“I’ll pay                                                                more for a                                       ...
Why Study Public Speaking?Empowerment •Achieves desired   goals  •Is “advantage” over   competition  •Shows confidence  •S...
Why Study Public Speaking?Employment Corporations want skilled speakers   •To adapt information   •To be organized   •To k...
The Communication ProcessCommunication as Action • Linear: one-way messages •     Source: encodes message •     Message: w...
The Action Model ofCommunication     Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Communication as Interaction• As message is sent, feedback to sender is  provided by receiver• Communication happens withi...
Communication as Transaction  •Communication happens   simultaneously  •Sender also receives message  •Receiver also sends...
Improving Your Confidence• Nervousness is normal• Public speaking number one in highest  anxiety       Copyright © 2012, 2...
Nervousness• Audience cannot see nervousness• Use anxiety to your advantage      Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Educ...
Build Your ConfidenceBefore your speech   • Don’t procrastinate   • Know your audience   • Select an appropriate topic   •...
Build Your Confidence• Be familiar with introduction and  conclusion• Simulate actual speech conditions• Breathe deeply• T...
Build Your ConfidenceDuring the speech:                             After the speech:• Focus on content, not              ...
Public Speaking Differs from              ConversationPublic Speaking is Planned  • More formal  • More preparation  • Cle...
Public Speaking Differs from            ConversationPublic Speaking is Formal  •Less slang and casual language  •More phys...
Select & Narrow Your Topic• Who will be hearing your speech?• What is the occasion (event)?• What are your interests, tale...
Determine Your Purpose• General Purpose: overarching goal of your  speech• To inform: teach, define or clarify• To persuad...
Specific Purpose• Exact response you want from audience• Concise statement indicating what you want  the audience to  •   ...
Develop Your Central Idea• Overview of speech• One-sentence summary of speech       Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson E...
An example: • Topic:                                     The South Beach Diet. • General Purpose:                         ...
Generate Main Ideas• Identify how speech will logically divide• How central idea logically divides will  determine main id...
Gather Supporting Material                                     • Material that “backs up”                                 ...
Organize Your Speech• Start with body• Arrange ideas to make most sense• Prepare introduction & conclusion AFTER  body• Fo...
Rehearse Your Speech• Prepare early• Practice out loud• Observe your behaviors• Make adjustments• Rehearse in front of oth...
Deliver Your Speech• Walk calmly• Walk confidently• Remember rehearsals• Maintain eye contact• Speak loudly• Vary your pit...
Free speech                                                    not only lives,                                            ...
Ethics•    Values, beliefs and moral        principles by which        we determine what         is right or wrong•       ...
Speaking Freely• First Amendment guarantees freespeech.•            ACLU: helps protect free speech.•      Supreme Court: ...
Speaking EthicallyHave a Clear, ResponsibleGoal • Give listeners choices •      Do not keep your   agenda hidden from   yo...
Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning• Do not make false claims• Do not substitute emotions for  logic• Keep quality of evidenc...
Be Sensitive and Tolerant of          Differences• Be willing to listen to opposing  sides (accommodation)• This shows res...
Be Honest• Offering false or misleading  information is unethical• Give credit for ideas and  types of information that ar...
Do Not Plagiarize• Plagiarizing: presenting  someone else’s ideas or  words as though they were  yours• Plagiaphrasing: fa...
Do Your Own Work• Think of an original approach• Avoid articles that can be  converted into speeches• Edit your own work  ...
Acknowledge Your Sources• Direct quotes, no matter how  short• Opinions or ideas of others, even  if paraphrased• Statisti...
Becoming anAudience-Centered SpeakerGather information about your audience•Informally • Demographics: information about   ...
Becoming anAudience-Centered SpeakerAnalyze information about your audience •Audience analysis: examining  information abo...
Becoming anAudience-Centered SpeakerAdapting to your audience • Ethically using audience   information, to adapt messages ...
Analyzing your audience    before you speakDemographic audience analysis  Analyzing an audience by examining  demographic ...
Types of Demographics•Age•Gender•Culture•Sexual Orientation•Socioecono mic status•Race     Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pe...
Types of Demographics•Group                                     •Socioeconomic Membership                                 ...
