the rooting mix may be treated with rooting hormone.3. Alternately, the end of the cane closest to the base of the plant can be treated with rooting hormone. The cutting is then placed intothe rooting mix vertically, about 1/2-inch deep (Figure 10).Figure 10: Cane: Dieffenbachia segments placed verticallyLeaf-bud 12
    • Leaf-bud cuttings use just a small portion of the stem (up to 1 1/2 inches) that contains a single bud and single leaf. The stem portionproduces roots, and a new shoot develops from the bud (Figure 11). Treat the stem with rooting hormone, then place in rooting mixso that the bud is below the surface and the leaf is exposed to light. This method is used with grape ivy, geranium, philodendron,English ivy, and the fleshy-leaved peperomias.Figure 11: Leaf-bud: rooted cuttingSince both types of specialized stem cuttings will lose water easily, place the pot in a plastic bag until roots form.How to Make Leaf CuttingsSome plants can be propagated from just a single leaf. Many of these plants have compressed stems, making it impossible to takestem cuttings. These include African violets, bush-type peperomias, and Sansevieria. Some succulents, such as jade plant and jellybean plant, can also be propagated from a single leaf.Leaf PetioleAfrican violets and bush-type peperomias are propagated from the whole leaf, that is, the blade (the flat part of the leaf) plus the peti-ole (the leaf stalk). Break off a robust leaf, trim the petiole so it is no more than an inch long, apply rooting hormone, and sink thepetiole into the rooting mix. The base of the leaf blade should just touch the mix (Figure 12). Place the pot in a plastic bag in a brightspot. In a few weeks roots will form and new plantlets will develop from these roots. When they are large enough to handle, gentlydivide them, making sure each plantlet has roots, and plant in individual containers. A single leaf will give rise to several small plant-lets (Figure 13).Figure 12: Leaf petiole: leaf blades stuck in Figure 13: Leaf petiole:medium rooted cutting with plantlets 13
    • Leaf BladeSome succulent plants (for example, jade plant and jelly bean plant) have leaves that lack petioles (Figure 14). These leaves can sim-ply be broken off the stem, the broken end dipped in rooting hormone, and the leaf inserted about 1/3 of its length into rooting mix.Since these plants are very sensitive to excess water, make sure the rooting mix stays damp but DO NOT enclose the pot in a plasticbag. Roots and then new shoots will develop at the base of the leaf and can be separated into individual plantlets (Figure 15). If theleaves rot instead of root, start over with fresh cuttings and media, add vermiculite or perlite to your rooting mix, and water onlywhen the upper 1/4 inch of mix has dried.Figure 14: Leaf blade: succulent leaves with Figure 15: Leaf blade: succulent leaf withno petioles plantletsAlthough not a succulent, Rex begonias can also be propagated from just the leaf blade. Two techniques can be used.Method 1: With a knife cut the major veins on the underside of the leaf (Figure 16). Dust with rooting hormone. Place the leaf flatonto a bed of rooting mix, underside down. Use small wire hairpins or bent paperclips to hold the leaf firmly against the rooting mix(Figure 17).Figure 16: Leaf blade: major veins cut on Figure 17: Leaf blade: Rex begonia leafRex begonia pinned flatMethod 2: Roll up the leaf blade, dip the base in rooting hormone, and insert about 1/3 of the roll into the rooting mix. Place extramix into the center of the leaf roll to hold it in place (Figure 18). Rolling should break some of the veins, so cutting is not required. 14
    • Figure 18: Leaf blade: Rex begonia leaf rolled and stuck in mediumFor both methods, enclose the pot in a plastic bag as with softwood cuttings. Check the pot frequently to make sure the veins are incontact with the rooting mix. If the leaf pulls away from the mix, no roots or plantlets will form. Each wound in a major vein willgive rise to roots and small plantlets (Figure 19). Transplant each plantlet into a separate pot when large enough to handle (Figure20).Figure 19: Leaf blade: Rex begonia leaf Figure 20: Leaf blade: separating Rex be-with plantlets gonia plantletsLeaf SectionSansevieria, or mother-in-laws tongue, has long, sword-like leaves attached to a compressed stem. Cut off one of the leaves at itsbase, then cut it into 2-4 inch segments. Dip the basal end (the end of the segment that was closest to the base of the plant) of eachsegment in rooting hormone and then insert 1-2 inches into the rooting mix. If the segments are put into the mix upside down, noroots will form. Put the pot in a plastic bag and place in a bright spot. After several weeks, first roots, then shoots, will develop at thebase of the cutting (Figure 21). Each new shoot with roots can become a separate plant. 15
    • Figure 21: Leaf section: rooted and growing Sansevieria sectionHow to Make Root CuttingsThough very few plants can be propagated from root cuttings (for example, oriental poppy, phlox, and horseradish), the technique issimple and should be tried if you wish to propagate these species. When the plant is dormant, dig it up and cut off robust segments ofthe root, 2-3 inches long (replant the parent plant). If the roots are thin, lay them horizontally on the rooting mix and cover with 1/2inch of the damp mix. If the roots are thick, lay them horizontally or place them vertically into the rooting mix, covering them com-pletely. If placing the root vertically, make sure the end of the cutting that was nearest the crown of the plant points up. Put the pot ina plastic bag and place in a bright spot. In several weeks, shoots should emerge from the rooting mix. Keep the pot in the plastic baguntil new roots have formed on the shoots.References:General:Hartman, H.T. et al (1997) Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices, Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.Toogood, Alan, (1999), American Horticulture Society Plant Propagation: The Fully Illustrated Plant-by-Plant Manual of PracticalTechniques, AHS.Heuser, Charles W. (Editor), Richard Bird, Mike Honour, Clive Innes, Jim Arbury (Contributing Authors), (1997) The CompleteBook of Plant Propagation, Taunton Press.Woody plants:Dirr, M.A. and C.W. Heuser (1987) The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation, Varsity Press, Inc. Athens GA.Perennials:Jim Nau, (1996), Ball Perennial Manual; Propagation and Production, Ball Publishing.Houseplants:Heuser, Charles W. (Editor), Richard Bird, Mike Honour, Clive Innes, Jim Arbury (Contributing Authors), (1997) The CompleteBook of Plant Propagation, Taunton Press.Jantra, I. and Kruger, U. (1997), The Houseplant Encyclopedia, Firefly Books, Inc. Buffalo, New York. 16
