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    Marine corps intelligence activity kosovo country handbook Marine corps intelligence activity kosovo country handbook Document Transcript

    • Kosovo Country Handbook This handbook provides basic reference information on Kosovo, including its geography, history, government, military forces, and communications and trans- portation networks. This information is intended to familiarize military per­sonnel with local customs and area knowledge to assist them during their assignment to Kosovo. The Marine Corps Intel­ligence Activity is the community coordinator for the Country Hand­book Program. This product reflects the coordinated U.S. Defense Intelligence Community position on Kosovo. Dissemination and use of this publication is restricted to official military and government personnel from the United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and other countries as required and designated for support of coalition operations. The photos and text reproduced herein have been extracted solely for research, comment, and information reporting, and are intended for fair use by designated personnel in their official duties, including local reproduction for training. Further dissemination of copyrighted material contained in this docu­ment, to include excerpts and graphics, is strictly prohibited under Title 17, U.S. Code.
    • iii Contents Key Facts  ..................................................................... 1 U.S. Embassy  ............................................................... 2 U.S. Liaison   ................................................................ 2 Travel Advisories  ......................................................... 3 Entry Requirements   .................................................... 3 Passport/Visa Requirements  ................................... 3 Immunization Requirements  ................................... 4 Customs Restrictions  .............................................. 4 Geography and Climate  ...................................... 4 Geography  .................................................................... 4 Land Statistics  ......................................................... 5 Boundaries  .............................................................. 5 Border Disputes   ..................................................... 5 Bodies of Water  ....................................................... 7 Topography  ............................................................. 7 Vegetation  ............................................................... 9 Urban Geography  .................................................... 9 Cross-country Movement  ............................................. 10 Environment  ............................................................ 11 Climate  ......................................................................... 12 Precipitation  ............................................................ 14 Phenomenon  ........................................................... 14 Infrastructure  ....................................................... 14 Transportation  .............................................................. 14 Roads  ...................................................................... 14 Rail  .......................................................................... 15
    • iviv Contents (Continued) Air  ........................................................................... 15 Maritime  ................................................................. 17 Communication  ............................................................ 17 Radio and Television  ............................................... 17 Telecommunication  ................................................. 18 Internet  .................................................................... 18 Newspapers and Magazines  .................................... 18 Postal Service  .......................................................... 19 CULTURE  ........................................................................ 19 Population Patterns  ...................................................... 19 Ethnic Groups  .............................................................. 19 Ethnic Albanians  ..................................................... 19 Serbs  ....................................................................... 19 Muslim Slavs  .......................................................... 21 Roma  ....................................................................... 22 Turks   ...................................................................... 23 Family  .......................................................................... 24 Roles of Men and Women  ....................................... 24 Education and Literacy  ................................................ 25 Language  ...................................................................... 26 Religion  ........................................................................ 26 Recreation  .................................................................... 29 Customs and Courtesies  ............................................... 30 Albanian   ................................................................. 30 Serbian  .................................................................... 32 Medical Assessment   ............................................. 34 Disease Risks to Deployed Personnel  .......................... 34 Medical Capabilities   ................................................... 36 Primary Medical Facilities  ...................................... 37
    • vv Contents (Continued) History  .......................................................................... 39 �Chronology of Key Events  .......................................... 45 Government and Politics  ................................... 48 Government  .................................................................. 48 National Level   ........................................................ 48 Local Level  ............................................................. 49 Politics  ......................................................................... 51 Political Parties  ....................................................... 51 Foreign Relations  .................................................... 52 Negotiation Process  ................................................ 54 International Organizations  ..................................... 54 Outlook  ................................................................... 54 Economy  ...................................................................... 55 Economic Statistics  ...................................................... 55 Resources  ..................................................................... 55 Industry  ................................................................... 56 Agriculture  .............................................................. 56 Utilities  ................................................................... 56 Foreign Investment  ................................................. 57 Threat  ........................................................................... 58 Crime  ........................................................................... 58 Travel Security   ............................................................ 59 Terrorism  ...................................................................... 59 Corruption  .................................................................... 59 Drug Trafficking  .......................................................... 60 Major Intelligence Services  ......................................... 60 Threat to U.S. Personnel  .............................................. 60
    • vivi Contents (Continued) Armed Forces  ............................................................ 60 Land Forces  .................................................................. 61 Kosovo Protection Corps   ....................................... 61 Kosovo Security Force  ............................................ 62 Air Force  ...................................................................... 64 Coastal Defense  ........................................................... 64 Paramilitary Forces  ...................................................... 65 National Police  ............................................................. 65 Mission  ................................................................... 65 Organization  ............................................................ 66 Personnel  ................................................................. 66 Training  ................................................................... 66 Capabilities  ............................................................. 66 Disposition  .............................................................. 67 Uniforms  ................................................................. 67 Weapons of Mass Destruction  ................................ 67 Appendices Holidays  ............................................................................ A-1 Language  ........................................................................... B-1 Dangerous Plants and Animals  ......................................... C-1
    • viivii Contents (Continued) Illustrations Kosovo  .............................................................................. viii National Flag  ..................................................................... 1 Serbia’s Mountain Region  ................................................. 5 Neighboring Countries   ..................................................... 6 Topography  ....................................................................... 8 Gjakove  ............................................................................. 9 Prishtine  ............................................................................ 10 Peja  .................................................................................... 11 Polluted River  ................................................................... 12 Prishtine and Prizren Weather  ........................................... 13 Transportation Network  .................................................... 16 Population  ......................................................................... 20 Serb Concentrations  .......................................................... 21 Kosovar Children  .............................................................. 23 Kosovar Man and Woman  ................................................. 24 Typical Classroom  ............................................................ 25 Albanian Child  .................................................................. 26 Main Mosque in Prizren  .................................................... 27 Albanian Lahuta  ................................................................ 29 Serb Man in Kosovo  .......................................................... 33 Kosovo Museum, Prishtine  ............................................... 41 Administrative Districts  .................................................... 50 Industry  ............................................................................. 57 Traffic Police  ..................................................................... 65
    • viii 43˚ 42˚ 20˚ 21˚ Ibar Ibar Sitnica JužnaMorâhva Toplica Lepenc White Drin Erenik DrenicaKlinë Binicka Morava Pcinja ˇ Badovc Lake GazirodaLake Sjenica Nisˇ Leskovac Bujanovac Kumanovo Tetovo Kukes Novi Pazar Leposavic Podujevë Vushtrri Obliq Klinë Deçan Rahovec Dragash Kaçanik Lipjan Ferizaj Gjakove Prizren Pejë Gjilan Mitrovicë SERBIA MACEDONIA ALBANIA MONTENEGRO PRISHTINË SKOPJE Kosovo National Capital Other Cities International Boundary Disputed Boundary Major Roads Roads 0 10 20 30 km 0 10 20 mi Kosovo
    • 1 Key Facts Name. Republic of Kosovo   Short Form. Kosovo.   Local long form. Republika e Kosoves (Republika Kosova).   Local short form. Kosova (Kosovo). Chief of State. President Fatmir Sejdiu (February 2006). Head of Government. Prime Minister Hashim Thaci (Jan. 2008). Capital. Prishtine (also spelled Pristina, Prishtina). National Flag. Gold country icon centered on a dark blue field. Six white stars — each representing one of Kosovo’s major ethnic groups — arrayed in an arc overhead. Time Zone. UTC (formerly GMT) + 1 hour. Telephone Country Code. +381 (mobile lines +377). Population. 2.1 million. Languages. The official languages are Albanian and Serbian; Bosnian, Turkish, Roma, and Gorani are also spoken. Calendar. Gregorian. National Flag
    • 2 Currency. The official currency is the euro (EUR). Kosovo oper- ates on a cash economy. There are few automated teller machines, but they are often non-functional. Western Union has offices throughout Kosovo; it is possible to have funds wired from abroad. Exchange Rate. US$1 equals EUR 0.7762 (2009 est.). Naming Convention. Many towns and cities in Kosovo are known by Albanian and Serbian names. The Albanian spelling is most common, and is given first in each reference in this handbook. U.S. Embassy The U.S. Embassy in Prishtine (Pristina) was established 18 February 2008. There is a mission office in Prishtine that handles only emergency services for American citizens. The U.S. Embassy in Skopje, Macedonia is the venue for most consular services. U.S. Liaison Location Prishtine Mailing Address 30 Nazim Hikmet St. 38000 Prishtine Telephone 381 38 549-516 Fax 381-38-549-516 E-mail consularpristina@state.gov U.S. Embassy Skopje Skopje, Macedonia Mailing Address Bulevard Ilinden bb 1000 Skopje Telephone 389-2-3116-180 Fax 389-2-3213-767 Website http://skopje.usembassy.gov
    • 3 Travel Advisories Since Kosovo gained its independence in February 2008, vio- lent incidents have occurred at border crossings between Kosovo and Serbia. U.S. government officials may only travel to parts of northern Kosovo for official business. Travelers should avoid large crowds and demonstrations. High unemployment and other eco- nomic conditions foster criminal activity. Theft and purse snatch- ings are a serious problem in Kosovo, particularly in the capital. Foreigners are targeted because it is assumed that they will be carrying cash. Although landmine removal has been conducted, landmines and unexploded ordnance remain in some outlying areas. Entry to Serbia should not be attempted from Kosovo, unless the traveler has a prior entry stamp from Serbia. Serbia’s government does not recognize entry stamps of the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), including those from the Prishtine Airport. When driving across international borders with Kosovar vehicle plates, the plates may not be accepted by neighboring coun- tries. Countries that accept Kosovar vehicle plates are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Montenegro, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. Entry Requirements Passport/Visa Requirements All travelers need a passport. There are no visa requirements; how- ever, if remaining for longer than 90 days, travelers must register with the Office for Registration of Foreigners in the main police headquarters at Prishtine.
    • 4 The U.S. Department of State warns travelers that entry to Serbia from Kosovo should not be attempted without a Serbian visa and entry stamp attained from a Serbian crossing point. Serbia does not recognize entry documentation from authorities in Prishtine (Pristina) Airport or Kosovar ports. Immunization Requirements There are no required immunizations for visits to Kosovo. The Center for Disease Control suggests routine vaccinations for measles/mumps/rubella, diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus, poliovirus, Hepatitis A and B, and rabies vaccines. Customs Restrictions It is illegal to possess weapons and narcotics in Kosovo. Currency in excess of US$7,750 must be declared on entry. Failure to de- clare can result in a fine of 25 percent of the value. Visitors ages 18 and older may import the following without incurring customs tax: 200 cigarettes, or 100 cigarillos, or 250 grams of tobacco, or a mix of tobacco products not exceeding 250 grams; alcoholic beverages — one liter of spirits at 22 percent volume, two liters of fortified wine or sparkling wine, and two liters of still table wine; 60 milliliters of perfume and 250 milliliters of toilet water. Geography and Climate Geography Kosovo is in southeast Europe, between Serbia and Macedonia, in the heart of the Balkan peninsula.
    • 5 Land Statistics Kosovo is slightly larger than Delaware at 10,887 square kilome- ters. The highest peaks in Kosovo are in the rugged terrain to the west of Peje (Pec)in the Mokra Gora (gora means hills) and to the southeast of Prizren in the Sar Planina Mountains. The highest point is Deravica at 2,656 meters in the Sar Planina Mountains. Boundaries Albania, to the west, shares a 111.8-kilometer border. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is to the south with a 158.7-ki- lometer border. Montenegro’s 78.6-kilometer border is in the northwest. The longest border is with Serbia to the north, east, and southeast; it is 351.6 kilometers. Border Disputes The Kosovar declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008 caused serious discontent among certain countries of the Balkans, notably Serbia. Kosovo is at the center of Serbian history, even though 90 percent of Kosovo is Kosovar Albanian. Serbia does Serbia’s Mountain Region
    • 6 not recognize Kosovo as an independent state and continues to hold elections and carry out other governmental functions in the Serbian enclaves of the new state. In the northern portion of Kosovo, a de facto line of demarcation exists between the heavy Serb population north of the Ibar river and the ethnic Albanian population to the south. The Ibar river is also the dividing line between Serbs and ethnic Albanians in the city of Mitrovice (Mitrovica). Serbia also refuses to recognize authority of the capital, Prishtine (Pristina), including border pa- trolling, entry and exit documentation, and customs laws. Fifty- five UN countries recognize the independence of Kosovo, includ- ing 22 European Union Member States and the United States. Of the Balkan states, Albania, Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro, and Macedonia recognize Kosovar independence. Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Black Sea Danube Dnester Drava Sava Danube Po ITALY SLOVENIA GREECE TURKEY ROMANIA HUNGARY AUSTRIA GERMANY POLANDCZECH REPUBLIC UKRAINE MOLDOVA BULGARIA SAN MARINO ALBANIA SLOVAKIA CROATIA SERBIA BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA MONTENEGRO MACEDONIA KOSOVO 0 0 100 100 200 200 mi 300 km Central Europe Neighboring Countries
    • 7 Bodies ofWater Kosovo is landlocked but does have two major lakes, the Badovc and Gaziroda. There are no navigable rivers in Kosovo. Major rivers of Kosovo are the Beli Drim River, Sitnica River, and Morova River. The Beli Drin is in western Kosovo and drains to the Adriatic Sea. The Sitnica River is in the Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje) and flows north. The Morova River also flows north and empties into the Danube; the Morova River provides drainage to eastern Kosovo. The four river basins are the White Drin, Lepenc, Binicka Morava, and the Ibar. The Ibar is the only river that does not begin in Kosovo; its source is 30 kilometers upstream from the border. The Ibar also serves as a de facto demarcation between the Serbian and ethnic Albanian population. The White Drin empties into the Adriatic Sea through Albania. The Ibar and the Binicka Morava empty into the Black Sea by way of the Danube River in Serbia. The Lepenc flows to the Aegean Sea through the Vardar River in Macedonia. Topography Kosovo has seven geographic regions: Mokra Gora; Goljak Hills; Crna Gora; Sar Planina Mountains; Northern Albanian Alps; Central Hills; and the Lowlands. ■■ Mokra Gora is a mountain range separating Kosovo from Montenegro. The elevation varies from more than 2,500 me- ters in the southwest to 1,000 meters in the eastern end of the range. The Mokra Gora is divided by the Sitnica River. The narrow valley has steep, wooded slopes and exhibits karst to- pography (sink holes, caves, and disappearing rivers). ■■ Goljak Hills is a heavily wooded and hilly area in the east- ern portion of Kosovo. The hills have an average elevation of 1,000 meters, with the highest at 1,375 meters. The slopes are moderate at 10 to 30 percent. Heavy forestation is in the area.