Adapting to Diverse Listeners• Look at differences  beyond cultural• Focus on a target  audience• Use variety of  supporti...
Psychological Audience            Analysis•Attitudes: likes and/or dislikes•Beliefs: perceptions of what is true or false•...
Situational Audience Analysis• Time (when, how long)• Audience size• Location (type of room,  arrangement of chairs)• Occa...
Adapting as you speakIdentify nonverbal cues from•listeners  Eye-contact•Facial expression•Movement•Nonverbalresponsivenes...
Adapting as you speak                         If audience                  If audienceIf audience                         ...
Customizing Your Message To       Your Audience•Refer to  • Names of listeners  • Place of speech  • Historical events•Men...
Analyzing Your Audience After         You Speak• Observe nonverbal responses• Listen for verbal comments• Survey audience•...
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Ps slides wk 2

  1. 1. “I’ll pay more for a person’s ability to speak and express himself than for any other quality he might possess” - Charles M. SchwabCopyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  2. 2. Why Study Public Speaking?Empowerment •Achieves desired goals •Is “advantage” over competition •Shows confidence •Shows conviction Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  3. 3. Why Study Public Speaking?Employment Corporations want skilled speakers •To adapt information •To be organized •To keep listeners interested Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  4. 4. The Communication ProcessCommunication as Action • Linear: one-way messages • Source: encodes message • Message: what is said & how it is said • Channel: how message is transmitted • Receiver: decodes message • Noise: interferes with message Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  5. 5. The Action Model ofCommunication Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  6. 6. Communication as Interaction• As message is sent, feedback to sender is provided by receiver• Communication happens within a context or the environment/situation in which speech occurs Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  7. 7. Communication as Transaction •Communication happens simultaneously •Sender also receives message •Receiver also sends message Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  8. 8. Improving Your Confidence• Nervousness is normal• Public speaking number one in highest anxiety Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  9. 9. Nervousness• Audience cannot see nervousness• Use anxiety to your advantage Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  10. 10. Build Your ConfidenceBefore your speech • Don’t procrastinate • Know your audience • Select an appropriate topic • Prepare • Be organized Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  11. 11. Build Your Confidence• Be familiar with introduction and conclusion• Simulate actual speech conditions• Breathe deeply• Think and act calmly• Picture positive outcomes• Reassure yourself mentally Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  12. 12. Build Your ConfidenceDuring the speech: After the speech:• Focus on content, not • Reflect on positives fears • Seek other speaking• Look for supportive opportunities audience members Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  13. 13. Public Speaking Differs from ConversationPublic Speaking is Planned • More formal • More preparation • Clearly defined roles Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  14. 14. Public Speaking Differs from ConversationPublic Speaking is Formal •Less slang and casual language •More physical distance between speaker and audience •More controlled gestures and movements Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  15. 15. Select & Narrow Your Topic• Who will be hearing your speech?• What is the occasion (event)?• What are your interests, talents & experiences? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  16. 16. Determine Your Purpose• General Purpose: overarching goal of your speech• To inform: teach, define or clarify• To persuade: change or strengthen thoughts or behaviors• To entertain: amuse with stories, illustrations and humor Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  17. 17. Specific Purpose• Exact response you want from audience• Concise statement indicating what you want the audience to • Do • Think • Feel • Remember Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  18. 18. Develop Your Central Idea• Overview of speech• One-sentence summary of speech Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education,2009All rights reserved Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Inc.
  19. 19. An example: • Topic: The South Beach Diet. • General Purpose: To inform. • Specific Purpose: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to identify the three key elements in the South Beach diet. • Central Idea: The South Beach diet is based upon reducing the amount of© 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright carbohydrates you eat, drinking more
  20. 20. Generate Main Ideas• Identify how speech will logically divide• How central idea logically divides will determine main ideas• Reasons why central idea is true can be main ideas.• Series of steps to illustrate central idea can be main ideas Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  21. 21. Gather Supporting Material • Material that “backs up” ideas • Can be personal & concrete • Should appeal to listeners • Research your supporting material • Can be verbal, visual, or both Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  22. 22. Organize Your Speech• Start with body• Arrange ideas to make most sense• Prepare introduction & conclusion AFTER body• Follow effective outlining techniques Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  23. 23. Rehearse Your Speech• Prepare early• Practice out loud• Observe your behaviors• Make adjustments• Rehearse in front of others Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  24. 24. Deliver Your Speech• Walk calmly• Walk confidently• Remember rehearsals• Maintain eye contact• Speak loudly• Vary your pitch Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  25. 25. Free speech not only lives, it rocks! —OPRAH WINFREYCopyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  26. 26. Ethics• Values, beliefs and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong• For public speaking, responsibly balance right to free speech with needs of audienceCopyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  27. 27. Speaking Freely• First Amendment guarantees freespeech.• ACLU: helps protect free speech.• Supreme Court: flag burningprotected under free speech.• Patriot Act sparks controversybetween national2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © security & free speech.