    • ‘Water’ You Doing with Your Water? - Loralie CoxCache County Water >Utah – second driest state in the nation with 13” annual precipitation (Cache Valley – 16” annually). >Kentucky bluegrass lawn requires about 24 inches of water annually to maintain. Generally, land owners apply over twice that amount. >Snow and rainfall come during January through May, highest demand occurs in July and August. >Over 65% of Utah‟s municipal water is used for outdoor landscapes. >Cost of culinary water for landscape use (based on two 5/8” hoses at 60 psi): Denver, CO .80/hour Boulder, CO 2.15/hour Pine Brook Hills, CO $18.50/hour Santa Fe, NM $42.00/hour („96 emergency rate)Five percent of the population used 25-40% of water >Multiple years of low water reserves have increased need to conserve available sources. >Continuing growth and development have placed increasing demands on current supplies. >Conservation is the least-cost alternative to new water supplies.Effects of poor landscape watering practices: -Concrete losses strength and cracks, weeds grow in sidewalk cracks, and excessive runoff -Carries nutrients away from the landscape -Too much water applied too quickly causes runoff and shallow-rooted turf -A properly irrigated and fertilized lawn will out-compete weeds -Trees and shrubs have different water requirements than turf – water deeper and less frequentlyStrategies to conserve water in the landscape: -Planning and design -Reduce turf areas -Appropriate plant selection -Soil amendments -Efficient irrigation systems -Mulch to conserve soil moisture -Proper maintenance 17
    • 18
    • Native BeesUtah is home to some 800 species of wild bee. (There are over 4000 named species worldwide.) Theyare mostly solitary bees, do not produce honey, usually produce only one or two generations peryear, and generally go about their business with little interference with people. They are very impor-tant, though, in the pollination of many plants. They use pollen and nectar from plants to providefood for the next generation of bees and by doing so, they pollinate plants.We can help bees and other pollinators by increasing the diversity of plants in our yard, making surethat there are plants blooming from early spring until fall to provide season long pollen and nectar,leaving areas “wild” for ground nesting bees, cutting down on our use of broad spectrum pesticidesand even putting up nest boxes for bees that nest in holes in trees.There are several websites to check out that have a great deal of good information on native bees.The extension website has a fact sheet that lists nearly 200 species of flowering plant that grow wellin Utah and are good for bees. Go to extension.usu.edu, click the tab “gardening,” then “Utah pests,”then “fact sheets.” Search “native bees.” The USDA Bee Lab in Logan also has a website(ars.usda.gov) with many articles about growing plants for bees and the Xerces Society (xerces.org) isan organization devoted to invertebrate conservation, including pollinators such as bees. 19
    • Waterwise Landscapes and Native Plant ResourcesExtension publications on landscape water use:• Designing a low water use landscape: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg525.pdf• Water-wise landscaping: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg518.pdf•Water-wise landscaping: Soil preparation and management: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg522.pdf• Basic turfgrass care: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg517.pdf• Turfgrass water use in Utah: http://extension.usu.edu/files/engrpubs/biewm36.pdf• Garden water use in Utah: http://extension.usu.edu/files/engrpubs/biewm37.pdf• Selecting and planting landscape trees: http://extension.usu.edu/files/natrpubs/nr460.pdf• Efficient irrigation of trees and shrubs: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg523.pdf• Specific irrigation scheduling information: www.conservewater.utah.gov• Plant Maintenance: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/HG_Landscaping_2008-01pr.pdf• Water-wise landscaping/Practical turf areas http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/HG_Turf_2006-01.pdf• Water-wise landscaping/Mulch http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/HG_Landscaping_2007-01pr.pdf• Water wise plants for Utah landscapes: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/HG-2003-01.pdfOther related web sites:• Central Utah Water Conservancy District: http://cuwcd.com• Water Wise Landscaping, Utah Botanical Center: http://www.usu.edu/ubc/waterpage.html• WaterWiser: www.waterwiser.org• http://www.wildflower.utexas.edu• http://www.unps.org• http://www.utahschoice.org• http://www.NativePlantNetwork.org•http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org/network/Books:How to grow the Wildflowers, E. Johnson and S. MillardNative Plants for High Elevation Western Gardens, J. Busco and N. MorinWater-Wise and Native Plants:Utah Water-Wise Plants list: www.waterwiseplants.utah.govPlant Select: www.ext.colostate.edu/psel/index.htmlWildland Nursery: http://www.wildlandnursery.comGreat Basin Natives: www.grownative.comWillard Bay Gardens: www.willardbaygardens.comA High Country Garden: www.highcountrygardens.comUSDA Plant Database: www.pants.usda.gov 20
    • Demonstration Gardens:Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District 8215 South 1300 West West Jordan, UT 84088 www.slowtheflow.org Red Butte Garden & Arboretum 300 Wakara Way Salt Lake City, UT 84108 http://www.redbuttegarden.org Utah Botanical Center 725 South Sego Lily Drive Kaysville, UT 84037 http://utahbotanicalcenter.org Greenville Farm 1850 North 800 East North Logan, UT 21
    • INDOOR LIGHT GARDEN CONSTRUCTION Maggie Wolf, USU Extension Agent Salt Lake County FRAME PVC FRAME MATERIALS ¾ “ schedule 40 PVC pipe: 4 ea 4 ft lengths 4 ea 20 in lengths 8 ea 4 in lengths 4 ea 10 in lengths (total of about 29 feet pipe) Connectors: 12 T‟s 4 L‟s 4 hooks or screw eyesOTHER MATERIALS:2 each 4 ft long shop light fixtures4 each shop light fluorescent bulbs (cool white, warm, or full-spectrum TOOLS for assembly:Surge-protector power strip ORGFI-protected electrical outlet: PVC cutters or hacksaw Outlet box Electric drill and drill bits GFI-protected outlet Wire cutters/strippers Outlet box cover, with gasket Needle-nose pliers 2 each machine screws, 1 ½” to 2” long Screwdriver 2 each, locking nuts to match screw diameter Adjustable wrench 3-prong extension cordHeavy duty electrical timer (3-prong)Fabricated sheet metal pan, or plywood ‘pan’ with thick plastic liner.Directions for assembly of PVC frame: 1. Cut PVC segments to correct lengths. 2. Drill pilot holes for hooks at the ends of the 4 ft segments 1” in from the edges. Be sure that the holes line up so both will be at the bottom of the pipe. Insert the screw eyes or hooks into the pilot holes. 3. Taking care not to jam the pieces too tightly together, attach connectors to PVC segments. 4. Assemble the structure as illustrated on front page, but leave out one of the 4” segments (to be used in the electrical outlet assembly). Again, do not jam the pieces too tightly together.If a power strip is being used rather than the GFI outlet, go ahead and assemble theentire frame. 22
    • Directions for wiring the GFI-protected outlet:1. Gather the outlet, outlet box, outlet face plate, extension cord, the 4” PVC segment,machine screws and nuts.2. Drill holes through the back of the outlet box and 4” PVC pipe to attach the box to thepipe. Fit machine screws through the holes and attach nuts.3. Cut the female end off the extension cord and strip outer wire cover a bout 2 inches.Strip inner wire covers to about ½“.4. Feed the stripped extension cord end up through the bottom hole of the outlet box.Attach the stripped wires to the outlet wire connections, matching wire cover color to thematching color terminals.5. Attach the wired outlet into the outlet box.6. Attach the outlet face plate to the outlet and outlet box.7. Insert the 4” PVC segment (with electrical outlet now attached) into he Indoor LightGarden frame structure.Completing the Indoor Light Garden Assembly:1. Install fluorescent tubes into shop light fixtures.2. Attach chains to the light fixtures and hang from the screw eyes or hooks.3. Plug the light fixture electrical cords in the GFI-protected outlet or power strip. Plug theoutlet cord into heavy-duty timer. Plug the timer into the nearest electrical outlet thenturn the timer „ON‟. If your lights do not light up, unplug the main cord and push the GFI„reset‟ button or switch on the power cord. Try plugging the main cord in again. If thelights still wont light, you will need to recheck your wiring. Set the timer to light 14 to 16hours per day when seeds are sprouting.4. Place the sheet metal pan at the base of the frame.Other options: -Use three shop light fixtures instead of two for more uniform light coverage. -Make a wood tray to fit on the bottom of the Indoor Light Garden rather than a fabricated metal tray. Use ¼” plywood with a fir strip or molding tacked on the outer edge as a lip. Line the wood tray with plastic. -Grow twice as many plants in a double-decker Indoor Light Garden! Use 1” diameter PVC instead of ¾” for extra sturdiness. 23