    • 8 ■■ Crna Gora is in the southeast corner of Kosovo. This range’s elevation is 650 meters on the eastern end and rises to 1,650 on the western end. There are moderate to steep slopes. ■■ Sar Planina Mountains are in the southern area of the prov- ince. The elevation varies from an average of 2,500 meters to 2,650 meters. This ridge has karst topography with steep, wooded lower slopes and bare, rocky upper slopes. Ibar Ibar Sitnica JužnaMorâhva Toplica Lepenc White Drin Erenik DrenicaKlinë Binicka Morava Pcinja ˇ Badovc Lake GazirodaLake Leposavic Podujevë Vushtrri Obliq Klinë Deçan Rahovec Dragash Kaçanik Lipjan Ferizaj Gjakove Prizren Pejë Gjilan Mitrovicë SERBIA MACEDONIA ALBANIA MONTENEGRO PRISHTINË SKOPJE Kosovo 0 25 50 mi 0 25 50 75 km Elevation 2,440 m 2,135 m 1,830 m 1,525 m 1,220 m 915 m 610 m 305 m Topography
    • 9 ■■ Northern Albanian Alps form the southwest border with Albania. Near the border, mountains have an elevation of about 1,000 meters that increase to more than 3,000 meters inside Albania. They have steep, wooded slopes with few improved roads. ■■ Central Hills are near the center of Kosovo. The area is heavi- ly wooded with an elevation ranging from 500 to 1,000 meters. ■■ Lowlands encircle the Central Hills with relatively flat, well- drained farmland. Vegetation Roughly 39 percent of Kosovo is forested primarily with decidu- ous trees and shrubs, which are typically leafless from mid-Octo- ber through April. During this time, trees provide little conceal- ment from aerial observation. There is poor forest management. Illegal woodcutting threatens most forested areas. Fifty-two percent of the land is agricultural production. River and stream levels are high from early March through late May, and low water levels are from early August through late October. Urban Geography Fifty-eight percent of the population live in rural areas; 42 percent live in urban areas. The largest city is Prishtine (Pristina), the cap- Gjakove
    • 10 ital with an estimated population of 564,345. Other major cities are Prizren, Mitrovice (Mitrovica), Peje (Pec), Ferizaj (Urosevac), Gjakove (Dakovica), Gjilan (Gnjilane), and Podujeve (Podujevo). Cross-country Movement Off-road movement in the mountains and hills is assessed as re- stricted; however, the Central Hills have numerous loose-surface roads and trails that may provide some mobility. The lowlands are assessed as unrestricted; however, irrigation and drainage ditches may pose problems for wheeled vehicles. Although landmine removal has been conducted, landmines and unexploded ordnance remain in outlying areas. Road conditions can be dangerous. Many are poorly maintained and damaged by war. Mountain roads can be particularly hazard- ous as they are narrow, poorly marked, and lack guardrails. Prishtine
    • 11 Environment There is no waste water treatment in Kosovo. Less than 30 percent of homes are connected to a sewer system. Waste water is dis- posed in open channels, which contaminates surface and ground water. Upstream rivers tend to be of good quality, but downstream some of the main rivers are so heavily polluted that they cannot be used for water supply or irrigation. There is a high incidence of water-borne diseases. Air pollution is only monitored by the Institute for Scientific Research and Development (INKOS), an institute within the Kosovo Energy Company (KEK). Most electrical production is from two coal/lignite-fired plants. People living near and work- Peja
    • 12 ing at the power plants have significant respiratory problems. The population also relies on wood and coal stoves for heating and cooking. Air quality is better than in the past because some indus- tries have closed. There is significant lead contamination near the mines and the lead smelter in Zvecan and Mitrovice (Mitrovica) municipalities. Lead is in the air, soil, and water. KFOR soldiers serving near the smelter have experienced increased blood-lead levels. Climate Kosovo is influenced by continental air masses resulting in rela- tively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create region- al variation; maximum rainfall between October and December Polluted River
    • 13 D A Y S D A Y S o F o F TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE PRECIPITATION PRECIPITATION PRISHTINË ELEVATION: 1890 FT PRIZREN ELEVATION: 1322 FT Extreme High Average High Average Low Extreme Low Snow Rain Snow Rain Extreme High Average High Average Low Extreme Low -20º 0º 20º 40º 60º 80º 100º 120º DNOSAJJMAMFJ 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 DNOSAJJMAMFJ 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 DNOSAJJMAMFJ -20º 0º 20º 40º 60º 80º 100º 120º DNOSAJJMAMFJ Prishtine and Prizren Weather
    • 14 Temperature extremes range from -20°C in the winter to 35°C in summer. January and August are the coldest and warmest months, respectively. Precipitation Precipitation is greatest from October to December. Fog is com- mon in December and January, particularly in valleys. Most pre- cipitation falls as snow from December to March. At elevations higher than 2,000 meters, snowfall may occur any time of the year. At elevations lower than 1,500 meters, from December through March, soils are usually wet, soft, and slippery. Soils may freeze for brief periods of 1 to 2 weeks in January or February. Phenomenon The region is subject to earthquakes. Infrastructure Transportation Roads Roads total 1,925 kilometers, with 1, 576 kilometers paved. Most roads have been repaired from the bombings in 1999. However, neglect and harsh winter conditions contribute to disrepair. Roads are narrow, crowded, and used by variety of vehicles from ar- mored personnel carriers to horse-drawn wagons. Mountain roads can be narrow, poorly marked, and lack guardrails. Road conditions quickly deteriorate in inclement weather. Roads in the mountainous areas are characterized by steep grades up to 20 percent, with hairpin turns and numerous bridges and tunnels.
    • 15 Most secondary roads are made of crushed stone or gravel. Many vehicles are old and do not have standard front and rear lights. Part of the European Highway System, two major highways run from Serbia south to the Macedonia border. Highway 1 (E75) runs north to south through the Morova River Valley connecting Nis (in Serbia) with Skopje (in Macedonia). Highway 2 (E65) proceeds northwest to southwest through the Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje) to Skopje. These highways are all-weather, hard surface roads that are six to eight meters wide. The primary east-west route is Highway 9, which runs from Peje (Pec), through Prishtine (Pristina) to Nis. It is an all-weather, hard surface road five to seven meters wide. Rail The rails are standard gauge (1.435 meter) with a track total of 430 kilometers. The Italian Railway Regiment managed, directed, and organized the railway from 1999-2001. The regiment kept the trains running on the Skopie -Deneral Jankovic route. At that time, Kosovars were not allowed to operate the train across the border. Diesel engines were donated by Norway in 2001. The main line is electric and parallels Highway 75 running from Nis to Skopje. The diesel lines run from Nis to Prishtine (Pristina), then south to Skopje, and from Prishtine west to Peje (Pec) and Prizren. Rail development is severely restricted by mountainous terrain; all cur- rent rails are confined to the stream/river valleys and plains. Air Prishtine, the only international airport in Kosovo, won the Best Airport 2006 award from the Airports Council International. The
    • 16 airport services 18 commercial airlines covering 21 destinations, to include London, Vienna, Istanbul, Zurich, and Stockholm. Primary Airfields Airfield Coordinates Runway l x w m (feet) Runway Surface Condition Aircraft Capacity Gjakove 4226’6.63N/ 2025’38.70E 1,800 x 30 (5,904 x 98) Asphalt Good C130 CH 47 class Ibar Ibar Sitnica JužnaMorâhva Toplica Lepenc White Drin Erenik DrenicaKlinë Binicka Morava Pcinja ˇ Badovc Lake GazirodaLake Sjenica Nisˇ Leskovac Bujanovac Kumanovo Tetovo Kukes Novi Pazar Leposavic Podujevë Vushtrri Obliq Klinë Deçan Rahovec Dragash Kaçanik Lipjan FerizajGjakove Prizren Pejë Gjilan Mitrovicë SERBIA MACEDONIA ALBANIA MONTENEGRO PRISHTINË SKOPJE Kosovo National Capital Other Cities International Boundary Disputed Boundary Major Roads Roads Major Airports 0 10 20 30 km 0 10 20 mi Transportation Network
    • 17 Airfield Coordinates Runway l x w m (feet) Runway Surface Condition Aircraft Capacity Donja Koretica East 4236’18.83N/ 2054’39.84E 445 x 18 (1,460 x 60) Graded dirt runway Fair Used exclu- sively for helicopters Gjilan 4227’42.36N/ 2126’42.33E 466 x 18 (1,530 x 60) Asphalt Poor Krusevo 4238’23.65N/ 2030’9.62E 469 x 20 (1,540 x 65) Concrete Est. poor Prishtine Intl. 4234’22.00N/ 210’9.00E 2,489 x 45 8,165 x 148 Asphalt Good Prishtine West Heliport 4234’39.44N/ 210’45.62E 98 x 63 320 x 206 Asphalt Good Military helicopters Maritime Kosovo is landlocked, and there are no navigable rivers. Communication In June 1999, Kosovo’s restrictions on the media were lifted. To ensure high journalistic ideals, the media was monitored by a Temporary Media Commission put in place by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The commis- sion set a code of conduct for journalists and worked to prevent incitement of hatred in the media. In 2005, a self-regulating Press Council in Kosovo made up of members of the print me- dia replaced the Media Commission. Electronic media also is transitioning from control by OSCE to self regulation under the Independent Media Commission. Radio andTelevision There are numerous radio stations in Kosovo. The UN sponsors a station called Blue Sky Radio that offers impartial news servic-
    • 18 es. The public-owned station is Kosovo Radio-Television (RTK). There are many private radio stations. Broadcasts are in Albanian, Roma, Bosniak, and Gorani. Television networks include the following: Kosovo Radio- Television (public); TV 21 (private); KohaVision (private); RTS2; Palma Plus TV; and TV Mir. Telecommunication Twenty-four percent use mobile cellular telephones in Kosovo; less than six percent have land lines. Post and Telecommunications of Kosovo (PTK) is the provider for fixed landlines. Vala900 is the mobile telephone provider. A second mobile telephone license was granted to the Telekom Slovenija and IPKO Net Consortium. Phone networks operating in Kosovo without a license include Mobtel from Serbia. Mobtel provides coverage throughout most of Kosovo. Internet DardaNet is a public internet service provider (ISP) that is under the Department of Information and Communications Technology. It is the first ISP in Kosovo to use landlines. Satellite networks were made available to the public during 2000 to help war refu- gees locate family members. These centers have closed. There are internet cafes located in Prishtine (Pristina). Newspapers and Magazines There are many daily and weekly newspapers. The Koha Ditre and Zeri are Albanian language dailies with large circulations. The Epoka e Re is a youth-oriented paper. Kosova Sot and Prishtine Express are additional Albanian dailies.