  28. 28. Speaking EthicallyHave a Clear, ResponsibleGoal • Give listeners choices • Do not keep your agenda hidden from your listeners Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  29. 29. Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning• Do not make false claims• Do not substitute emotions for logic• Keep quality of evidence high Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  30. 30. Be Sensitive and Tolerant of Differences• Be willing to listen to opposing sides (accommodation)• This shows respect for others Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  31. 31. Be Honest• Offering false or misleading information is unethical• Give credit for ideas and types of information that are not your own Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  32. 32. Do Not Plagiarize• Plagiarizing: presenting someone else’s ideas or words as though they were yours• Plagiaphrasing: failure to give credit for compelling phrases taken from another source Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  33. 33. Do Your Own Work• Think of an original approach• Avoid articles that can be converted into speeches• Edit your own work Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  34. 34. Acknowledge Your Sources• Direct quotes, no matter how short• Opinions or ideas of others, even if paraphrased• Statistics• Non-original visual materials (graphs, pictures & tables)• Give oral and written citations Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  35. 35. Becoming anAudience-Centered SpeakerGather information about your audience•Informally • Demographics: information about age, gender, sexual orientation, education & religious views•Formally • Open-ended questions (unrestricted answers) • Closed-ended questions rights reserved Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All (limited
  36. 36. Becoming anAudience-Centered SpeakerAnalyze information about your audience •Audience analysis: examining information about listeners •Ask 1. How are they similar? 2. How are they different? 3. How can I establish common ground? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  37. 37. Becoming anAudience-Centered SpeakerAdapting to your audience • Ethically using audience information, to adapt messages for clarity and your objective • Modifying messages for better clarity • Helps achieve ethical goal(s) Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  38. 38. Analyzing your audience before you speakDemographic audience analysis Analyzing an audience by examining demographic information to develop clear and effective messages Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  39. 39. Types of Demographics•Age•Gender•Culture•Sexual Orientation•Socioecono mic status•Race Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  40. 40. Types of Demographics•Group •Socioeconomic Membership Status Religious Income Political Occupation Work Education Social Service Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  41. 41. Adapting to Diverse Listeners• Look at differences beyond cultural• Focus on a target audience• Use variety of supporting materials• Tell stories• Balance logic with emotions•Show ideas visually•Identify common values of audience Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  42. 42. Psychological Audience Analysis•Attitudes: likes and/or dislikes•Beliefs: perceptions of what is true or false•Values: enduring concept of good/bad, right/wrong•Audiences can be • Interested or uninterested • Favorable or unfavorable • Voluntary or captive Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  43. 43. Situational Audience Analysis• Time (when, how long)• Audience size• Location (type of room, arrangement of chairs)• Occasion (event) Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  44. 44. Adapting as you speakIdentify nonverbal cues from•listeners Eye-contact•Facial expression•Movement•Nonverbalresponsiveness•Verbalresponsiveness Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  45. 45. Adapting as you speak If audience If audienceIf audience seems seems to seems bored confused disagreeTell a Use Provide more story redundancy evidenceConsider Phrase Remind them humor ideas of your differently credibility Increase Ask Give more rate of audience to facts & fewer speech summarize stories Give Use a Give Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved personal visual aid information
  46. 46. Customizing Your Message To Your Audience•Refer to • Names of listeners • Place of speech • Historical events•Mention recent news related to topic•Give positive references to groups or organizations in audience•Discuss topic’s relevance for listeners Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  47. 47. Analyzing Your Audience After You Speak• Observe nonverbal responses• Listen for verbal comments• Survey audience• Check for desired behavioral responses from audience Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved

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