    • Building a Modified Mist Bench for a Hobby Greenhouse Almost all commercial growers utilize what is known as a mist bench. Mist benches can speedseed germination and growth for vegetative propagation. Commercial systems are composed ofirrigation nozzles that emit a fine mist, a bottom heating system that warms the soil to an optimaltemperature for germination and rooting, a covering that maintains high humidity and a specializedclock capable of activating the system for seconds at a time several times an hour. These systems cancost from hundreds to thousands of dollars. Many hobbyists desire to have a similar system, and they can be ordered from multiplecompanies starting at a few hundred dollars. However, a modified system can also be constructed ofparts available from local hardware and irrigation stores at a reduced cost. To lower the cost of themodified system, one item that may be dispensed with is the bottom heat system. A less expensive lawnsprinkler clock can also help reduce costs. Eliminating bottom heat and replacing the clock may limitthe times of year when using the system is practical. Additionally, propagation of some species maybecome more difficult. However, the modified system is generally sufficient to germinate most seedsefficiently and successfully propagate many plants asexually, especially when used in the spring andsummer. The following mist irrigation system can be constructed of either ½-inch or¾-inch PVC, schedule 40, irrigation pipe. It is intended to be connected to culinary water. If secondarywater is used, filtration will be necessary. The parts list provides enough material to create a mist benchapproximately 7 feet long. However, especially as the system is modified, required parts will differ. Itcan be connected directly to a pressurized system or connected to a hose. Appropriate fittings to con-nect it to a hose can be purchased from many garden centers, irrigation supply stores or hardwarestores.Parts list for mist bench irrigation system: Nine (9) feet of PVC pipe. 6 each- slip x ½-inch threaded x slip tees (threaded to accept a ½-inch riser) 6 each- 3 to 6-inch long ½-inch risers 1 each- slip x slip x slip tee 2 each- slip caps PVC glue and primer 1 each- role of Teflon tape 1 each- role of electrical tape 2 each- wire nuts 1 each- electric sprinkler valve 1 each- outdoor 4-8 station sprinkler clock. A 4 station clock is suitable, but the more times per day the sprinklers are activated increases success slightly. Enough sprinkler wire to run from the valve to the sprinkler clock. 6 each- mist nozzles that spray 3 feet wide threaded to fit on the ½-inch risers. You may need to purchase additional adapters for the mist nozzles to fit on the risers or to tap a threaded ½-inch cap for the nozzle to fit, depending on the mist nozzles you purchase. The company where nozzles are purchased will provide specific information.You may also need the following: -An appropriate filtration system for use with a secondary water -An PVC pipe to hose end adapter -Additional PVC pipe and fittings to plumb into a pressurized system 24
    • Illustration 1. Assembling your mist systemStep 1. Cut 2 pieces of PVC pipe six inches long and one (1) piece to two (2) feet long. Set these aside.Step 2. Obtain the 6-foot long piece of PVC pipe. Cut 6 inches off either end of the pipe. Then cut theremaining pipe into 5 pieces, 12 inches each.Step 3. Reassemble and glue all the pieces from step 2 back together using the slip x threaded x sliptees, making sure that the pieces cut to six inches are at either end. Be sure that the tees are glued sothat the risers will rise straight into the air when they are screwed in.Step 4. Wrap Teflon tape around both threaded ends of each riser. Insert andhand tighten the risers into the threaded part of the tees.Step 5. Attach the mist nozzles to the other end of the tees.Step 6. Glue the 2-foot section of pipe from step one (1), using a coupler, to theend of the system where the electric valve will be eventually be attached. Keepin mind that the valve placement should be customized to fit your situation. Itespecially should be placed so that the electric wires are notregularly exposed to water.Step 7. Attach the slip x slip x slip tee to the other end of the line, gluing the twosix-inch pieces from step one into either side of the tee. Glue the two slip capsonto the other ends of the six-inch pieces.Step 8. When the valve is glued in, attach a hose end adapter to the PVC pipe to or plumb the systeminto your pressurized irrigation. Illustration 2. Reference this illustration when connecting the electric valve 25
    • Step 9. Wire the valve to the sprinkler clock.Step 10. Set the clock to water in the early morning, late morning,mid afternoon and in the evening.How many minutes to run the clock is variable and is best deter-mined by careful observation. If an 8 station clock is used, staggerthe time appropriately throughout the day. If electricity is not readilyavailable, battery operated clocks are available. A complete mist system and cover with the plastic sheeting removed. This bench is also a prototype and the fit- tings used in this unit varies slightly from instructions given.Parts List for mist bench cover: 60-80 ft of schedule 40 pipe 8 each 90º elbows 8 each slip x slip x slip tees 5 each slip x slip couplers (These are useful for connecting smaller pieces of pipe to make longer lengths) Clear, construction plastic sheeting to fit (This can be purchased at most hardware stores.)Step 1. Cut to length the following pieces of PVC pipe: 26
    • Step 2. Using both pieces cut to 7 feet 6 inches and both pieces cut to 3 feet 2 inches, form a rectangularshape using four (4) elbows (See illustration 3). Illustration 3. Overhead view of the base of the mist bench cover.Step 3. Once the pieces are connected, cut the 7 foot 6 inch pipes six inches from the edge on all fourcorners. Where the pipes were cut, insert slip x slip x slip tees (see illustration 3).Step 4. Insert the four (4) pipes cut to 2 feet in length into the four (4) slip tees (See illustration 4). Illustration 4. Side view of bench cover with 2 ft pipes inserted into slip x slip x slip tees.Step 5. Next find both pieces cut to three (3) feet in length. Measure 6 inches from each edge and cutthe pipe. You will make four cuts. Obtain the remaining four (4) slip x slip x slip tees and reassemblethe three (3) foot pipes (See illustration 5). 27