    • 19 Postal Service Postal service is provided throughout Kosovo. Kosovo produces its own stamps that are internationally recognized. Services avail- able at the post office include: Western Union; faxes; Swiss Lotto; pay phone cards; and stamps. CULTURE Population Patterns Fifty percent of the population is younger than 25 years old. The birth rate for ethnic Albanians is twice the birth rate of Serbians. The family size in Kosovo has been stable for the last 50 years. The average family size was 6.4 in 1948, 6.9 in 1981, and 6.4 in 2001. Kosovo families are the largest households in Europe. Ethnic Groups In Kosovo there are ethnic Albanian, Serb, Muslim Slavs (Bosniaks-Muslim Serbs and Goranis); Roma (Ashkali and Egyptians); and Turks. Ethnic Albanians Ethnic Albanians make up 90 percent of the population of Kosovo. Most ethnic Albanians are Muslim. Ethnic Albanians consider themselves descendants of the ancient Illyrians who lived in the western Balkans in 1200 B.C. Linguistic and archeological evi- dence supports these claims. There is no written record prior to A.D. 1555. Ethnic Albanians speak the Gheg dialect of Albanian. Serbs Serbs make up six percent of the population. Serbs migrated to the area in the early 600s and are descended from the Slavs. Most
    • 20 Serbs are Serbian Orthodox Christian. A large proportion of Serbs in Kosovo are concentrated in the northern municipalities, while the remaining Serb population lives in enclaves throughout the country. Serbs make up most of the population in the following municipalities: Zubin Potak, Zvecan, and Leposavic in the north; Novoberde (Novo Brdo) in the east; and Stripce in the south. The city of Mitrovice (Mitrovica) is divided by the Ibar River, which also separates Serbs and ethnic Albanians. The bridge that unites Leposavic Podujevë Vushtrri Obliq Klinë Deçan Rahovec Dragash Kaçanik Lipjan Ferizaj Gjakove Prizren Pejë Gjilan Mitrovicë ©LandScan2008 SERBIA MACEDONIA ALBANIA MONTENEGRO PRISHTINE SKOPJE Kosovo National Capital International Boundary Disputed Boundary 500 + 100 - 500 1 - 100 0 - 1 Persons per Kilometer 0 10 20 30 km 0 10 20 mi Population
    • 21 each side of Mitrovice (Mitrovica) has been the scene of inter-eth- nic violence, such as in the March 2004 eruption over the death of several children who drowned in the Ibar River. Muslim Slavs Goranis and Bosniaks make up two percent of the population. They are believed to be descendants of Orthodox Christian Slavs, who converted to Islam under the Ottoman Empire. They do not Leposavic Podujevë Vushtrri Obliq Klinë Deçan Rahovec Dragash Kaçanik Lipjan Ferizaj Gjakove Prizren Pejë Gjilan Mitrovicë SERBIA MACEDONIA ALBANIA MONTENEGRO PRISHTINE SKOPJEAreas with ethnic Serb majority Other areas with Serb concentrations Predominantly Albanian Kosovo National Capital Other Cities International Boundary Disputed Boundary 0 10 20 30 km 0 10 20 mi Serb Concentrations
    • 22 speak Albanian and rarely attempt to learn Albanian. Gorani is a mixture of Macedonian, Turkish, Bosnian, and Serbian. They refer to their language as Nasinkski (our language). Until 1947 all Gorani surnames ended in “ic.” Then the Yugoslav government forced the Goranis to remove the last two letters of surnames in order to make their names more similar to Albanian ones. Goranis live primarily in the Dragash municipality and are a recognized minority in Kosovo. This distinction provides them with representation in Kosovo’s institutions. They have one seat in Kosovo’s Parliament and two seats in the local assembly. Bosniaks are also indigenous to Kosovo, and they speak Bosnian, which has minor differences from Serbian in gram- mar and writing. Serbian and Bosnian are mutually intelligible. There are courses in higher education offered in Bosnian at Peje (Pec) and Prizen. Roma Roma (Gypsies) in Kosovo are made up of three groups with dif- ferent linguistic and religious traditions. The groups are Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptians (RAE). They are descendants of itinerants from northern India. Historical evidence suggests that the RAE migrated to the Balkans in the 14th century. The RAE comprises 1.5 percent of the population. RAE are treated as second-class citi- zens by Serbs and ethnic Albanians. RAE consistently have been undercounted in census polls because ethnic Albanians and the Serbs want RAE counted to increase their own groups. Serbs and ethnic Albanians refer to the RAE by offensive names. ■■ The Roma are not connected to Rome or Romania; most are no longer itinerant. The Roma are Serb-speaking and live in Serb enclaves throughout Kosovo. They have also retained the
    • 23 Romani language and are able to speak to Roma from other countries. The Roma are usually Christian. ■■ Ashkali speak Albanian, usually inhabit Albanian areas, and typically are Muslim. It is believed that the Ashkali may have arrived in the Balkans via Palestine, as their name is similar to the city of Ashkelon. The Ashkali identify with the ethnic Albanian community. ■■ Egyptians may have traveled through Egypt to the Balkans. Others believe that some Ashkali self-classified by calling them- selves Egyptian as the word “gypsy” is a corruption of the word “Egyptian.” There is no evidence to support either case. Regardless, the Albanian community considers them to be Ashkali. Turks Turks comprise one percent of the population and continue to try and distance themselves from the conflict between Serbs and ethnic Albanians. Kosovar Children
    • 24 Family Nearly everyone expects to marry and have children. The fam- ily is highly valued, yet divorce and remarriage are common. Children are cared for by the extended family, usually grandpar- ents. Childcare facilities are not common. Roles of Men andWomen Kosovo is a patriarchal society — despite predictions otherwise at the beginning of communist Yugoslavia, at the collapse of Yugoslavia, and again during the wait for independence of Kosovo. Meanwhile, the structure of the family in Kosovo has had little change. The patriarchal mentality remains. Among Albanians, a bride’s price is paid to the bride’s family, and she has no dowry. Serbian brides often have a dowry of cash or home furnishings; the groom’s family typically pays most wedding expenses. A bride moves in with the groom’s family. Multifamily Kosovar Man and Woman
    • 25 households are the norm. Since 1981, conservatism has been grow- ing with more arranged marriages and restrictions on women’s movements. The women’s unemployment rate is at 60 percent; for men it is 33 percent. Albanians adhere to family honor, hospitality, and a patriarchal order as the means to success in relationships. Education and Literacy There was a total of 422,746 primary and secondary students at- tending 1,091 schools in the 2004-2005 school year. The University of Prishtine (Pristina) is in Kosovo and offers 57 different fields of study. Postgraduates can choose from about 30 fields. Ten private universities also are in Prishtine (Pristina). Another university with instruction in Serbian is available in northern Mitrovice (Mitrovica). The literacy rate for 15- to 34-year-olds is greater than 98 percent. The rate for the age group 55 to 64 is lower, with 75 percent for women and 95 percent for men. Younger groups do not have a sig- nificant discrepancy between the literacy rates of men and women. Typical Classroom
    • 26 Language The official language is Albanian; however Serbian, Bosnian, Turkish, Roma, and Gorani are also spoken. Albanian is an Indo-European language and the only living representative of its group. Its main dialects are Gheg, spo- ken mostly in Kosovo and the northern part of Albania, and Tosk, spoken in the southern part of Albania. The dialects differ slightly in vocabulary and pronunciation. This lin- guistic division corresponds to anthropological differences. Ghegs and Tosks differ mark- edly in outlook and social behavior, with the Ghegs having better preserved national characteristics. Like other mountain dwellers in the Balkans, the Ghegs are fiercely independent and resist any external authority. Some ethnic Albanians may speak Serbian, but generally Serbs do not speak Albanian. Serbian and Bosnian are mutually intel- ligible; however, Serbian is usually written with the Cyrillic al- phabet and Bosnian with the Latin alphabet. Serbians are Serbian Orthodox, and Bosnians are usually Muslim. Religion Islam, Serbian Orthodox, and Roman Catholicism are the ma- jor religions in Kosovo. Most Albanians are Muslims, however Albanian Child
    • 27 about three percent are Roman Catholic. Most Serbs are Serbian Orthodox. Protestants are less than one percent of the population, but there are 36 Protestant churches in Kosovo. There are approxi- mately 40 persons of Jewish heritage in Kosovo. (They are from the same two families.) Estimates on the number of atheists or those who do not practice a religion are unreliable. Main Mosque in Prizren
    • 28 Islam was introduced in the area by the Ottoman Empire in 1389. The Ottomans did not attack churches or force conver- sions to Islam; however, churches and Christians were taxed at a much higher rate than Muslims. This increased taxation and the Janissary (warrior) Movement encouraged conversions to Islam. The Janissary Movement required families send a young son to the empire. He would receive an education, convert to Islam, and train as a warrior. If the young man did well, he would be reward- ed with land, usually in the town or area where his family lived. Ethnic Albanians have had a relaxed approach to Islam. They tend to identify themselves more through their common language than their religion. Most Islamic Albanians know little about their faith because practice was restricted under Communist rule. They tend to be nominal Muslims. Practicing Muslims have been of the Betashis or Sunni sect. The spiritual head is the Grand Mufti, Rexhep Boja. Since 1999, Wahhabis from Saudi Arabia have built 98 schools in rural areas, 24 mosques, and 14 orphanages in Kosovo. Some critics say that Arab non-governmental organizations (NGOs) attempt to impose literalist (Wahhabi) interpretations of Islamic tradition through their charitable works. Some Muslims in Kosovo participate in Christmas activities. The Ottoman Empire’s attitude was that local traditions that did not imperil the validity of Islam were tolerated. This attitude is still prevalent in Kosovo. Wishing people a Merry Christmas is a com- mon practice, as are Christmas decorations. Christianity has a long history in the region. Kosovo is known as Kosovo-Metohija to Serbians. Metohija translates to land owned and governed by monasteries, or simply church owned. Metohija refers to the southern area of Kosovo. There are churches and
    • 29 monasteries in this area that predate the Ottoman invasion. Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians are present in Kosovo. There is a small ethnic Albanian Roman Catholic population. Most Serbians in Kosovo are Eastern Orthodox. Bosniaks are Serbs who are Muslims. Their spoken language is the same. Recreation The Ministry of Culture, Youth, and Sports comprises 19 sports federations: athletics, table tennis, kick boxing, skiing, chess, handball, wrestling, swimming, cycling, basketball, tennis, shoot- ing, karate, boxing volleyball, football, judo, bodybuilding, and auto sport. The 2007 national sports budget exceeded 1.5 million. The Athletic Federation and the Department of Sports sponsors an international half mar- athon annually. The event, billed as a “Run for Peace and Tolerance,” began in 2001 and was the first international athletic event to occur after the conflict. It has grown into a yearly spring event attracting international participants and sponsors. Music in Kosovo is similar to that of most modern societies, with a mix of classical, rock, hip hop, jazz, and local folk groups. There are many clubs in Prishtine (Pristina) that feature live music. Ethnic Albanians and Serbians enjoy playing the same traditional stringed instrument; how- ever, each has a unique name for the instru- ment. Albanians call it a lahuta and believe Albanian Lahuta
    • 30 the instrument is from the ancient Illyrians; Serbs call it a gusle. It is a one-stringed instrument that is played with a horse-hair bow. Although it is difficult to master, the instrument is popular with the countries many bards, who use it to accompany storytelling and epic poems, mostly in rural areas. The Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the American Refugee Committee converted an old cinema in Kamenice into a center housing an internet café, disco, sports gym, billiards, games, and other recreational activities. Customs and Courtesies Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo are culturally similar to those from Albania. Serbs in Kosovo are similar to those from in Serbia. There is little intermarriage between Albanians and Serbians. Albanian Greetings Albanians use handshakes for greetings and good-byes. If one shakes hands outside someone’s home, the host and hostess will re- peat the procedure inside because guests are traditionally greeted inside the home. Typical greetings include Si jeni? (How are you?), Si keni kaluar? (How are you doing?), C’kemi? (What’s up?), or Njatjeta (Hello). Friends may also greet by saying Miremenjes (Good morning). When parting, they say Mir u pafshim (Good- bye), Do te shihemi (See you later), Shendat! (Stay healthy!) or Gjithe te mirat (All the best). Northern male villagers greet by lift- ing the cap and saying Tungjat jeta (Have a long life). Albanians should be addressed with Zoti (Mr.) or Zonja (Mrs.). Only close friends address each other with by first name.
