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Ps slides wk 2

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  • 1. “I’ll pay more for a person’s ability to speak and express himself than for any other quality he might possess” - Charles M. SchwabCopyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 2. Why Study Public Speaking?Empowerment •Achieves desired goals •Is “advantage” over competition •Shows confidence •Shows conviction Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 3. Why Study Public Speaking?Employment Corporations want skilled speakers •To adapt information •To be organized •To keep listeners interested Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 4. The Communication ProcessCommunication as Action • Linear: one-way messages • Source: encodes message • Message: what is said & how it is said • Channel: how message is transmitted • Receiver: decodes message • Noise: interferes with message Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 5. The Action Model ofCommunication Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 6. Communication as Interaction• As message is sent, feedback to sender is provided by receiver• Communication happens within a context or the environment/situation in which speech occurs Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 7. Communication as Transaction •Communication happens simultaneously •Sender also receives message •Receiver also sends message Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 8. Improving Your Confidence• Nervousness is normal• Public speaking number one in highest anxiety Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 9. Nervousness• Audience cannot see nervousness• Use anxiety to your advantage Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 10. Build Your ConfidenceBefore your speech • Don’t procrastinate • Know your audience • Select an appropriate topic • Prepare • Be organized Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 11. Build Your Confidence• Be familiar with introduction and conclusion• Simulate actual speech conditions• Breathe deeply• Think and act calmly• Picture positive outcomes• Reassure yourself mentally Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 12. Build Your ConfidenceDuring the speech: After the speech:• Focus on content, not • Reflect on positives fears • Seek other speaking• Look for supportive opportunities audience members Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 13. Public Speaking Differs from ConversationPublic Speaking is Planned • More formal • More preparation • Clearly defined roles Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 14. Public Speaking Differs from ConversationPublic Speaking is Formal •Less slang and casual language •More physical distance between speaker and audience •More controlled gestures and movements Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 15. Select & Narrow Your Topic• Who will be hearing your speech?• What is the occasion (event)?• What are your interests, talents & experiences? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 16. Determine Your Purpose• General Purpose: overarching goal of your speech• To inform: teach, define or clarify• To persuade: change or strengthen thoughts or behaviors• To entertain: amuse with stories, illustrations and humor Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 17. Specific Purpose• Exact response you want from audience• Concise statement indicating what you want the audience to • Do • Think • Feel • Remember Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 18. Develop Your Central Idea• Overview of speech• One-sentence summary of speech Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education,2009All rights reserved Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Inc.
  • 19. An example: • Topic: The South Beach Diet. • General Purpose: To inform. • Specific Purpose: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to identify the three key elements in the South Beach diet. • Central Idea: The South Beach diet is based upon reducing the amount of© 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright carbohydrates you eat, drinking more
  • 20. Generate Main Ideas• Identify how speech will logically divide• How central idea logically divides will determine main ideas• Reasons why central idea is true can be main ideas.• Series of steps to illustrate central idea can be main ideas Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 21. Gather Supporting Material • Material that “backs up” ideas • Can be personal & concrete • Should appeal to listeners • Research your supporting material • Can be verbal, visual, or both Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 22. Organize Your Speech• Start with body• Arrange ideas to make most sense• Prepare introduction & conclusion AFTER body• Follow effective outlining techniques Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 23. Rehearse Your Speech• Prepare early• Practice out loud• Observe your behaviors• Make adjustments• Rehearse in front of others Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 24. Deliver Your Speech• Walk calmly• Walk confidently• Remember rehearsals• Maintain eye contact• Speak loudly• Vary your pitch Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 25. Free speech not only lives, it rocks! —OPRAH WINFREYCopyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 26. Ethics• Values, beliefs and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong• For public speaking, responsibly balance right to free speech with needs of audienceCopyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 27. Speaking Freely• First Amendment guarantees freespeech.• ACLU: helps protect free speech.• Supreme Court: flag burningprotected under free speech.• Patriot Act sparks controversybetween national2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © security & free speech.
  • 28. Speaking EthicallyHave a Clear, ResponsibleGoal • Give listeners choices • Do not keep your agenda hidden from your listeners Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 29. Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning• Do not make false claims• Do not substitute emotions for logic• Keep quality of evidence high Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 30. Be Sensitive and Tolerant of Differences• Be willing to listen to opposing sides (accommodation)• This shows respect for others Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 31. Be Honest• Offering false or misleading information is unethical• Give credit for ideas and types of information that are not your own Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 32. Do Not Plagiarize• Plagiarizing: presenting someone else’s ideas or words as though they were yours• Plagiaphrasing: failure to give credit for compelling phrases taken from another source Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 33. Do Your Own Work• Think of an original approach• Avoid articles that can be converted into speeches• Edit your own work Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 34. Acknowledge Your Sources• Direct quotes, no matter how short• Opinions or ideas of others, even if paraphrased• Statistics• Non-original visual materials (graphs, pictures & tables)• Give oral and written citations Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 35. Becoming anAudience-Centered SpeakerGather information about your audience•Informally • Demographics: information about age, gender, sexual orientation, education & religious views•Formally • Open-ended questions (unrestricted answers) • Closed-ended questions rights reserved Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All (limited
  • 36. Becoming anAudience-Centered SpeakerAnalyze information about your audience •Audience analysis: examining information about listeners •Ask 1. How are they similar? 2. How are they different? 3. How can I establish common ground? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 37. Becoming anAudience-Centered SpeakerAdapting to your audience • Ethically using audience information, to adapt messages for clarity and your objective • Modifying messages for better clarity • Helps achieve ethical goal(s) Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 38. Analyzing your audience before you speakDemographic audience analysis Analyzing an audience by examining demographic information to develop clear and effective messages Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 39. Types of Demographics•Age•Gender•Culture•Sexual Orientation•Socioecono mic status•Race Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 40. Types of Demographics•Group •Socioeconomic Membership Status Religious Income Political Occupation Work Education Social Service Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 41. Adapting to Diverse Listeners• Look at differences beyond cultural• Focus on a target audience• Use variety of supporting materials• Tell stories• Balance logic with emotions•Show ideas visually•Identify common values of audience Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 42. Psychological Audience Analysis•Attitudes: likes and/or dislikes•Beliefs: perceptions of what is true or false•Values: enduring concept of good/bad, right/wrong•Audiences can be • Interested or uninterested • Favorable or unfavorable • Voluntary or captive Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 43. Situational Audience Analysis• Time (when, how long)• Audience size• Location (type of room, arrangement of chairs)• Occasion (event) Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 44. Adapting as you speakIdentify nonverbal cues from•listeners Eye-contact•Facial expression•Movement•Nonverbalresponsiveness•Verbalresponsiveness Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 45. Adapting as you speak If audience If audienceIf audience seems seems to seems bored confused disagreeTell a Use Provide more story redundancy evidenceConsider Phrase Remind them humor ideas of your differently credibility Increase Ask Give more rate of audience to facts & fewer speech summarize stories Give Use a Give Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved personal visual aid information
  • 46. Customizing Your Message To Your Audience•Refer to • Names of listeners • Place of speech • Historical events•Mention recent news related to topic•Give positive references to groups or organizations in audience•Discuss topic’s relevance for listeners Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • 47. Analyzing Your Audience After You Speak• Observe nonverbal responses• Listen for verbal comments• Survey audience• Check for desired behavioral responses from audience Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved

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