    • Illustration 4. Overhead view of the top of the bench cover.Step 6. Place the remaining 4 elbows on each edge of the 3-foot pipes and connect these to the upright2-foot pipes (See illustration 4).Step 7. Insert the two (2) pipes cut to 6 feet 6 inches into the slip tees from step 5 (See illustration 4).Step 8. Drape the plastic sheeting over the top of the plastic structure. It may be cut to fit but leaveenough plastic on the bottom edges so that it can be weighted down. 28
    • FACT SHEET: Alisma sp.Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: MudplantainOther Common Names: Water plantainScientific Name: Alisma sp. (most likely Alisma subcordatum)Etymology: Alisma is an ancient Greek nameFamily: AlismataceaeDistribution: Genus is distributed nearly worldwide; 3 species occur natively in theU.S.Habitat: wetlands, shallow waterHabit: perennialHeight: to 3 ft.Spread: to 2 ft.Foliage Color: greenLeaves: oval to elliptic, slender and elongate when underwaterFlower Color: white, sometimes blue or pink tingedFlower Form: small, occurring in highly branched, whorlsFlowering Season: June - AugustFruit: achenesCultural Requirements: Full sun, shade intolerant. WATER PLANT! Muddy soil to shallow (to 18 in) water. Does nottolerate dry soil.Propagation: Seeds – cold, moist stratification for 4-6 weeks, keep soil wet (to saturated) oncegrowth states place pot in shallow water (just above soil surface but not submerging young plant).Vegetative – divisions and rhizomes.Uses and Notes of Interest: Plants growing in very shallow water resemble the weedy plantain in lawns. Attractive bogplant, but can become weedy.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.Photos: 29
    • FACT SHEET: Amelanchier alnifoliaText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: Serviceberry, Saskatoon serviceberryOther Common Names: alder-leaf shadbush, dwarf shadbush, western juneberry, pigeonberryScientific Name: Amelanchier alnifoliaFamily: RosaceaeDistribution: Western & Northern North America,Habitat: Foothills, canyons, woodlandsHabit: Shrub, usually multi-trunked, slow growing, deciduousHeight: 3-26 (33) ft.Spread: 3-20 ft.Foliage Color: green to dark green; yellow to reddish-orange in fallLeaves: 2-5 x 1-4.5 cm, toothed mostly above the middleFlower Color: whiteFlower Form: 3-20, on short branches (racemes)Flowering Season: April – May, as new leaves expandFruit: small purplish pome (apple-like), ripening late summer. Usually has a white bloomwhen fully ripe.Cultural Requirements: Mostly to full sun. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant of heavyclay soils lacking in organic material.Propagation: Seeds – sown immediately when green, or give long cold stratification, ger-mination is slow and can take up to 18 months; plant seedling in permanent place afterthey reach 20 cm in height; Vegetative – suckers, division of suckers best done in latewinter, or layering in spring (up to 18 months for roots to form).Uses and Notes of Interest: Fruit has been long harvested as food – having a sweet nutty taste, and can be used as ablueberry replacement in many recipes. The fruit has a similar antioxidant composition to blueberries. Good plant forhummingbirds. Wood used to make handles.Disease Issues: Susceptible to cedar-apple rust. 30
    • FACT SHEET: Astragalus utahensisCommon Name: Utah ladyfinger milkvetchOther Common Names: Utah milkvetchScientific Name: Astragalus utahensisFamily: Pea family (Fabaceae)Distribution: Northern Great BasinHabitat: Desert and foothill habitatsHabit: Perennial herbHeight: 2-4"Spread: 0.5-2Foliage Color: Gray greenLeaves: Pinnately compound, densely hairy, sprawling on thegroundFlower Color: Bright magenta pinkFlower Form: Large (1" long) pea flowers borne in clustersFlowering Season: early to mid springCultural Requirements: Requires full sun and well-drained soils. Fully cold-hardy. Very drought hardy (i.e.,needs no supplemental water after establishment on the Wasatch Front), intolerant of overwatering.Culture: Easily obtained from direct late fall seeding. At dispersal, seeds are hard, i.e., they do not take upwater, and in nature they can live for many years in the ground. Nicking with a razor blade, rubbing on sand-paper, or soaking in hot water breaks the hardseededness. The seeds germinate readily once water uptaketakes place. Plants produced as container stock do not flower until the second year.Uses and Notes of Interest: We have chosen this attractive little plant as our poster child for the Utah Heri-tage Garden Program. It is abundant along the foothills of the Wasatch Front, and is one of the very firstplants to flower after the snow melts. Great spreading clumps adorn the most unpromising areas, such as oldgravel quarries and highway rights of way. Its sprawling habit makes the plant a natural for rock gardens andalso as a ground cover on hot, gravelly hard-to-water areas of the yard. It does not do well in the company oftaller plants due to its high light requirement. The pretty magenta flowers are followed by interesting fruits,pods that resemble little woolly chicks. Seeds are readily collected by shaking them out of the gaping "beak"of the pod. Photos by Susan Meyer 31
    • FACT SHEET: Atriplex canescensText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: Fourwing SaltbushOther Common Names: Chamiso, Chamiza, Hoary SaltbrushScientific Name: Atriplex canescensEtymology:Family: Chenopodiaceae/ AmaranthaceaeDistribution: Western North America,Habitat: Basin and Southwest desertsHabit: evergreen shrub, highly variable in formHeight: to 8 ft.Spread: to 6 ft.Foliage Color: gray-greenLeaves: linear, 2 in long, often with rolled marginsFlower Color: yellowish, insignificantFlower Form: open, disk-likeFlowering Season: May to AugustFruit: 4 wings 1/4 - 1/5 in long, gold-tan when ripeCultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade, somewhat shade intolerant. Well-drained or dry soils. Intoler-ant of heavy clay soils.Propagation: Seeds – plant in fall or cold, moist stratification for 4 weeks, nick seed coat, or leach; Vegeta-tive – layering, root cuttings/ rhizomes possible.Uses and Notes of Interest: Edible (entire plant). Ashes of leaves used as baking powder. Plants tend to bemale or female, but can change sex. Seeds used for flour. Pollen may cause hayfever.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. Photo: Richard J. Shaw, © Intermountain Herbarium, 2012. Used with permission 32
    • FACT SHEET: Baptisia australisCommon Name: False indigoOther Common Names:Scientific Name: Baptisia australis.Family: Pea family, FabaceaeDistribution: Hardiness zones 4-8Habitat: borders of woods, along streams or in open meadowsHabit: round form with flowers on taller stalksHeight: 24-48”.Spread: 36-48”Foliage Color: greenLeaves: 3 lobedFlower Color: bluish purple w/ yellow accents on flowerFlower Form: pea-like flowers on upright stalksFlowering Season: June/JulyFruit:Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade. Well-drainedsoils. Low water.Propagation: Seeds, cuttings. Soak seeds for 24-48 hours to im-prove germination. USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States,Uses and Notes of Interest: Spring brings asparagus-like new Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scrib-growth. Summer foliage and flowers are beautiful. Fall and winter ners Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 344holds black shiny seedpods- great contrast with ornamentalgrasses. Deer-resistant, easy to grow. Great for cut flowers. Cutback in early spring for new growth. Drought tolerant. 33