    • 31 Gestures Opposite to U.S. nonverbals, in Kosovo a shake of the head from left to right means “yes,” and a nod means “no.” Sometimes in ne- gation, the Albanians simultaneously rock their heads, click their tongues, and wag their forefingers. Placing the left hand over the chest and moving the head slightly shows appreciation. A “thumbs up” gesture is impolite, meaning “You’ll get nothing from me.” Albanians will smile or nod when passing strangers on the street. Showing both hands with open fingers and palms up means “Our conversation is over.” Etiquette and Courtesies Albanians consider hospitality a hallmark. Unplanned visits are common. Guests are greeted with Mire se vini or Mire se erdhet (Welcome). Guests bring gifts for special occasions or birthdays, but not if they are invited for a meal or just visiting. Breakfast is similar to that in the United States. Lunch is the main meal; dinner is smaller than an American dinner. Albanian food includes typical Balkan specialties such as fergese tirane (a hot fried dish of meat, liver, eggs, and tomatoes) and tavile kosi or tavile elbanasi (a mutton and yogurt dish). Tipping is appreciated by service personnel. If one is invited to stay in a private home that is not a formal bed-and-breakfast with set charges, give an appropriate sum to the woman of the house when leaving. In addition to abiding laws of the Qur’an, another code closely guides lives of ethnic Albanians. The book, called the Code of Leke Dukagjini, or the Kanun, developed in the 15th century to regulate all areas of ordinary life. The Kanun, centuries after it was developed, is still important to ethnic Albanians. In some cas-
    • 32 es, the Kanun is even more closely adhered to than the Qur’an. In Kosovo, whose ambiguous legal status (particularly in the north) makes it difficult to establish national rule of law, the Kanun can serve as a guide to settle disputes and regulate daily exchanges. The Kanun calls for violent disputes to be settled blood for blood, which can affect generations. Dress Shoes always must be removed when entering a mosque. Dress is informal. Women are expected to dress modestly. Urban professional men wear business suits and ties. Urban women wear dresses and skirts more than pants. Western tops and color- ful blouses are also popular. The youth enjoy jeans, T-shirts, and sneakers. Clothing is neat and clean; Albanians consider cleanli- ness a personal duty. Serbian Greetings Upon initial meetings, people shake hands and say their last name followed by Drago mi je (I am pleased). When seeing someone known, the greetings Zdravo (Hello) or Dobar dan (Good day) are spoken in tandem with a handshake or kiss. When greeting someone older, the younger person must rise. To greet women, men always rise. With the exception of close friends or family, first names are not used. Adults are addressed by their professional titles or by Gospodin (Mr.) or Gospodja (Mrs.). Gestures In conversations, eye contact is important but hand gestures are rarely used. It is considered rude to point with the index finger as
    • 33 well as yawn, stretch, or crack one’s knuckles. Eye contact is par- ticularly important when raising glasses in a toast. Etiquette Social visits are one of the favorite activities of Serbians. These are spent talking and drinking coffee or alcohol, and are usually informal and unannounced. If visiting for the first time, a guest should bring a small gift such as chocolate, coffee, wine, or flow- ers. If bringing flowers, ensure there is an odd number in the bou- quet because even numbers are used at funerals. The first meal of the day is dorucak, usually eaten around 1000. The main meal of the day, rucak, served around 1600, is usually Serb Man in Kosovo
    • 34 quite large with more than one course. In the evening, dinner con- sists of a light snack. Hosts will urge guests to eat more, and guests will decline several times before accepting. Guests are expected to finish all food on their plates. Dress People take care to look well dressed and groomed. Western- style clothing is popular. Older urban men wear hats. Many women dye their hair; gray hair is seldom seen. In rural areas, some older people still wear traditional clothing of wide pants, vest, and leather shoes with upturned toes for men; long skirts and cotton blouses for women. Medical Assessment Disease Risks to Deployed Personnel The National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI) assesses Kosovo as INTERMEDIATE RISK for infectious diseases, wi- than overall disease risk that will adversely impact mission effec- tiveness unless force health protection measures are implemented. Risk of infectious disease varies greatly depending on location, in- dividual exposures, and other factors. More detailed information is available at http://www.ncmi.detrick.army.mil. Food- and Waterborne Diseases Sanitation varies with location but is well below U.S. standards, par- ticularly outside major urban areas. Diarrheal diseases can be expect- ed to temporarily incapacitate a high percentage of personnel within days if local food, water, or ice is consumed. Hepatitis A can cause prolonged illness in a smaller percentage of unvaccinated personnel.
    • 35 Vector-borne Diseases During warmer months, typically March through October, eco- logical conditions in rural areas support populations of arthropod vectors, including mosquitoes, ticks, and sand flies, with variable rates of disease transmission. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and tick-borne encephalitis are the major vector-borne risks in Kosovo; each has the potential to cause serious illness, and some- times death in a small percentage of personnel. Aerosolized Dust or Soil-contact Diseases Rare cases of hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome could occur among personnel exposed to dust or aerosols in ro- dent-infected areas. Clusters of cases could occur in groups ex- posed to areas with a very heavy rodent infestation. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and other infections are common and may affect a high percentage of personnel who have unprotected sexual contact with local prostitutes. HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B also oc- cur. Although the immediate impact of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B on an operation is limited, the long-term health impact on indi- viduals is substantial. Water-contact Diseases Bodies of surface water are likely to be contaminated with human and animal waste. Activities such as wading or swimming may result in exposure to enteric diseases such as diarrhea and hepati- tis via incidental ingestion of water and leptospirosis through skin and mucous membranes. Prolonged water contact also may lead to the development of a variety of potentially debilitating skin condi- tions such as bacterial or fungal dermatitis.
    • 36 Animal-contact Diseases Rabies risk is assessed as roughly comparable to that in the United States; however, personnel bitten by potentially infected animals may develop rabies in the absence of appropriate prophylaxis. Rare cases of Q fever could occur among personnel exposed to aerosols from infected animals, with clusters of cases possible in some situations. Significant outbreaks can occur in personnel with heavy exposure to barnyards or other areas where animals are kept. Unpasteurized milk also may transmit infection. Medical Capabilities Health care in Kosovo is poorly organized and far below Western standards. The health care system depends heavily on interna- tional assistance provided through United Nations agencies, direct government assistance from donor countries, and the large num- ber of nongovernmental organizations providing health-related services in Kosovo. Health care funding is complicated and erratic. Most funding goes to the University Hospital in Prishtine (Pristina); regional hospitals do not receive adequate resources. Hospitals in Serb- dominated areas receive supplements to their budgets from the Belgrade government, but the supplements are not adequate. No effective national health care insurance system exists. Basing a health insurance system on wages and employment is difficult because of the high unemployment rate. The training and capabilities of Kosovo’s medical personnel are below Western standards. Certification of many Albanian physi- cians is difficult to verify.
    • 37 Ethnic tensions inhibit improvements in health care. Hospitals and clinics in areas dominated by ethnic Albanians are staffed solely by ethnic Albanians; those in ethnic Serb communities are staffed by ethnic Serbs. Patients often are transferred to hospitals match- ing their ethnicity. Kosovo has no effective emergency response capabilities and will be nearly totally dependent on foreign assistance in the event of a major natural or industrial catastrophe or a serious widespread epidemic. Although the Ministry of Health asserts there is a prov- ince-wide plan to deal with avian influenza outbreaks, in reality Kosovo has no effective capability to respond to an avian influ- enza pandemic in the human population. Albanian and Serbian are the official languages; however, most medical workers in Albanian areas speak only Albanian, and most of those in Serb areas speak only Serbian. Most medical personnel do not speak English. There is no pharmaceutical industry in Kosovo, and the country depends on humanitarian aid and imports for pharmaceutical and medical supplies. Some imported pharmaceuticals and medical supplies do not meet Western standards. Numerous unregistered pharmaceuticals are sold outside drugstores. The blood supply in Kosovo does not meet Western European or U.S. standards. NCMI recommends seeking care at only the medical facilities at Camp Bondsteel. Primary Medical Facilities Medical treatment facilities vary widely in capabilities, from fair to extremely poor by Western standards. Standards of cleanliness are poor, and buildings frequently are old and in poor condition.
    • 38 Hospital organization and layout frequently make efficient patient treatment difficult. Modernization and refurbishment programs at most hospitals appear to be slowly improving this situation, but many hospi- tals require major structural modifications and changes in orga- nization. Much of the renovation work is sponsored by interna- tional donors and often is not part of a unified provincial health care plan or policy. Gjilan (Gnjilane) Regional Hospital Coordinates 422730N/02127-9E City Gjilan (Gnjilane) Telephone 44158397 Type Public, 400 beds Capabilities Cardiology, dermatology, internal medicine, neu- rology, pediatrics, pulmonary, general surgery, OB/ GYN, ophthalmology, orthopedics, ear-nose-throat (ENT), urology, X-ray, ultrasound. Comments Renovations completed in 2006; staff has worked closely with medical personnel from Camp Bond- steel in the past. Helipad. Gjakove (Dakovica) Hospital Coordinates 422209N/0202547E City Gjakove (Dakovica) Telephone 390-20021 Type Public, 400 beds Capabilities Cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gen- eral medicine, infectious diseases, nephrology, neurology, pulmonary, general surgery, OB/GYN,
    • 39 Capabilities (cont.) ophthalmology, orthopedics, thoracic surgery, urology, X-ray, ultrasound. Comments Renovations in 2005 funded by Italy and Norway. Malisheve Family Medical Center Coordinates 422843N/0204418E City Malisheve Type Public, no beds Capabilities Family and internal medicine; general surgery Comments Serious cases referred to hospitals in Peje or Prizren. Pristine EUROMED General Hospital Coordinates 423823000/N0210608000E City Pristine Phone 381 38 534 072 Type Private Capabilities Cardiology, internal medicine, surgery, ortho- pedics, urology, trauma, gynecology, pediatrics Equipment: CT scanner, ultrasound, x-ray Comments First licensed private hospital in Kosovo. Likely approaches Western European care standards and is used by U.S. personnel in Pristine. History Kosovo Albanians claim to be descendants of Illyrian tribes who inhabited Kosovo and surrounding regions in pre-Roman and Roman times. In the 7th century, Kosovo was incorporated into the larger Slavic Serbian territory, and it was administered by Slavs as part of their occupation of the Balkans. By the 10th century, the Slavic tribes developed into three distinct groups: Roman Catholic Croatians; Slovenians; and Eastern Orthodox Serbs. Throughout
    • 40 the 12th century, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Byzantine, and Roman leaders fought over Kosovo. From the 12th to the 14th centuries, Serb territory was independent, and Kosovo was established as the Serbian cultural and religious center. The Serbian royal court was established in Kosovo, and the region developed strong diplomatic and economic ties with Europe. In 1389, the Turks conquered Serbian territories in the Battle of Kosovo, and incorporated them into the larger Ottoman Empire. For the next 70 years, while the Turks were preoccupied with the Mongol threat, Serbia remained predominantly independent until it finally fell to the Ottomans. In 1690 and 1738, waves of Serbs fled Kosovo and other areas because of brutal Turkish suppression, and ethnic Albanians began trickling into the area. In 1878, the Treaty of Berlin granted Serbs final independence, but not before Turks successfully had encouraged Albanians to settle in Kosovo, increasing region’s Muslim population. Albania gained indepen- dence in 1913, the same year Serbia obtained Kosovo. However, it was not until 1926 that the Albanian-Yugoslav border was agreed upon, separating half a million Albanians in Kosovo and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia from their perceived homeland. Following World War I, Serbia united with Vojvodina, Montenegro, and former Slav subjects of the Habsburgs (Austria-Hungary). Serbia was the dominant partner in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. In 1929 the name Yugoslavia was adopted. Yugoslavia means land of the southern Slavs. The kingdom was ruled by Alexander I. By World War II, tens of thousands of Serbs migrated out of Kosovo and were replaced by Albanians, who moved north into the prov- ince and established themselves as the predominant ethnic group. During World War II, Yugoslavia was divided by Axis powers and
    • 41 their allies. Kosovo became part of an Italian-controlled Albania. By 1944, Yugoslavia was liberated. Josip Tito, the commander of the Partisans, became the prime minister of the new socialist fed- eration of Yugoslavia. There were six republics in the federation — Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Montenegro. Each was given separate and equal republican status. Kosovo and Vojvodina were given autonomous province status. In 1963, Kosovo was granted autonomous status within the Serbian republic. Further violence in 1968 gained Kosovo rights similar to a republic, but failed to appease Albanian nationalists. In 1974, the Yugoslav Constitution removed Kosovo from direct Serbian political dominance, establishing it as an autonomous fed- eral republic. Shifting demographic trends, coupled with a high Kosovo Museum, Prishtine
    • 42 Kosovo Albanian birth rate, favorably affected ethnic Albanians in the province and was used as leverage against the Serbs. In 1977, the Serbs tried to bring Kosovo back under their authority by removing the status as an independent republic. Tito prevented this constitutional change from taking place. During the late 1970s, Serbia transformed from an agrarian to an industrial society. In the 1980s Yugoslavia’s economy began to fail. Following Tito’s death in 1980, Kosovo erupted in a large and violent protest brought on by high unemployment and eco- nomic hardship. This protest provided Serbs the opportunity to gain more authority over the region. By 1989, the region of Kosovo had lost its status as an autonomous federal republic, and many of the ethnic Albanians in office were forced to resign and remove themselves from the Communist party. The year 1989 was also when Slobodan Milosevic rose to power, which coincided with an increase of nationalism. On the 600th an- niversary of the Battle of Kosovo, Milosevic gave a rousing speech at the battlefield in which he promised Kosovo Serbs his protection and full support. In 1990 Milosevic led the fight for a new con- stitution that granted him greater powers and abolished Kosovo’s autonomous status as well as the autonomous status of Vojvodina. This pleased the minority Serbs in Kosovo, but enraged many eth- nic Albanians in Kosovo. Milosevic’s centrist policies created fear of Serb domination in the other federations. Between 1991 and 1992, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia. Slovenia was the first to secede with 88 percent of Slovenia’s voters voting for independence in a referendum. On 25 June 1991, the Republic of Slovenia declared independence. After a nearly bloodless 10-day war, Yugoslav forces withdrew. The remaining republics of Serbia
    • 43 and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992. The independence of Croatia and Bosnia was met with civil war and resulted in bloodshed and lengthy battles. Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina both have Serb minorities that were urged by Slobodan Milosevic to join a “Greater Serbia.” Serbia led military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs. Yugoslavia was ousted from the UN, but Serbia was undeterred in its unsuccessful campaign. Over the next three years Bosnia-Herzegovina experienced large- scale genocide. More than 200,000 died in the ethnic cleansing, and approximately one million refugees left the country. The con- flict was originally viewed as a civil war. However, with Bosnia having two tanks and two armored personnel carriers (APCs), while Serbia had 300 tanks, 200 APCs, 800 artillery pieces, and 40 aircraft; it was eventually termed genocide. The UN stepped in with troops to preserve the peace. The war ended with the U.S.- sponsored Dayton Accords in 1995. The Dayton Accords provided for the separate state of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Yugoslavia was no more, and the new union of Serbia and Montenegro was founded. In September 1991 a clandestine referendum was held by Albanians declaring Kosovo’s independence. Kosovo Albanians formed a shadow government and elected Ibrahim Rugova president of the self-proclaimed republic. Rugova believed in passive resistance as the road to independence, modeled after Ghandi in India. Even though Rugova called for independence through peace- ful means, the creation of a more militant group, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), occurred in 1996. The KLA used small arms and low-tech bombs to attack police stations and Serb civil- ians. Its aim was the radicalization of the Albanian population to win secession of Kosovo from the Republic of Serbia.
