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### Powerpoint

1. 1. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production
2. 2. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production
3. 3. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production HA1 - Technical File – James Fox
4. 4. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production HA1 - Technical File – Raster Images In computer graphics, a raster graphics image, or bitmap, is a data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of colour, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium. Raster images are stored in image files with varying formats (see Comparison of graphics file formats). A bitmap corresponds bit-for-bit with an image displayed on a screen, generally in the same format used for storage in the displays video memory, or maybe as a device- independent bitmap. A bitmap is technically characterized by the width and height of the image in pixels and by the number of bits per pixel (a colour depth, which determines the number of colours it can represent).
5. 5. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production HA1 - Technical File – Vector Images Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and shapes or polygon(s), which are all based on mathematical equations, to represent images in computer graphics. Vector graphics formats are complementary to raster graphics, which is the representation of images as an array of pixels, as is typically used for the representation of photographic images. Vector graphics are stored as mathematical expressions as opposed to bit mapped graphics which are stored as a series of mapped dots, also known as pixels (Picture cells). There are instances when working with vector tools and formats is the best practice, and instances when working with raster tools and formats is the best practice. There are times when both formats come together. An understanding of the advantages and limitations of each technology and the relationship between them is most likely to result in efficient and effective use of tools.
6. 6. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production In digital signal processing, spatial anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artefacts known as aliasing when representing a high- resolution image at a lower resolution. Anti-aliasing is used in digital photography, computer graphics, digital audio, and many other applications. Anti-aliasing means removing signal components that have a higher frequency than is able to be properly resolved by the recording (or sampling) device. This removal is done before (re)sampling at a lower resolution. When sampling is performed without removing this part of the signal, it causes undesirable artefacts such as the black-and-white noise near the top of figure 1-a below. In signal acquisition and audio, anti-aliasing is often done using an analogy anti-aliasing filter to remove the out-of-band component of the input signal prior to sampling with an analogy-to-digital converter. In digital photography, optical anti-aliasing filters are made of birefringent materials, and smooth the signal in the spatial optical domain. The anti- aliasing filter essentially blurs the image slightly in order to reduce resolution to below the limit of the digital sensor (the larger the pixel pitch, the lower the achievable resolution at the sensor level).
7. 7. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production In digital audio, bit depth describes the number of bits of information recorded for each sample. Bit depth directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample in a set of digital audio data. Common examples of bit depth include CD quality audio, which is recorded at 16 bits, and DVD-Audio, which can support up to 24-bit audio. A set of digital audio samples contains data that, when converted into an analogy signal, provides the necessary information to reproduce the sound wave. In pulse-code modulation (PCM) sampling, the bit depth will limit signal-to- noise ratio (S/N). The bit depth will not limit frequency range, which is limited by the sample rate.
8. 8. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production The aspect ratio of a shape is the ratio of its longer dimension to its shorter dimension. It may be applied to two characteristic dimensions of a three- dimensional shape, such as the ratio of the longest and shortest axis, or for symmetrical objects that are described by just two measurements, such as the length and diameter of a rod. The aspect ratio of a torus is the ratio of the major axis R to the minor axis r.
9. 9. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production A file format is a particular way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to represent documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems Each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, graphics, and other information needed to display it. In computing, JPEG is a commonly used method of lousy compression for digital photography (image). The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoffs between storage size and image quality. JPEG typically achieves 10:1 compression with little perceptible loss in image quality. The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF The format supports up to 8 bits per pixel thus allowing a single image to reference a palette of up to 256 distinct colours. The colours are chosen from the 24-bit RGB colour space. It also supports animations and allows a separate palette of 256 colours for each frame. TIFF (originally standing for Tagged Image File Format) is a file format for storing images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and both amateur and professional photographers in general. PSD (Photoshop document), the default file extension of the proprietary file format of Adobe Systems Photoshop program. A portable or personal storage device, small hard disks designed to copy digital photographs from a camera.
10. 10. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colours can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four values or color components. When this model is associated with a precise description of how the components are to be interpreted (viewing conditions, etc.), the resulting set of colors is called color space. This section describes ways in which human color vision can be modeled. There are various types of color systems that classify color and analyse their effects. The American Munsell color system devised by Albert H. Munsell is a famous classification that organises various colors into a color solid based on hue, saturation and value. Other important color systems include the Swedish Natural Color System (NCS) from the Scandinavian Color Institute, the Optical Society of Americas Uniform Color Space (OSA-UCS), and the Hungarian Coloroid system developed by Antal Nemcsics from the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Of those, the NCS is based on the opponent- process color model, while the Munsell, the OSA-UCS and the Coloroid attempt to model color uniformity. The American Pantone and the German RAL commercial color-matching systems differ from the previous ones in that their color spaces are not based on an underlying color model.