    • FACT SHEET: Caryopteris sp.Text by: Diane BaumCommon Name: BluebeardOther Common Names: Blue Mist SpireaScientific Name: Caryopteris sp.Family: Lamiaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae)Distribution: AsiaHabitat: wetlands, shallow waterHabit: Herbaceous perennials or small shrubsHeight: to 4 ft.Spread: to 5 ft.Foliage Color: green to gray-green, silvery green, bluishLeaves: opposite, ovate to lanceolateFlower Color: white or blueFlower Form: long flower spikesFlowering Season: May/June - FallFruit: Capsule with 4 seedsCultural Requirements: Full sun, shade intolerant. Prefers loamy or sandy, well-drained soils.Propagation: Seeds – cool stratify for 3-10 weeks (depending on species). Vegetative – softwood cuttings,layering.Uses and Notes of Interest: Blooms on new growth. Leaves and herbaceous stems have a terpene aroma(like Eucalyptus) when bruised. Caryopteris x clandonensis, has become more common in xeriscaping inAmerican Gardens since the 1960‟s. Several cultivars are now available. Attractive to bees, butterflies andbirds. Heavy clay soils can increase winter mortality.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. http://public.wsu.edu/~lohr/wcl/shrubs/caryclan/CaryopterisForm.jpg 34
    • FACT SHEET: Cercocarpus montanusText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: Alderleaf Mountain MahoganyOther Common Names: True Mountain Mahogany, Birchleaf Moun-tain Mahogany, Tallowbrush, Deerbrush, LintiscoScientific Name: Cercocarpus montanusEtymology: Cercocarpus means hairy tail, referring to the fruitFamily: RosaceaeDistribution: Western North America,Habitat: Semi-desert, foothills, montane. Shrublands, canyons,woodlands.Habit: Shrub or small tree, deciduous, multi-stemmedHeight: to 20 ft.Spread: ~15 ft.Foliage Color: dark green (upper surface) fuzzy silver on lower sur-face; yellow in fallLeaves: oval-shaped, rather thick, toothed on margins, 3-10 promi-nent veinsFlower Color: yellowishFlower Form: tubular, lacking petals, clustered, not showy individu-ally but sweet smellingFlowering Season: April – June, as leaves emergeFruit: dry brownish achenes, silvery white with long feathery exten-sion.Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade, somewhat shade intolerant. Well-drained or dry soils. Intoler-ant of heavy clay soils.Propagation: Seeds – cold, moist stratification for 2-12 weeks; Vegetative – root sprouts. Slow to establish,and slow growing initially.Uses and Notes of Interest: Reflective nature of hairs on the seeds give the plant a frosted appearance inheavy fruiting years. Wood used as tools and weapons, bark used to make a reddish-brown dye.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. Photos: Richard J. Shaw, © Intermountain Herbarium, 2012. Used with permission 35
    • FACT SHEET: Clematis hirsutissimaCommon Name: Hairy ClematisOther Common Names: Sugarbowls, LeatherflowerScientific Name: Clematis hirsutissimaFamily: Ranunculaceae (Buttercup Family)Distribution: Rocky Mountain states to the Pacific NorthwestHabitat: Upper-elevation meadows and open slopesHabit: Bushy perennialHeight: 1-2 feetSpread: 1 footFoliage Color: Bright greenLeaves: Deeply dissected leavesFlower Color: Brownish-purpleFlower Form: Nodding bell-shape, 1 ½ inches longFlowering Season: Early summerCultural Requirements: Prefers full sun and well-drained soil. Low to moderate water needs.Propagation: Seeds require several months of cold, moist chilling (it‟s probably best to plant them outdoorsin the fall).Uses and Notes of Interest: Unlike other Clematis species, this is not a vine. It is an attractive plant thatwould look good in a rock garden or flower bed. The purplish nodding flowers have thick, hairy petals (thespecies name, hirsutissima means “very hairy”). Hairy seed heads develop after flowering, giving it a “Dr.Seuss” look. In Northern Utah, you can see this plant growing in meadows along the trail between TonyGrove and White Pine Lake. Photo: David Wallace, Cherry Peak trail, 19 July 2008 Photo: Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 36
    • FACT SHEET: Cleome serrulataCommon Name: Rocky Mountain BeeplantOther Common Names: Spider plant, beeweed, stinkweedScientific Name: Cleome serrulataFamily: CapparaceaeDistribution: Washington to Nebraska, south to California and New MexicoHabitat: Mixed desert shrub, pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pineHabit: Upright annualHeight: 3-4 feetSpread: 2 footFoliage Color: GreenLeaves: Three leaflets, about ¾ to 2 ½ inches long.Flower Color: Pink-purpleFlower Form: Large, fluffy clusters of small flowers with exserted stamensFlowering Season: Summer to fallCultural Requirements: Prefers full sun and well-drained soil. Low to mod-erate water needs.Propagation: Seeds require 6-8 weeks cold, moist chilling, and they will ger-minate in chilling.Uses and Notes of Interest: This is an attractive plant, with lacy purple flowers and long, narrow seed-filledpods. Found in much of the west and throughout much of Utah. Native Americans ate the seeds and greensfor food, and prehistoric Indians of the southwest apparently grew it around their pueblos. Lewis and Clarkcollected Rocky Mountain Beeplant in 1804 in what is now South Dakota, and it may be found in commercialwildflower seed mixes. http://extension.usu.edu/files/ natrpubs/despub.pdf 37
    • FACT SHEET: Cornus sericeaCommon Name: Redtwig dogwoodOther Common Names: Red osier dogwoodScientific Name: Cornus stoloniferaFamily: SalicaceaeDistribution: Western United StatesHabitat: Riparian areas within the Western U.S.Habit: Perennial shrub/subshrubHeight: 6-12 ft.Spread: 6-12 ft.Foliage Color: Green or variegatedLeaves:Flower Color: WhiteFlower Form: Clusters of small flowersFlowering Season: Mid spring to early summerCultural Requirements: Native to wet areas; however, once established is relatively drought tolerant. Very adaptable; toleratesoccasional heavy pruning.Propagation: Because this is a succoring, riparian shrub, it is very easy to propagate. Place 6-12” long cuttings into wet potting soiland water for 4-8 weeks or until rooted. Cuttings can be taken at various times of the year. If cuttings are taken during the growingseason, strip all but one or two leaves off the branch. Be careful not to tear bark. Have experienced upwards of 80% rooting suc-cess.Uses and Notes of Interest: Renewal prune by removing ¼ to 1/3 of branches starting with the most mature annually. Do so be-cause the bark on younger branches has more intense color. Branches are sometimes used to make ornamental wreaths. Com-monly used as an informal screening hedge. Needs room to grow. Forms are available with either red or yellow stems, along withvariegated leaf varieties. S. alba is very closely related, and additionally commonly available at garden centers. Botanists havemuch difficulty differentiating the two species. There are also several named cultivars that are usually more dwarf than cuttingstaken from wild plants. 38
    • FACT SHEET: Echinacea sp.Text by: Diane BaumCommon Name: Purple ConeflowerOther Common Names: Echinacea, snakeroot, Kansas snake-root, broad- leaved purple coneflower, scurvy root, Indian head,comb flower, black susans, and hedge hogScientific Name: Echinacea sp.Etymology: from the Greek for hedge hog – referring to the spikyappearance of the coneFamily: AsteraceaeDistribution: Eastern and Central North AmericaHabitat: prairies and open woodlandsHabit: Herbaceous perennials, erectHeight: to 4 ft.Spread: to 2 ft.Foliage Color: dark greenLeaves: lance-shaped, coarsely toothedFlower Color: reddish purple, pink, whiteFlower Form: sunflower-likeFlowering Season: May/June - FallFruit: achenesCultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade. Prefers loamy or sandy, well-drained soils. Not very droughttolerant.Propagation: Seeds – pretreatment is generally not needed, germination can take up to 30 days; Vegetative– cuttings, divisions.Uses and Notes of Interest: E. purpurea has been shown to have antidepressant properties in white ratsand is believed by many people to stimulate the immune system. Chemicals found in this plant can cause ad-verse reactions in people taking some heart medications. Cut flowers typically have a vase life of 5-7 days.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. 39