    • 44 In 1995 and 1996 there were attacks against the Serbian Police and civil targets in Kosovo. These attacks were attributed to the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) in 1996. Serbia’s government initially doubted the existence of the KLA; however, it was soon evident that the KLA existed. Serbia denounced the KLA as a terrorist organization, which boosted its credibility with ethnic Albanians. The KLA operated with small arms. Serbs counted their numbers in the hundreds while the KLA announced they numbered in the 10,000 to 50,000 range. In February 1998, Milosevic ordered Interior Ministry forces (MUP) into Kosovo to crack down on the KLA. In September 1998, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1199, with which Milosevic agreed to comply. The resolution called for a cease-fire in Kosovo, the cessation of all hostilities and actions affecting and repressing civilians, and a War Crimes Tribunal to bring to justice security force members involved in the mistreatment of civilians and the destruction of property. Beginning in the fall of 1998, a group of 2,000 international monitors under the Organization for the Security and Cooperation of Europe (OSCE), dispatched to Kosovo to monitor compliance. In 1998, the ethnic Albanian insurgency provoked a Serbian coun- terinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries. By March of 1999 there was full-scale war. The Milosevic government’s rejection of a proposed inter- national settlement (the Rambouillet Agreement) led to NATO’s bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999 (24 March to 11 June) and to the eventual withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999. UNSC Resolution 1244 in June 1999 authorized the stationing of a NATO-led force (KFOR) in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region’s ethnic
    • 45 communities, created a UN Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to foster self-governing institutions, and reserved the issue of Kosovo’s final status for an unspecified date in the future. On 2 February 2007, UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari deliv- ered a draft status settlement proposal to leaders in Belgrade and Prishtine (Pristina). The proposal covered a wide range of issues related to Kosovo’s future. The settlement would allow Kosovo to become a member of international agreements, though indepen- dence was not specifically mentioned. Serbia and Russia delayed implementation of the settlement by insisting on another round of negotiation with a troika of the EU, United States, and Russia. The group was committed to a 120-day period of negotiations, but the troika ended with no agreement on Kosovo. Kosovo declared independence from Serbia 17 February 2008. The declaration was recognized by the United States as well as more than 24 nations by mid-March of 2008. Serbia still has not recognized the independence of Kosovo. Serbia even has included a provision affirming Serb authority over Kosovo in its constitu- tion. Most of the Balkan peninsula has recognized the indepen- dence of Kosovo. �Chronology of Key Events 12th Century Kosovo at the center of the Serbian Empire, under Nemanjic dynasty. 1389 Epic Battle of Kosovo- results in 500 years of Turkish Ottoman Rule. Many Christian Serbs leave the region in the coming years and the religious and ethnic balance tips toward Muslims and Albanians. 1689-90 Austrian invasion repelled.
    • 46 1912 Balkan Wars-Serbia regains control of Kosovo from the Turks by Treaty of London. 1918 Collapse of the Ottoman Empire. 1941 World War II- Axis forces partition Yugoslavia; Kosovo becomes part of an Italian-controlled Albania. 1946 Kosovo is absorbed into the Yugoslav federation. 1960s Kosovo elevated to autonomous province. 1974 Yugoslav constitution recognizes the autonomous status of Kosovo, province attains a de facto self-government. 1981 Student protests and rioting call for Republic of Koso- vo; troops and police quell the riots. 1989 Slobodan Milosevic, Yugoslav president, strips Kosovo of right to autonomy. 1990 July: Ethnic Albanian leaders declare independence from Serbia. Belgrade dissolves Kosovo government. Septem- ber: more than 100,000 ethnicAlbanian workers are fired, including government employees and media workers. 1992 Ethnic Albanians elect poet Ibrahim Rugova president of self-proclaimed republic. 1993-97 Ethnic tension and armed unrest grows. 1998 Open conflict between Serb police and Kosovo Libera- tionArmy (KLA). Serb Forces launch brutal crackdown. 1999 More than 40 bodies are discovered in village of Racak result in international community condemning civilian massacre. An additional 11,000 deaths are reported in Kosovo; International peace proposal is rejected by Bel- grade. In March, NATO launches air strikes against for- mer Republic of Yugoslavia. In June, FRY troops with- draw from Kosovo; air strikes are called off; UN passes Resolution 1244, KFOR and UNMIK deploy to Kosovo.
    • 47 2000 Slobodan Milosevic is removed from power in Belgrade. 2001 UNMIK opens border check points with Serbia. 2002 Ibrahim Rugova is elected president by Kosovar Parlia- ment. Bajram Rexhepi is elected prime minister. 2003 UN sets conditions for final status in 2005. Sporadic ethnic violence continues. 2004 19 people die in ethnic violence sparked by drowning of 3 Albanian children near Mitrovice (Mitrovica). 500 Serb homes are destroyed, as well as 42 Orthodox sites. 4,000 Serbs are displaced. Ibrahim Rugova is re-elected president. Former rebel commander, Ramush Haradinaj is elected prime minister. 2005 Haradinaj, indicted on war crimes, resigns as prime minister. He is succeeded by Bajram Kosumi. First Prishtine-Belgrade meeting is held since 2003. 2006 President Rugova dies. Fatmir Sejdiu elected president. Kosumi is dismissed and is succeeded by Agim Ceku. 2007 UN envoy Ahtisaari presents final status proposals. 2007 Troika established to convene 120-day negotiation on the future status of Kosovo. 17 Feb 2008 Kosovo declares independence from Serbia. Indepen- dence is recognized by the United States and 24 other countries by mid-March. 15 June 2008 Constitution of Kosovo enters into force. 20 June 2008 European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) af- firmed by the UN Security Council under the European Security and Defense Policy
    • 48 Government and Politics Government Provisional Institutions of Self Government (PISG), created in 2001, include the Kosovo Assembly, the president of Kosovo, the government, and the courts. The PISG was designed by UNMIK to assist in the transition to an independent democratic system. The Kosovo constitution provides for proportional representation for minorities and women. Women are guaranteed 28 percent of the seats in the national assembly. Every third person on party lists of candidates must be a woman. National Level Executive Branch Fatmir Sejdiu was elected president by the Assembly following the death of President Ibrahim Rugova in January 2006. The president is responsible for external relations. The president has the power to dissolve the Assembly and is expected to report to the Assembly on the state of affairs in Kosovo at least once a year. The president nominates the prime minister. The prime minister-elect submits a proposed list of ministers to the Assembly. The Assembly then confirms the prime minister-elect and the cabinet. Hashim Thaci was elected prime minister January 2008. Legislative Branch The Kosovo Assembly has 120 seats with 3-year terms. Twenty seats are reserved for ethnic minorities; Serbs have 10 seats, Turks – 2, Bosniaks – 3, RAE- 4, and Gorani – 1. The Serbs have an extremely low voter turnout. There is tremendous pres- sure from Belgrade not to participate. In the 2004 elections, the
    • 49 10 seats reserved for Serbs were filled accordingly: eight seats by the Serbian List for Kosovo Metohija with only 0.20 percent of the vote; the remaining two seats by the Citizen’s Initiative of Serbia with 0.05 percent of the vote (369 votes). Judicial Branch The courts include a Supreme Court of Kosovo, district courts, municipal courts, and courts of minor offenses. There are 311 lo- cal judges and 88 local prosecutors. The new Provisional Criminal Code and Provisional Criminal Procedure Code of Kosovo went into effect April 2004. Local Level Key Government Officials President Fatmir Sejdiu Prime Minister Hashim Thaci Deputy Prime Minister Hajredin Kuci Deputy Prime Minister Ram Manaj Minister of Foreign Affairs Skender Hyseni Minister of Security Forces Fehmi Muhota Minister of Transportation and Communication Fatmir Limaj There are 30 municipal districts with 30 elected municipal assem- blies and mandated multi-ethnic representation. Each district is known by both Albanian and Serbian names; the Albanian titles are most commonly used.
    • 50 District Names Albanian Serbian Albanian Serbian Decan Decani Rahovec Orahovac Gjakove Dakovica Peje Pec Gilogovc Glogovac Podujeve Podujevo Gjilan Gnjilane Prishtine Pristina Dragash Dragac Prizren Prizreni Prizren Gjakovë Dragash Deçan Istog Klinë Skenderaj Malishevë Rahovec Suva Reka Shtërpcë Ferizaj Kaçanik Shtime Viti Gjilan Lipjan Kamenicë Novobërdë Prishtinë Fushë Kosovë Gllogovc Vushtrri Podujevë Mitrovicë Leposavic Zubin Potok Zveçan Pejë Obliq SERBIA MACEDONIA ALBANIA MONTENEGRO PRISHTINË SKOPJE 0 10 20 30 km 0 10 20 mi Kosovo National Capital International Boundary Municipality Boundary Disputed Boundary Administrative Districts
    • 51 Albanian Serbian Albanian Serbian Istog Istok Skenderaj Sbrbica Kacnik Kacanik Shtime Stimije Kline Klina Shterpce Strpce Fushe Kosove Kosovo Polje Suhareke Suva Reka Kamenice Kamenica Ferizaj Uroseva Mitrovice Mitrovica Viti Vitina Leposavic Leposaviq Vushtrri Vucitrn Lipjan Lipljan Zubin Potok Zubin Potok Novoberde Novo Brdo Zvecan Zvecan Obliq Obilic Malisheve Malisevo Politics Political Parties The three major parties are the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK), and the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK). The LDK was prominent be- fore the 1998-99 war. Its leader, Ibrahim Rugova, urged passive resistance and gained respect from the outside world. The par- ty lost popularity with the rise of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) resistance. However, the LDK received 45 percent of the vote in 2004. The PDK was founded by Hashim Thaci. He was the political head of the KLA. The AAK was founded by Ramush Haradinaj. In December of 2004, Hardinaj was named prime minister. In March 2005, he was indicted on war crimes; he resigned as prime minister and urged calm. His trial began 5 March 2007. President Sejdiu is a member of LDK; Prime Minister Hasim Thaci is a member of PDK.
    • 52 Foreign Relations Serbia The government of Serbia (GOS) has rejected Kosovo’s indepen- dence. Shortly before the Kosovar declaration of independence, Serbia wrote into its constitution a provision that declared Kosovo to be an “integral part” of Serbia. The GOS does not recognize the government of Kosovo, nor the European Union’s Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX). The GOS is appealing to the United Nations to allow Serbia to maintain the police, the courts, judi- ciary, and customs in the Serbian enclaves of Kosovo. In its ap- peal the GOS never officially speaks of partition because to do so would forfeit its sovereignty of Kosovo. Serbia continues to hold significant authority over the Serbian enclaves — particularly in the northern region — through political positions, as well as administrative and economic capacities. Serbia also undermines Kosovar authority by holding municipal elections in Serb enclaves. Relations between Serbia and Kosovo have come a long way since wars of the 1990s; however, the balancing act keeping peace be- tween Serbs and Kosovar Albanians is delicate. United States The United States recognized Kosovo as an independent state within a few days following Kosovo’s declaration and soon estab- lished an embassy in Prishtine (Pristina). The U.S. Department of State recognizes several areas in which the U.S. supports Kosovo (with a budget of US$52.6 million in 2008). These include ad- vancing rule of law and basic security for all citizens; monitoring conflicts and encouraging reconciliation; and providing technical assistance for policing and border security. The U.S.-led NATO air campaign in March 1999 to end the ethnic cleansing of Kosovar Albanians resulted in a large influx of Albanian refugees returning
    • 53 to Kosovo and a significant departure of Serbs. While the cam- paign was successful in ending the ethnic cleansing, the aftermath brought numerous questions regarding the status of Kosovo. These remain unresolved despite Kosovo’s declaration of independence. The U.S. contributes about 1,500 troops to NATO’s Kosovo Force (KFOR) and the EULEX missions. For financial support, the U.S. pledged US$400 million in 2008-2009. Kosovo benefits from duty-free exports to the EU and the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) countries, as well as the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences for trade assistance. European Union Kosovo remains significantly dependent on the European Union for economic, social, political, and legal support. Twenty-two European Union Member States support Kosovar independence. However, the lack of cohesion and staunch opposition to indepen- dence by countries such as Spain has muffled EU-Kosovo rela- tions. The situation is further complicated because Serbia refuses to acknowledge EULEX or the Kosovar government. The EU is committed to stability in the Balkans and continues to financially support socio-economic development, with a promise to contrib- ute 800 million. The EU is Kosovo’s largest trading partner, with exports and imports of goods and services making up 11 percent and 52 percent, respectively, of the gross domestic product (GDP). Foreign direct investments from the EU made up 10 percent of Kosovo’s GDP in 2007. Under EULEX— the largest civilian mis- sion (3,000 personnel) ever deployed under the auspices of the European Security and Defense Policy— “monitors, mentors, and advises” police, justice, and customs in Kosovo. EULEX, with a budget of 205 million, supports development in these areas while ensuring just application to the multiethnic society of Kosovo.