    • FACT SHEET: Erigeron speciosusCommon Name: Showy DaisyOther Common Names: Oregon Daisy, Showy Fleabane, Aspen FleabaneScientific Name: Erigeron speciosusEtymology: speciousus from the Latin “specios,” meaning “showy” or “beautiful”Family: AsteraceaeDistribution: common and widely distributed throughout western North AmericaHabitat: sagebrush-grassland, mountain brush and mountain forest and meadow communitiesHabit: rhizomatous perennial herbHeight: 1-1.5Spread: 1-several feet, forms patchesFoliage Color: bright greenLeaves: lance-shaped leaves borne alternately along the stemsFlower Color: pink or lavender ray flowers, yellow disk flowersFlower Form: flowers in heads 1-1.5" across, with numerous narrow ray flowers and numerous disk flowers;heads borne at the tips of branches in flat-topped inflorescencesCultural Requirements: Prefers full sun to near-complete shade and relatively rich soils. Fully cold-hardy.Reasonably drought hardy (i.e., needs little supplemental water after establishment on the Wasatch Front),but tolerant of overwatering.Propagation: Seeds are non-dormant and may be direct-seeded in containers. Be sure to thin if you haveover-seeded. This species may be successfully field- seeded in late fall.Uses and Notes of Interest: Showy daisy commonly carpets the ground beneath aspens, and is also abun-dant in mountain meadows. It lives up to its name, producing a profusion of blossoms and flowering for a longtime. It will flower a second time if spent stalks are clipped in midsummer. Showy daisy is one of the few rhi-zomatous native plants that we would recommend for home gardens. It is slow to spread, and this tendencycan be controlled by cutting back on water. It would be a good choice for naturalizing under shade treeswhere traditional lawn does poorly, and it can thrive on far less water.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent Mel Harte/ www.discoverlife.orgPhoto: Richard J. Shaw, Used with Permission -© Intermountain Herbarium, 2012 40
    • FACT SHEET: Ephedra nevadensisText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: Nevada jointfirOther Common Names: Nevada Mormon Tea, NevadaEphedra, Gray EphedraScientific Name: Ephedra nevadensisEtymology: Nevadensis means from NevadaFamily: EphedraceaeDistribution: Western North AmericaHabitat: Basin and Southwest desertsHabit: shrub, with leafless, jointed evergreen stemsHeight: to 4 ft.Spread: to 4 ft.Foliage Color: naLeaves: naFlower Color: naFlower Form: naConing Season: late winter - midspringFruit: small conesCultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade, shade intol-erant. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant of heavy clay soils.Propagation: Seeds –cold, moist stratification for 21 days;Vegetative – cuttings, occasionally from root sprouts. http://web.gccaz.edu/glendalelibrary/images/Ephedra_nevadensisUses and Notes of Interest: Stems are a diuretic. Seeds -4.jpgare edible and sweet. Plants are either male or female.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. 41
    • FACT SHEET: Forestiera neomexicanaText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: New Mexico PrivetOther Common Names: Stretchberry, Wild Olive, Desert OliveScientific Name: Forestiera neomexicana/ Forestiera pubescens subsp. neomexicanaFamily: OleaceaeDistribution: Southwestern North America,Habitat: Dry, rocky slopes and canyons in desertsHabit: Shrub or small tree, fast growing, deciduous, multi-stemmedHeight: to 18 ft.Spread: ~15 ft.Foliage Color: grayish-green to bright green; yellow in fallLeaves: small, to 1 in., often appearing pairedFlower Color: yellow, yellowishFlower Form: small, clusteredFlowering Season: April – May, just before leaves emergeFruit: small blue/black berries in autumn.Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant of heavy clay soils lack-ing in organic material.Propagation: Seeds – sow directly outdoors, or cold stratify; Vegetative – hardwood cuttings, layeringUses and Notes of Interest: Tolerates harsh winds. Interesting smooth white bark (blackish when young) –a good substitute for aspen. Male & female flowers found on different plants. Tolerant of pruning. Wood veryhard – used as tools by Native Americans.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. http://www.delange.org/OliveNewMex/Dsc00152.jpg 42
    • FACT SHEET: Hymenoxys hoopesiiCommon Name: Orange mountain daisyOther Common Names: Owl‟s claws, Orange sneezeweedScientific Name: Hymenoxys hoopesiiFamily: AsteraceaeDistribution: Western United States, excluding Washington.Habitat: Found in subalpine meadows.Habit: Perennial forb/herbHeight: 3 ft.Spread: 2-4 ft.Foliage Color: GreenLeaves: Long, smooth leavesFlower Color: YellowFlower Form: CompositeFlowering Season: Early to mid springCultural Requirements: Partial shade; moderate watering.Propagation: Seeds - cold, damp stratification approximately 5-7 weeks minimum.Uses and Notes of Interest: Popular in English flower gardens but neglected in the U.S. Sow anytime. 43
    • FACT SHEET: Iris missouriensisCommon Name: Rocky Mountain IrisOther Common Names: Western Blue FlagScientific Name: Iris missouriensisFamily: IridaceaeDistribution: From the western great plains to the Pacific OceanHabitat: Mountain meadows and stream banksHabit: Upright perennialHeight: 1-2 feetSpread: 6 inches per plant, but plants may form larger clumpsFoliage Color: Bright GreenLeaves: Long, narrow upright leavesFlower Color: Light blue-violetFlower Form: Large 2-3 inch flowers, usually one per stem, with 3 showy petalsFlowering Season: Early summerCultural Requirements: Prefers full sun and moist soil, with lower water needs later in the season.Propagation: Seeds require at least 3-4 months of cold, moist chilling, and they may begin to germinate inchilling. Also propagated by dividing the rhizomes.Uses and Notes of Interest: This attractive plant does well in residential flower beds – it looks like a smallerversion of the commonly cultivated iris. Its relatively short-lived large light-blue flowers develop into seed-filled pods. The plant gets its scientific name, Iris missouriensis, because Lewis and Clark discovered it in theupper Missouri river drainage of western Montana (western Nebraska is the closest it actually gets to the pre-sent-day state of Missouri). Rocky Mountain Iris in a residential flower bed – David Wallace photo, May 23, 2007 44