    • 54 Negotiation Process The negotiation process regarding Kosovo’s status has been taking place since 1999. Under UN Security Council Resolution 1244, the UNSC gained authorization to establish an international military and civilian presence in Kosovo. The UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) works with Kosovo on establish- ing democratic institutions, rule of law, minority rights, financial institutions, property rights, and conducting affairs with Serbia. Negotiation teams between Kosovo and Serbia continue, but little progress has been made as neither is willing to make concessions. The Ahtisaari Plan (written by Martti Ahtisaari, the UN repre- sentative leading the talks between Kosovo and Serbia) implicitly suggests Kosovar independence as the best way to establish peace and agreement. The UNSC failed to agree on a resolution regard- ing Kosovo’s final status, and talks continue led by the United States, EU, and Russia. International Organizations KosovoisamemberoftheCentralEuropeanFreeTradeAgreement (CEFTA) and the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Because Kosovo has not been recognized by the United Nations as an independent state, participation in international or- ganizations remains legally difficult. Outlook Kosovo’s economy has been crippled under UNMIK rule. Because of the lack of available monies to a non-state, Kosovo has been de- pendent on foreign donations. The EU has been the largest multi- lateral donor and has contributed more than 35 percent of the total aid during 1999-2004. The United States remains the highest bilat-
    • 55 eral donor with investments totaling more than 13.5 percent of the total aid amount. Kosovo will continue to struggle politically and economically, as well as in gaining its legitimacy internationally. Because Russia will not recognize the independence of Kosovo and has a seat on the UN Security Council, it will likely be a long time before the UN officially can grant Kosovo independent status. The global financial downturn beginning in September 2008 hinders development efforts in Kosovo as donor countries are distracted with domestic financial crises. Inter-ethnic relations will continue to be volatile.. Economy Economic Statistics GDP US$5 billion (2007 estimates) GDP Growth 5.1% GDP Per Capita US$2,300 Inflation Rate 5.3% Debt NA Unemployment 40% Imports US$2.6 billion; includes foodstuffs, wood, petroleum, chemicals, machinery and elec- trical equipment Exports US$527 million; includes mining and pro- cessed metal products Labor Force 550,000; 16.5% in agriculture Resources The World Bank has set up special trust accounts for Kosovo because Kosovo is not a member. More than US$54 million in
    • 56 grants have been allocated to Kosovo from the World Bank. The Kosovo economy has relied on remittances from migrant workers for years. The average yearly remittance is US$500 million. There are between 400,000 and 700,000 diaspora. Natural resources are coal, lead, zinc, chromium, bauxite, ferronickel, lignite, and silver. Over the past few years Kosovo’s economy has shown significant progress in transitioning to a market-based system and maintain- ing macroeconomic stability, but it is still highly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. Industry There is an abundance of mineral deposits with three open pit mines in operation. Minerals and metals — including lignite, lead, zinc, nickel, chrome, aluminum, magnesium, and a wide variety of construction materials — once formed the backbone of indus- try, but output has declined because of aging equipment and insuf- ficient investment. Agriculture Agriculture is responsible for 18 percent of exports. Agricultural products are tobacco, wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, beef, pork and dairy products. Utilities TheKosovoEnergy Company(KEK)ispubliclyowned.Electricity, produced by two lignite-fired power plants, is provided through- out Kosovo. There is no natural gas market. Many residents and businesses have not paid electric bills since UNMIK administra- tion. The outstanding debt to KEK is more than €240 million. KEK loses 10 million monthly due to unpaid bills and technical issues.
    • 57 Many places do not have meters, which makes bill paying difficult. In an effort to force people to pay their utility bills, a measure was passed requiring a receipt of payment to apply for a business license or to register a vehicle. Foreign Investment Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Kosovo remains minimal due to Kosovo’s ambiguous status as a state. Because Serbia has not Leposavic Podujevë Vushtrri Obliq Klinë Deçan Rahovec Dragash Kaçanik Lipjan Lg PbZn Ni Lg PbZn Ferizaj Gjakove Prizren Pejë Gjilan Mitrovicë SERBIA MACEDONIA ALBANIA MONTENEGRO PRISHTINE SKOPJE Kosovo Metallurgy Light Industry Textiles Thermoelectric Plant Lignite Lead/Zinc Nickel Lg PbZn Ni 0 10 20 30 km 0 10 20 mi Industry
    • 58 recognized Kosovo and undermines Prishtine’s (Pristina’s) author- ity in the Serb enclaves, rule of law and regulations for businesses remain uncertain. The U.S. Agency of International Development (USAID) lists Kosovo’s underdeveloped legal system, poor in- frastructure (including energy and water infrastructure), dys- functional property market, little stable regional trade relations, limited domestic private investment, and the unfavorable credit and financial environment as the main deterrents to FDI. The EU and U.S. continue to encourage FDI, but the 2008 global financial downturn have made immediate prospects dim. Threat Crime The crime rate has been on the decline in Kosovo. There were 291 murders in 2000 and 61 murders in 2006. However, drug and human trafficking are prevalent throughout the Balkans. Kosovo is a source, transit, and destination location for trafficking of women and children for the purpose of com- mercial sex exploitation. Foreign victims originate from Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Albania, Russia, Montenegro, Slovakia, and Nigeria. There has been an increase in the num- ber of Kosovars trafficked internally, and victims also come from other areas of Serbia. UNMIK and KPS have actively pursued and prosecuted the traffickers. This has shifted most of the commer- cial sex trade out of bars and restaurants into private homes and escort services to avoid detection. There is an active anti-traffick- ing campaign with telephone hotlines available for victims. Shadowy radical groups emerged among Kosovo Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo since 1999. Such groups make demands of the
    • 59 international community or the Kosovo government, but largely lack any kind of popular support. While these groups may commit some crimes, they are even more damaging by increasing inter- ethnic tensions. These groups include the Albanian National Army, the Kosovo Independence Army, and the Bridge Watchers. They have been quiet in recent years, except for the Albanian National Army bombing a railroad line in December 2006. Travel Security The security environment in Kosovo has improved in recent years with the presence of KFOR, UNMIK, and EULEX, but remains volatile due to continued inter-ethnic tensions. Travelers should avoid all protests and demonstrations, as even peaceful ones have turned violent. Unemployment is high, and the economic situation is increasingly dire. Street crimes such as theft are serious concerns in Kosovo, particularly in cities. Foreigners, foreigners’ homes, ve- hicles, and non-governmental organization offices have been robbed. Terrorism The terrorist threat in Kosovo is assessed as MODERATE. Terrorists who are anti-U.S. are present, but there is no indication of anti-U.S. activity. The porous border does create a favorable operational environment for transnational terror groups. However, the presence of the international community has increased the re- gional security in the province. The greatest identified threat to U.S. personnel is inadvertent or collateral injury stemming from inter-ethnic violence. Corruption Corruption is a significant problem throughout the Balkans, and Kosovo is no exception. Socio-economic conditions and post- conflict consequences contribute to corruption. Public opin-
    • 60 ion perceives corruption as one of the biggest problems facing Kosovo; however, the perception of corruption maybe larger than the actual problem. Every delay or postponement is thought of as a result of corruption. There are risks for corruption such as low salaries, lack of ad- ministrative controls, inherited problems from the Communist past, and motives to make fast money. However, Kosovo has been proactive in answering charges of corruption by establishing in July 2006 the Anti-corruption Agency. An independent body, the agency promotes social involvement and public awareness to aid in achieving transparency in government. DrugTrafficking Many routes used for smuggling weapons into Kosovo are now transiting heroin, cocaine, and cigarettes. Major Intelligence Services Kosovo has no intelligence services. Threat to U.S. Personnel U.S. personnel should abide by travel security measures, avoid- ing demonstrations or areas of previous inter-ethnic fighting (such as the bridge in Mitrovice (Mitrovica)). U.S. personnel should be vigilant against drug trafficking and theft. Armed Forces Kosovo has no armed forces but has been protected by the Kosovo International Security Forces (KFOR) under UN guidelines of Resolution 1244. KFOR operates under NATO direction and will remain in Kosovo through its transition to self-government.
    • 61 Kosovo is divided into five Multi-National Battle Groups (MNBG) (brigade equivalent); each responsible for a single area of responsi- bility, yet all are under a single chain of command. Headquarters KFOR is located in Prishtine (Pristina), MNBG-Central. Areas Number of Personnel MNBG-Central 1,169 MNBG-East 2,120 MNBG-South 2,680 MNBG-West 1,859 MNBG-North 1,685 HQ KFOR 1,200 There are 10,713 troops in Kosovo under command of KFOR as of 1 February 2010. There are 24 NATO countries and 10 non-NATO countries providing troops to KFOR. Land Forces Kosovo Protection Corps The Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC) was designed as a transi- tional post-conflict arrangement. Changing circumstances within Kosovo require the creation of a new security force that will be trained according to NATO standards and placed under the civil- ian-led, democratic control of the Kosovo government. Specific KPC functions such as explosive ordnance and civil pro- tection were transferred to the Kosovo Security Force (KSF) upon its formation in January 2009, in coordination with the Ministry of the KSF. Dissolution of the KPC occurred in tandem with creation of the KSF ensuring the continued availability of key capabilities, including de-mining, fire-fighting, and other emergency response
    • 62 tasks. The KPC did not transform into the KSF. The dissolution of the KPC and the stand-up of the KSF were separate tasks; the KSF is a completely new force. Members of the KSF were re- cruited from all Kosovo communities through a formal selection process developed jointly by NATO and Kosovo authorities. KPC members did not automatically transfer into the KSF. KPC mem- bers had to apply for membership in the KSF in order to be re- cruited, and were subject to the same recruitment criteria as other applicants. Only upon selection according to established uniform criteria were KPC members allowed to transition to the KSF. Those entitled personnel who did not join KSF received a pension, the amount of which was determined and paid by Kosovo authori- ties. Depending on circumstances, eligible individuals were also eligible for severance packages, resettlement program counseling, and assistance finding new occupations. Kosovo Security Force The KSF is not an army, but a new security force that is controlled by civilian authorities. The KSF is a multi-ethnic, politically neu- tral, professional, and all-volunteer force that is staffed with a maximum of 2,500 active personnel and an additional 800 reserv- ists. It has two official languages: Albanian and Serbian. The KSF is lightly armed and is not equipped with heavy weapons such as tanks and heavy artillery, or have an offensive air capability. Mission Initial tasks of the KSF include security tasks, such as emergency response, explosive ordnance disposal, and civil protection. The KSF may also participate in peace support operations. During the initial period, the International Military Presence (IMP) will su- pervise, monitor, and exert executive authority over the KSF. The KSF will fulfill security functions not appropriate for police or
    • 63 other law enforcement organizations. The IMP, in coordination with the International Civilian Representative, will decide when to authorize the KSF to engage in these new security functions. Organization Initially, the KSF will consist of a Land Forces Command, a Rapid Reaction Brigade, an Operations Support Brigade, and a Training and Doctrine Command. Selected uniformed members of the KSF will be required to serve periods of duty in the integrated Ministry for the KSF, which has a mixture of civilian and KSF person- nel. The KSF’s emergency response component is composed of search and rescue, de‑mining, hazardous materials, fire fighting, and other humanitarian assistance capabilities. Civilian Oversight Laws of KSF and the Ministry for the KSF state that Kosovo au- thorities will exercise transparent, democratic, and civilian control of the KSF and be answerable to the Kosovo Assembly. Day-to- day responsibility for the KSF is exercised by the minister for the KSF through the civilian-led Ministry for the KSF. The minister for the KSF is appointed by the prime minister, subject to the ap- proval of the Kosovo Assembly. The president of Kosovo is the supreme commander of the KSF. Personnel The KSF is a professional and multi-ethnic force. Members of the KSF have been recruited from across Kosovo through a formal selection process developed jointly by Kosovo and the IMP. All Kosovo citizens over the age of 18 are eligible to apply for mem- bership of the KSF. Selection is based on medical and physical fitness, merit, the needs and priorities of the KSF, and successful completion of the approved vetting procedure. This enrollment is
    • 64 confirmed following completion of the necessary basic training. The recruiting process and selection procedure for the KSF have been jointly developed by KFOR and the authorities in Kosovo. Recruitment began in July 2008. Key leaders and the most senior members of the KSF (full colonels and above) began training in November 2008, while basic training for most of the new recruits started in January 2009. The NATO objective of achieving initial operating capability of the KSF was met on 15 September 2009. Conscription The KSF is a purely professional service and will not have conscription. Rank Structure The KSF officer rank structure is composed of nine ranks in as- cending order: second lieutenant, lieutenant, captain, major, lieu- tenant colonel, colonel, brigadier general, major general, and lieutenant general. The KSF enlisted rank structure is composed of six ranks in ascending order: private, corporal, sergeant, staff sergeant, sergeant major, and sergeant major class 1. Training NATO is providing training for the KSF Equipment The KSF has no heavy weapons. Air Force Kosovo has no air force. Coastal Defense Kosovo has no coastal defense force.
    • 65 Paramilitary Forces Paramilitary forces of the 1990s, mostly Serb, left Kosovo follow- ing the 1999 NATO operation. National Police The Kosovo Police Service (KPS) was established under UNMIK. The KPS has been trained by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The OSCE’s mission was to train the KPS to international rights standards and to introduce basic community-based police standards. Mission The motto of the KPS is “To keep Kosovo safe and secure for all members of the community.” The KPS does this by maintaining Traffic Police
    • 66 public order, investigating crimes, controlling traffic, and provid- ing police service without prejudice, favoritism, or discrimination. Organization The KPS has been under UNMIK administration since 1999, but UNMIK has transferred many policing powers to the Kosovo government. The police commissioner is a UNMIK position. He is aided by a deputy commissioner (a Kosovar). There are four assistants to the deputy — administration, operations, bor- der, and crimes. The seven KPS departments are Administrative Services, Supporting Services, Training, Public Peace and Order, Specialized Units, Crime, and Border Police. Personnel There are 7,203 KPS officers. Training KPS training takes place at Vushtrri (Vucitrn) at the former po- lice academy of Yugoslavia. It is a 20-week course. Curriculum includes code of police conduct; use of applicable laws; crime investigation, evidence-gathering, and interview techniques; de- fense tactics, use of firearms; police skills; traffic control; and democratic policing that focuses on loyalty to a democratic legal order. Training is followed by a two-year probationary period and continues throughout regular service with advanced and refresher courses. Promotion to higher ranks is based on competitive exams. Capabilities KPS performs basic policing capabilities under EULEX and KFOR, including criminal investigation, evidence collection, in-
    • 67 terview methods, democratic policing, use of firearms, forensics, evidence analysis, and traffic control. Disposition The KPS is in major municipalities such as Mitrovice (Mitrovica) North and South [12 personnel]; Prishtine (Pristina) [41]; Zubin Potok [2]; Srbica (Skenderaj) [5]; Leposavic [2]; Zcecan [2]; and Vushtrri (Vucitrn) [7]. Main headquarters are in Prishtine. Uniforms The uniform consists of a light blue shirt, navy blue trousers, navy blue jacket with white reflective stripes, a blue cap, and insignia. Weapons of Mass Destruction Kosovo has no weapons of mass destruction.
    • A-1 APPENDIX A: Holidays 7 January Orthodox Christmas 17 February Independence Day Spring (Date Varies) Easter 9 April Kosovo Constitution Day 1-2 May Labor Days 6 May St. George’s Day 28 June St. Vitus’ Day Date Varies (Sept 2010) Eid al-Fitr 23 October Darka e Lames (Thanksgiving) Date Varies (16-17 Nov 2010) Eid al-Adha 28 November Flag Day 25 December Christmas NOTE: Muslim Holiday dates vary. The Islamic calendar is lunar-based.
    • B-1 APPENDIX B: Language English Albanian Pronunciation Pleased to meet you Gëzohem jezOHem Hello Përshëndetje pehrshunDEHTyeh Good-bye Mirupafshim meerooPAHfsheem My name is… Emri im është… emREE eem YESHteh How are you? Si jeni? see YAYnee? I am from… Jam nga… jahm nGAH… Please Ju lutem yoo LOOtehm Thank you Ju falemnderit yoo FAHlehmndEHree Excuse Me Me falni muh FAHlnee I am looking for… Po kërkoj… poh KURkoy I don’t understand S’kuptoj ss’KOOPtoy Yes Po poh No Jo yoh Cheers! Gëzuar! juhzWAHR! Good Day Mirëdita meerdEEtah Good morning Mirëmengjesi meermuhnJEHzee Good night Natën e mire NAHtuhn eh meer What time is it? Sa është ora? sah YESHte orah? Yesterday Dje dYEH Today Sot soht Tomorrow Nesër NEHsuhr How much/many? Sa? sah? Where is…? Ku eshtë? KOO yesht? What/which I cili ee SEElee How Si see When Kur koor Why Pse pSEH
    • B-2 English Albanian Pronunciation Who Kush koosh I don’t understand Nuk ju kuptoni Nook yoo koopTOY Please repeat Edhe nje here ju lutem EHtheh nyuh hehr, yoo LOOtehm Sunday E dielë eh DEEehl Monday E hënë eh HUHN Tuesday E martë eh MAHRT Wednesday E merkurë eh murhrkOOR Thursday E enjtë eh EHnyteh Friday E premtë eh prEHMteh Saturday E shtunë eh SHTOOn One Një nyuh Two Dy duu Three Tre treh Four Katër KAHtuhr Five Pesë pehs Six Gjashtë JAHsht Seven Shtatë shTAHt Eight Tetë TEHtuh Nine Nëntë Nunt Ten Dhjetë dyEHT Eleven Njembedhjetë nyumbthyEHT Twelve…etc Dymbedhjetë…etc doombthyEHT…etc. Twenty Njëzet nyehzEHT Thirty Tridhjetë treethyEHT Forty Dzyet duuzEHT Fifty Pesëdhjetë pehsthyEHT 100 Njëqind nyuhchEEND 1000 Njëmijë nyuhMEEY
    • B-3 English Albanian Pronunciation Please bring me (a)... Me sillni një meh SEELnee nyuh Fork Pirun peerOON Knife Thikë thEEK Spoon Lugë loog Bread Bukë boohk Butter Gjalpë jahlp Beer Birrë beerr Cheese Djathë dYAHth Coffee (espresso) Kafe KAHfeh Meat Mish meesh Fish Peshk peshk Chicken Pulë pool Fruit Frutë froot Potatoes Patate pahTAHteh Rice Oriz ohREEZ Milk Qumësht CHOOmust Water Uji OOy Tea Caj chay Wine Verë vehr Oil Vaj vay Soup Supë soop Airfield Aerodrom aerodrOHM Road Rrugë roog East Lindje loondYEH West Perëndim pehruhndEEM North Veri vYEHree South Jug yoog Doctor Doktor DOHktor Medic Sanitar SahneeTAR
    • B-4 English Albanian Pronunciation Nurse Nfermiere eenfehrmeeYEHR Where is the Doctor? Ku eshtë mjeku doktor? koo uhsht mEHkoo DOHktor I am going to help you Do të ju ndihmoj? doh tuh yoo ndeehmOY Can you walk? A mund të ecni? ah moond tuh EHtsnee Can you stand? Të qendoni ne këmbë? tuh chuhndrOHnee nuh kuhmb Do you need help? A mund të ju ndihmojmë? ah moond tuh yoo ndeehmOYm? Where? Ku? Koo? Where is the latrine? Ku eshtë nevojtorja?Koo uhsht nehvoytohrYAH? Ammunition Municion mooneetseeOHN Artillery Artileri ahrteelEHree Base Bazë bahz Barracks Kazerme kahzERM Camp Kamp kahmp Explosive Eksplosiv ehksplohzEEV Grenade Granate grahnAHT Knife Thikë theek Rocket Hedhese raketash HEHthseh rahkEHtahsh Mine Minë meen Mortar Mortajë mohrtAY Minefield Fushte e minuar foosh eh meenOOahr Jeep Xhips Jeeps Missile Raketë rahkyEHT Pistol Revolver rehvohlvEHR Rifle Pushkë POOshk Tank Tank tahnk
    • B-5 English Albanian Pronunciation Armored Personnel Carrier Autoblinde ahootohblEENd Commander Komandant kohmahnDAHnt Enemy Armik ahrmEEK Friend Mik meek Officer Oficer ohfeetsEHR Soldier Ushtar ooshTAR Guard Rojë roy Pilot Pilot peelOHT Do you speak…? A flitni…? ah flEETnee…? Anyone speak…? Kush flet ketu…? Koosh fleht kuhTOO? I don’t speak…? Nuk flas…? Nook fLAHs? Albanian Shiqip shchEEp Serbian Serbisht sehrbEEsht English Anglisht ahngLEEsht Italian Italisht eetahlEEsht Russian Rusisht roosEEsht What is your job? Cfarë pune beni? Chfahr ppOOneh buhnEE? What is your name? Si ju quajnë? See yoo chooAYN? Where are you from? Nga jeni ju? Ngah YEHnee yoo?
    • B-6
    • C-1 APPENDIX C: Dangerous Plants and Animals Snakes Sand or HornedViper Description Adult length usually 0.6 to 0.7 meter, maximum of 0.9 meter. Background color usually ash gray in males and gray brown or brick-red in females, but much variation. Belly yel- low, brownish or pinkish with small dark spots or blotches. Body stout, usually with prominent black or brown zigzag dorsal stripe. Tip of tail pink or red. Distinctive snout, with strongly upturned, horn-like appendage. Habitat Found in various habitats from lower plains to elevations up to 2,500 meters, most often at moderately high elevations in dry ter- rain with scattered bushes. Seeks gravelly rock hills with slopes facing the sun. Frequently found in open areas with few trees and bushes or in rock formations near cultivated fields. Activity and behavioral patterns Primarily terrestrial, although occasionally climbs into bushes. Most active in the evening, except in colder weather. Generally sluggish and slow-moving. Not very aggressive. When annoyed, hisses loudly but usually does not bite unless disturbance contin- ues, then will strike and bite quickly.
    • C-2 Venom’s effects Extremely potent hemotoxin. Symptoms may include progressive swelling, lymphedema, shortness of breath, marked limb stiffness, nausea, local hemorrhage, and internal bleeding. Fatalities record- ed. Fangs unusually long, may be up to 12 millimeters. EuropeanViper, Common Adder Description Adult length usually 0.5 to 0.6 meter; maximum of 0.9 meter. Stout snake with slightly flattened body. Background color varies by geographic loca- tion. Dorsal color varies from gray to copper to brown or uniformly black with dark, heavy zig-zag strip pattern on back. Belly gray, gray brown, or black; sometimes marked with white spots. Tip of tail yellow, orange, or reddish orange. Snout broadly rounded but not clearly upturned as in some other European vipers. May have X-shaped or inverted V-shaped mark on its head. Habitat Found in rocky or bushy hillsides, open fields, woods. shady ar- eas, moors, swamps, marshes, and bogs. In northern parts of range, found mainly at sea level; may be found up to 2,700 meters in lakes and rivers. Can tolerate coldest environment of any viper species. Activity and behavioral patterns Active during the day in colder months; largely nocturnal dur- ing warmer months. Generally not vicious or aggressive. Tends to freeze when danger is present; however, easily alarmed and bites
    • C-3 if threatened or stepped on. Usually lives in colonies near suitable hibernation sites. Venom’s effects Hemotoxic; also some neurotoxic activity. Causes sharp pain or severe burning at site of bite, followed by swelling and inflamma- tion of lymph system. Victim usually develops nausea, headaches, vomiting, chest pain, and labored breathing. Fatalities reported. SteppeViper, Orsini’sViper Description Adult length usually 0.4 to 0.5 meter; maximum of 0.65 meter. Background color gray, yellow, green, or light brown. Belly light or dark gray, sometimes with yellow markings. Completely black specimens reported. Dark, wavy, zig-zag line with black edges down center of back from head to tail; may be discontinuous. Head oval, narrower than that of other vipers; distinct from neck. Snout rounded, slightly upturned. Dark line extending from each eye to corner of its mouth. Habitat Found in dry plains, flatlands with few trees or bushes; more common at higher elevations. Also found on wooded hillsides in mountainous regions. Generally seeks open areas near dry clay or loamy soil. Hides in rodent dens and small animal burrows. Activity and behavioral patterns Primarily diurnal, but may be nocturnal during hot sum- mers months. More active than other vipers; can move rapidly. Hibernates during winter months. Not aggressive; avoids human
    • C-4 confrontation. Seldom bites, even when bothered, but will bite if continuously disturbed, stepped on, or handled roughly. Venom’s effects Mildly hemotoxic. Envenomation causes local pain and swelling followed by dizziness. Recovery usually relatively rapid. Montpellier Snake Description Adult length usually 1.2 to 1.5 meters, maximum of 2.5 meters; moderately slender snake. Background color generally blackish, grayish, brown, or olive; belly yellowish white. May have indistinct pattern of brown spots along sides. Head distinctive; large eyes, roof-like supraorbital scales, and prominent rostral scale. Habitat Dry, open, or stony areas, with low bushy vegetation, or semi desert areas along coast. Found at elevations that are higher than 2,000 meters. Activity and behavioral patterns Diurnal. Aggressive; will bite if pestered or restrained. Venom’s effects Venom toxic. Bite may cause immediate pain, stiffness, swelling, and fever. Neurological symptoms, such as central nervous sys- tem depression, ptosis, and paresis of affected limb, have been observed in severe cases.