    • FACT SHEET: Krascheninnikovia lanataText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: winterfatOther Common Names: white sageScientific Name: Krascheninnikovia lanata/ Ceratoides lanata/ EurotialanataFamily: ChenopodiaceaeDistribution: Western North AmericaHabitat: dry valley bottoms, flat mesas and hillsidesHabit: subshrub, semi-evergreenHeight: 1-4 ft.Spread: 1-3 ft.Foliage Color: gray-green, hairyLeaves: to 1.5” long, linear to lance-shapedFlower Color: white, woolyFlower Form: nearly inconspicuous, clusteredFlowering Season: April -SeptemberCultural Requirements: Full sun. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerantof flooding, excess water or acidic soils.Propagation: Seeds – no stratification needed, do not cover seeds aslight is required for germination. Seeds have a short period of viability, Photo: USU extensionso do not save seeds longer than 2 years.Uses and Notes of Interest: Good forage for animals and birds especially during winter. Mature seed headsare wonderful in dried arrangements, but do not cut the plant back more than 50% when dormant. Prune inearly spring for bushier growth. Blackfoot Indians soaked the leaves in warm water for a hair wash. http://seedsofsuccess.smugmug.com/ Bureau-of-Land-Management/BLM- CA930A/15256925_2Ld2NR/58/148931 6971_rWGsc5V#! i=1489316892&k=sJkkMRK 45
    • FACT SHEET: Lupinus sericeusText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: Silky LupineOther Common Names: Pursh‟s lupineScientific Name: Lupinus sericeusEtymology: sericeus means silky, referring to the soft hairs on theplantFamily: FabaceaeDistribution: Western North America,Habitat: Moderately dry, open slopes, plains to montane zonesHabit: bushy perennial, erectHeight: 8-25 in.Spread: to 18 in.Foliage Color: silvery greenLeaves: palmately compound with 7-9 leaflets, hairy with silkyhairs on both sidesFlower Color: lavender to blue, sometimes white, rarely yellowishFlower Form: pea-likeFlowering Season: May-AugustFruit: silky pods, 2-3 cm long with 2-7 lightly pinkish brown seedsCultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade, somewhat shade intolerant. Well-drained or dry soils. Intoler-ant of heavy clay soils.Propagation: Seeds – plant in fall or cold, moist stratification for 4 weeks, nick seed coat for best germinationalternatively place in hot water for 5-10 seconds immediately transfer to cold water overnight prior to placinginto cold stratification; Vegetative – root division may be possible. NOTE: inoculate with Rhizobium for bestresults.Uses and Notes of Interest: Nitrogen fixer. Highly toxic to sheep, causes birth defects in cattle.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. 46
    • FACT SHEET: Penstemon centranthifoliusCommon Name: scarlet buglerOther Common Names:Scientific Name: Penstemon centranthifoliusFamily: PlantaginiaceaeDistribution: sea level to 6000 feetHabitat: deserts, foothillsHabit: large, multi-stemmedHeight: 4-5 feetSpread: 1-2 feetFoliage Color: gray-greenLeaves: glaucous by stemsFlower Color: scarletFlower Form: tubesFlowering Season: May-JuneCultural Requirements: full sun; gravelly, sandy soil, open land; dryPropagation: seedUses and Notes of Interest: does best where temperature doesn‟t get below 15°F. Ultimate hummingbirdpenstemon. 47
    • FACT SHEET: Penstemon fendleriCommon Name: Fendler penstemonOther Common Names: Fendler‟s beardtongueScientific Name: Penstemon fendleriFamily: ScrophulariaceaeDistribution: central, eastern NM to OK, TX and southeast AZHabitat: hillsides, open areasHabit: tall, uprightHeight: 8-20 inchesSpread: 6-12 inchesFoliage Color: gray-greenLeaves: thick pointed tipsFlower Color: blue-violetFlower Form: distinct whorls around stemFlowering Season: April-August- depending on habitatCultural Requirements: full sun; gravelly, sandy soil, open land; low waterPropagation: seedUses and Notes of Interest: early bloomer, space several plants together for good displayhttp://www.fws.gov/southwest/refuges/newmex/sanandres/Photoshop_gallery/plants/images/Purple-penstemon.jpg http://www.wildflower.org/image_archive/640x480/SS1/ SS1_IMG0138.JPG 48
    • FACT SHEET: Penstemon grandiflorusText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: Shell-leaf BeardtongueOther Common Names: Large-flowered Beardtongue, Wild FoxgloveScientific Name: Penstemon grandiflorusEtymology: grandiflorus refers to large floweredFamily: Plantaginaceae (Schrophulariaceae)Distribution: Great Plains and Front Range of the RockiesHabitat: prairieHabit: rather short lived perennialHeight: to 4 ft.Spread: to 2 ft.Foliage Color: gray-green to blue-greenLeaves: opposite along stem, oval-shaped with a blunt tip, waxyFlower Color: pinkish lavenderFlower Form: tubular, to 2 in. long, in pairs (or triplets) along the upperthird of the stemFlowering Season: May– July (usually for 3 weeks)Fruit: CapsulesCultural Requirements: Full sun, somewhat shade intoler-ant. Moist to dry, poor, well drained sandy or gravelly soils.Propagation: Seeds – cold, moist stratification for 4-6weeks. Vegetative – careful division of the crown may bepossible.Uses and Notes of Interest: Flowers mostly lacking inscent. Dieback after blooming common. Looks best whenmassed.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. Leaf spots and rusts. 49
    • FACT SHEET: Penstemon secundiflorisCommon Name: sidebells penstemonOther Common Names:Scientific Name: Penstemon secundiflorisFamily: ScrophulariaceaeDistribution: Wyoming to New Mexico in eastern plains, foothills, lower elevations in Rocky MountainsHabitat: 5400-9000 foot elevationHabit: tall, upright, smooth, waxy-likeHeight: 6-20 inchesSpread:Foliage Color: blue-greenLeaves: form a rosetteFlower Color: pinks, lavendersFlower Form:Flowering Season: May/JuneCultural Requirements: full sun; gravelly, sandy soilPropagation: seedUses and Notes of Interest: Long lived, flowers all point in one direction, earliest bloomer. NPS Photo by Sally King http://wildflowerswest.org/Images/Blue-Purple-Page-1/ penstemon_secundiflorus/sidebells_penstemon_1.jpg 50
    • FACT SHEET: Penstemon spectabilisCommon Name: showy penstemonOther Common Names: spectabilisScientific Name: Penstemon spectabilisFamily:Distribution: 380-7900‟Habitat: dry washes, hillsidesHabit: erect , long stemmedHeight: 8-20”Spread: 12-18”Foliage Color: bluish-grayLeaves: sharply toothedFlower Color: red-violetFlower Form: tubesFlowering Season: JuneCultural Requirements: full sun; gravelly, sandy soil, low waterPropagation: seedUses and Notes of Interest: does best where temperaturedoesn‟t get below 10°F. name means highly visible http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~awolfe/pics/ Pspectabilis.jpg http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/ imgs/512x768/6212_3041/0635/0094.jpeg 51
    • FACT SHEET: Petalostemum purpureumCommon Name: Purple prairie cloverOther Common Names:Scientific Name: Petalostemum purpureumFamily: FabaceaeDistribution: Native to the north central portion of the United States.Habit: Upright perennial forbHeight: 1-3 ft.Spread: 1-3 ft.Foliage Color: GreenLeaves: The sparse leaves are divided into 3-7 leaflets each 1/2 - 3/4" long.Flower Color: Lavender-purpleFlower Form: Flowers are concentrated on slender cones at the ends of wiry stems.Flowering Season: May-SeptemberCultural Requirements: Prefers sandy, sandy-loam, or well-drained soils in full sun.Propagation: Field seed is planted in the fall, and not placed into cold storage. If unable to plant in the fall trymoist stratification for 2-3 months and the plant. Requires 14-30 days to germinate at 1/16” depth.Uses and Notes of Interest: Blooms begin to open from the base of the cone and slowly ascend to the tip.Very drought tolerant due to an extensive root system which may makes transplanting difficult. Excellent highprotein forage for livestock. http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/prairie/plantx/ 52