    • C-5 Dangerous Invertebrates Scorpions Although scorpions in the region are capable of inflicting a painful sting, none are known to be life-threatening. Centipedes Although area centipedes are capable of inflicting a painfulbite,noneareknown to be life-threatening. Millipedes Millipedes do not bite and in general are harmless to humans. However, when handled, some larger millipedes (may be more than 50 centimeters long) secrete a very noxious fluid that can cause severe blistering upon contact; some can squirt this fluid at least 2 feet. Insects There is little specific information of medical importance re- garding insects. However, nearly all countries have at least one species of moth having venomous/urticating hairs and/or whose larva (caterpillar) has venomous spines. Some caterpillars are very hairy (such as puss moths and flannel moths) and almost unrecognizable as caterpillars, with long silky hairs completely covering the shorter venomous spines. Others bear prominent clumps of still, venomous spines on an otherwise smooth body. Contact with these caterpillars can be very painful. Some are brightly colored.
    • C-6 Paederus are small (usually 4 to 7 millimeters), slender rove bee- tles that do not look like typical beetles and have very short wing covers that expose most of their flexible abdomens. When crushed, their body fluid contains an agent that will blister skin on contact. The lesions take about a week to heal and the area remains painful for several weeks. The substance is extremely irritating if it gets into the eyes; temporary blindness has been reported. Spiders Although there are several spider species found in the region that are capable of inflicting a painful bite, including some very large and physically imposing tarantulas, none are known to be life-threatening. Dangerous Plants Stinging Nettle Other names Roman nettle, Roman net- tle, dog or small nettle. Mechanisms of toxicity Brushing against the plant shears off a protective cap from specialized siliceous stinging hairs, allowing skin puncture. After puncture, an irritant liquid is released that can contain several pro-inflammatory mediators including alka- loids, histamine, acetylcholine, and 5 hydroxytryptamine. These substances cause the immediate reaction after a nettle sting. The term “urticaria,” describing the characteristic skin eruption, is derived from the genus name. Thought to be a defense against browsing animals; usually does not involve a hypersensitivity re-
    • C-7 action. Stinging can persist at the site for more than 12 hours after clinical features of urticaria have disappeared. This persistence of symptoms is due to secondary release of inflammatory mediators, or persistence of implanted hairs. Cow Parsnip Other names Wild rhubarb, Giant hogweed, Hogweed. Mechanisms of toxicity Many species within this genus contain furocoumarins; roots and rind have phototoxic sap resulting in acute bullous der- matitis a few hours to two days after contact if then exposed to the sun, followed by pigmenta- tion (may take months to years to disappear). Comments Genus of 30 species, usually perennial, single-stalked herbs less than 0.3 meter (1 foot) in height, found mainly in northern tem- perate areas. The tender tips are used as a leafy vegetable in some locales; simmering in water renders the stingers ineffective. Snake’s Head No Photograph Available Other names Guinea flower, Crown imperial. Mechanisms of toxicity Manycontainveratrumalkaloids,usedinsomeareasasmedicinals.
    • C-8 Comments This genus has 100 species from western Europe and the Mediterranean to eastern Asia, but only a few have been clearly implicated as source of skin inflammation. Chervil No Photograph Available Mechanisms of toxicity Poisoning similar to hemlock and “fool’s parsley;” piperdine vol- atile alkaloids (e.g. coniine, which exhibits nicotinic activity and has a curare-like effect). Comments Drying of the plant results in decreased toxicity. Poisoning has occurred by mistaking the plant for parsley. Horse Chestnut Other name Buckeye Mechanisms of toxicity The saponin aesculin (a hy- droxy derivative of coumarin) is found in leaves, bark, and seeds. Some individuals have eaten the ripened nuts after roasting and treating them in lime water (absorption of the toxins is inefficient), but chil- dren have died after ingesting the nuts or drinking tea made from the leaves. Bruised branches used as a fish toxin. Honey made from the flowers is toxic.
    • C-9 Comments There are 13 species of Aesculus; large trees with showy flowers and seed pods, which may be smooth and leathery, or warty. Small to medium trees or shrubs. The brown nuts are held in a spiny green capsule. Bark has been used as a yellow dye. Fool’s Parsley Mechanisms of toxicity All parts are toxic, possi- bly due to a cicutoxin-like substance and traces of coniine. Symptoms of tox- icity include profuse sali- vation, diaphoresis, gas- troenteritis, seizures, and coma. Children have died from the plant being mistaken for parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and the rhizomes and roots for turnips or radishes. Comments A carrot-like annual herb up to 2 feet high. Annual/French Mercury No Photograph Available Other names Dog’s Mercury Mechanisms of toxicity Native to Europe; entire plant is toxic. Has been mistaken for ed- ible greens. Emetic and purgative. Has proven fatal. Comments: Dye source; carpeting rhizome herb often characteristic of dis- turbed woodland.
    • C-10 Belladonna Other Name Nightshade. Mechanisms of toxicity Berries, leaves, and roots contain tropane alkaloids that can cause death from anticholinergic poisoning. Comments Perennial plants to 3 feet high. Native to Eurasia and North Africa. SpindleTree Other names Burning bush, Wahoo. Mechanisms of toxicity Spindle tree is the most toxic member of the genus. The flowers are yellow-green; the attractive pink (or orange- red) drupes are enticing but have phyllorhodin, several cardiac glycosides, and other unknown substances as the toxic principles, which result in symptoms 10-12 hours after ingestion — bloody diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, fever, hallucinations, induces sleep, eventual coma, and seizures.
    • C-11 Comments Deciduous or evergreen shrubs or trees; fruit a 3 to 5-valved, brightly colored capsule dehiscing to expose bird-dispersed to scarlet to orange seeds. Until further data is available, the other species of this group should be considered toxic. Herb Paris No Photograph Available Mechanisms of toxicity Narcotic in large doses, producing abdominal pain, delirium, sei- zures; has caused fatalities in children. Comments Common in Europe. Heliotrope Other names Cherry pie, scorpion’s tail, Indian heliotrope. Mechanisms of toxicity Contains pyrrolizidine alka- loids. Cause of large epidemics (Afghanistan, India) of illness following ingestion of bread made with flour contaminated with members of this genus. The pathologic effects (Budd- Chiari syndrome) take weeks to months, and death comes slowly over years. Chronic copper poisoning has occurred associated with this plant.
    • C-12 Comments A large genus of worldwide distribution (250 tropical and temper- ate trees and shrubs). Hellebore Other names White/false hellebore, skunk cabbage, corn lily, black hel- lebore, American hellebore, false hellebore, Indian poke, pepper-root. Mechanism of toxicity: All plant parts are toxic, con- taining steroidal alkaloids. Severe systemic effects are caused by the protoverine al- kaloids, teratogenic effects by jervine alkaloids. On taking a toxic dose, a burning pain is felt in the mouth followed by roughness and dryness, nausea and severe vomiting, and a feeling of cold as body temperature drops. Severe cases cause respiratory difficulties, arrhythmias, lowered blood pressure, and collapse. Victim remains fully con- scious until death, which may occur in as little as three hours. Comments Genus includes 45 species found in wet areas in northern tem- perate zones, usually growing as a tall, perennial, rhizomatous herb. It is frequently cultured as an ornamental, with white, green, brown or purplish flowers.
    • 13 Black Henbane Other names Insane root, fetid nightshade. Mechanisms of toxicity: Old well-known medicinal and deadly poison (hyo- scyamine, atropine) with many uses in many cul- tures. Tropine alkaloids in the seeds (in a pod); has resulted in death; dermatitis (low risk). Comments Erect, hairy annual with coarse, hairy stems 1-5 feet tall, native to Europe. Found in “weed communities” along roadsides on nutri- ent-rich sandy soils and loam. Dusky yellow flowers with violet veins. Fruits are capsules containing many black seeds (can be confused with the poppy plant seeds). Golden Chain/Rain Mechanisms of toxicity All parts of this species are poisonous. Beans are cooked for food (boiled with several changes of water) in the tropics. Cytisine is the toxic prin- ciple, particularly concen- trated in the seeds and bark. Excreted in cow’s milk — poisoning may occur after milk ingestion. Has proven fatal. Comments Cultivated ornamental trees and shrubs with timber as hard as ebony. Native to southern Europe.
    • 14 Coffeeberry Other names Alder buckthorn, common buckthorn, cascara. Mechanisms of toxicity: The fresh bark is recog- nized as a particularly strong laxative. There are reports of deaths in chil- dren after ingesting buckthorn berries. Comments Cascara bark is source of American cascara. Of low relative toxic- ity, requires chronic use to result in chronic diarrhea and/or mela- nin pigmentation of the mucous membranes of the colon. Freshly prepared cascara products contain anthrones and can lead to se- vere vomiting and intestinal cramping. The bark should be stored for at least a year before use or detoxified by heating (in air) to reduce the presence of anthrones. Black Nightshade Other names Deadly nightshade, com- mon nightshade, horse net- tle, bittersweet, Jerusalem cherry, nipple fruit, que- na, wild tomato, apple of Sodom, white-edged nightshade. Mechanisms of toxicity The fruit of the Jerusalem cherry is a black berry; the fully ripe berries are eaten; unripe berries contain solanine alkaloids, which can cause gastroeritis, weakness, circulatory depression. Can kill
    • C-15 Comments Approximately 2,000 species of herbs, vines, shrubs covered with small star-shaped hairs. Perfect white, yellow, or blue flowers. Berries have dry or juicy pulp and several seeds. EnglishYew Other names Ground hemlock, American or Japanese yew. Mechanisms of toxicity Taxine A and B, classed as steroid alkaloids, are pres- ent in all plant parts except the aril. A single chewed seed is deadly. An hour after ingestion, nausea, dizziness, and abdominal pain begin. This is followed by reddening of the lips, dilatation of the pupils, shallow breath- ing, tachycardia, and coma. Then the pulse slows, blood pressure drops, and death occurs through respiratory paralysis. No proven treatment exists. Emptying the stomach hours after ingestion may be helpful as leaves may not pass through the GI tract expedi- tiously. Various clinical measures (circulatory stimulants, artifi- cial respiration, cardiac pacemaker) have not prevented death in suicide cases. Comments An evergreen shrub or small tree bearing a characteristic fleshy, red, sweet-tasting aril with a single green to black, partly exposed, hard- shelled seed within. In North America, the Japanese yew, the toxic- ity of which may exceed that of the English yew, has repeatedly caused fatal animal poisonings. Once known as the “tree of death.”
    • C-16 Burn Bean No Photograph Available Other names Colorines, mescal bean, red hots, necklace pod sophora, silver- bush, pagoda tree. Mechanisms of toxicity Dark to bright red beans in woody pods are hallucinogenic; used by American Indians before peyote was discovered. Seeds and flowers are very poisonous, causing convulsions; has caused death. One seed can kill a child. Cytisine acts much like a nico- tinic ganglionic stimulation agent. Comments Fruit is source of a yellow dye. Dried flowers are sold as medici- nal in Indonesia; used for bleeding problems. Poison Hemlock Other names Spotted hemlock, fool’s parsley Mechanisms of toxicity Quickly fatal potential. The leaves and unripe fruits have the piperide al- kaloids coniine and coni- ceine with highest concentrations in the seeds and roots. Drying of the plant results in decreased toxicity. One mouthful of the root has caused death after a period of nervousness (within 30 min- utes), nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and respiratory failure. Comments A biennial herb that resembles a carrot; smooth, spotted stems; foul odor. Naturalized in waste and marshy areas; native in tem-
    • C-17 perate Eurasia. C. chaerophyllum appears to be an unspotted ver- sion of the former; noted in South Africa. Lily of theValley Mechanisms of toxicity Contains more than 20 car- diac glycosides (e.g. convalla- toxin). Quickly fatal potential. Has caused death; children are attracted to its pretty flow- ers and bright berries; poisons have occurred from drinking water from a vase in which flowers were placed. Has been mistaken for wild garlic and made into soup. Used as an ar- row poison in Africa. Comments Dried roots made into many medicinals, especially in Russia.
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