    • FACT SHEET: Phragmites australis subsp. americanusText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: American Common ReedOther Common Names: Common ReedScientific Name: Phragmites australis subsp. ameri-canusEtymology: Alisma is an ancient Greek nameFamily: Poaceae (Grass Family)Distribution: Worldwide - 2 native subspecies in NorthAmerica, 1 introduced from EurasiaHabitat: wetlands, marshesHabit: perennialHeight: to 8(10) ft.Spread: naFoliage Color: greenLeaves: linear, grassy blade to 20 inches longFlower Color: naFlower Form: highly branched inflorescence at top of stemFlowering Season: June - OctoberFruit: grainCultural Requirements: Full sun, shade intolerant. WATER PLANT. Muddy soil to shallow (to 18 in) water.Tolerates moist soil, but not totally dry soil.Propagation: Seeds – cold, moist stratification for 4-6 weeks, keep soil wet (to saturated) once growth statesplace pot in shallow water (just above soil surface but not submerging young plant). Vegetative – divisionsand rhizomes.Uses and Notes of Interest: Can become weedy, but if kept on drier side should behave. Good plant for soilstabilization along waterways. Bamboo-like growth and look. Used for roof thatching in Europe. Makes goodnesting tubes for Mason bees. Young stems, seeds and rhizomes are edible.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. 53
    • FACT SHEET: Ratibida columniferaCommon Name: Mexican hatOther Common Names: Prairie coneflower, long-head cone-flowerScientific Name: Ratibida columniferaFamily: AsteraceaeDistribution: Widespread in much of North AmericaHabitat: Prairies and grasslandsHabit: Herbaceous perennial, sometimes treated as an an-nualHeight: 1-3 ft.Spread: 1-3 ft.Foliage Color: GreenLeaves: To 2.5” long, deeply pinnately dividedFlower Color: Mahogany red, sometimes with hints of orange oryellow (yellow forms are possible)Flower Form: Composite head; cone shaped, ringed by petaloid flowersFlowering Season: Summer - fallCultural Requirements: Full sun. Well drained soil. Tolerates heat and humidity, but does not like wet feetduring the winter, intolerant of wet, heavy clay soils at any time.Propagation: Seeds (flowers in second year), division of clumps in spring when plants are young (notwoody).Uses and Notes of Interest: A good addition to a butterfly garden. May have problems with downy or pow-dery mildew if watered by overhead sprinklers. Can naturalize under some conditions. 54
    • FACT SHEET: Rudbeckia sp.Common Name: Coneflowers, black-eyed-susans;Alternate Names: Black-eyed Susan, Brown-eyed Susan,Conedisk, Conedisk Sunflower, Gloriosa Daisy Tall Cone-flowerScientific Name: RudbeckiaFamily: AsteraceaeDistribution: Throughout the USHabitat: Zones 4 – 9, drought tolerantHabit: Perennial, some annual or biennial) growing to 0.5-3m tall, with simple or branched stems. The leaves are spirallyarranged, entire to deeply lobed, 5-25 cm long. With yellow ororange florets arranged in a prominent, cone-shaped headHeight: Varies greatly, from dwarf (1 ft.) varieties like „Becky‟and „Toto‟, to the giant coneflower Rudbeckia maxima, whichcan reach 9 tall. Commonly 12” –14”Spread: single stemFoliage Color: GreenLeaves: Spirally arranged, entire to deeply lobed, 5-25 cmlong.Flower Form: Daisy-like inflorescences, with yellow or or-ange florets arranged in a prominent, cone-shaped headFlower Color: Yellow to orangeFlowering season: Mid-summer to fall.Cultural requirement: Full Sun / Partial Shade. Best flowering will be in full sun. Medium drought tolerance,pH 6.0-7.0. Prefers medium textured soilPropagation: Seed started perennials can bloom the first year if started early.Uses of interest: are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species including CabbageMoth and Dot Moth 55
    • FACT SHEET: Salix spp.Common Name: WillowOther Common Names:Scientific Name: Salix spp.Family: SalicaceaeDistribution: Western United StatesHabitat: Riparian areas within the Western United StatesHabit: Perennial shrub/subshrubHeight: 6-12 ft.Spread: 6-12 ft.Foliage Color: variesLeaves: variesFlower Color: variesFlower Form: Clusters of small flowersFlowering Season: Mid spring to early summerCultural Requirements: Native to wet areas; however, once establishedis relatively drought tolerant. Very adaptable; tolerates occasional heavypruning.Propagation: Because this is a succoring, riparian shrub, it is very easy http://www.wildutah.us/html/plants_scenery/to propagate. Place 6-12” long cuttings into wet potting soil and water for h_diamondleaf_willow_salix_planifolia.html4-8 weeks or until rooted. Cuttings can be taken at various times of theyear. If cuttings are taken during the growing season, strip all but one or two leaves off the branch. Be carefulnot to tear bark. Have experienced upwards of 80% rooting success.Uses and Notes of Interest: May need occasional renewal pruning by removing ¼ to 1/3 of branches start-ing with the most mature annually. This may help to expose younger branches with more intense bark color.Commonly used as an informal screening hedge. Needs room to grow. No native species commonly availablewithin the nursery trade. With overwatering, some willow species can become invasive. Under no circum-stances should you plant S. exigua (Coyote or Sandbar willow); once established, it is nearly impossible toremove. Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 56
    • FACT SHEET: Wyethia amplexicaulisText by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain HerbariumCommon Name: Mule‟s earsOther Common Names: Mule-earsScientific Name: Wyethia amplexicaulisEtymology: named for Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth, an early Western explorerFamily: AsteraceaeDistribution: Primarily Northern and Central Rocky Mountain RegionHabitat: dry meadows, open hillsides, foothills, canyonsHabit: long lived perennial with woody taprootHeight: 3 ft.Spread: 3 ft.Foliage Color: dark greenLeaves: basal leaves round, shiny; stem leaves shiny, lance-shaped to 16 in.Flower Color: yellowFlower Form: daily-like, usually a single large head atop the stem to 4 in. acrossFlowering Season: April– JuneFruit: dry brownish achenesCultural Requirements: Full sun, somewhat shade intolerant. Moist to dry, well drained clay or gravelly soils.Propagation: Seeds – cold, moist stratification for 4 weeks. Vegetative – careful division of the crown may bepossibleUses and Notes of Interest: Strongly aromatic. Reported to be edible.Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. Can be aggressive inheavy clay soils.Photo: Roger Banner, © Intermountain Herbarium Photo: Richard J. Shaw, © Intermountain Herbarium, 2012. Used with permission 57
    • Utah State University is committed to providing an environment free from harassment and other forms of illegal discriminationbased on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age (40 and older), disability, and veteran’s status. USU’s policy also prohibitsdiscrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in employment and academic related practices and decisions. Utah State University employees and students cannot, because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, orveteran’s status, refuse to hire; discharge; promote; demote; terminate; discriminate in compensation; or discriminate regardingterms, privileges, or conditions of employment, against any person otherwise qualified. Employees and students also cannot dis-criminate in the classroom, residence halls, or in on/off campus, USU-sponsored events and activities. This publication is issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation withthe U.S. Department of Agriculture, Noelle E. Cockett, Vice President for Extension and Agriculture, Utah State University. 58