Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Free and Open software, access, content, ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Free and Open software, access, content, ...

1,561

Published on

F. Questier, Free and Open software, access, content, ... Workshop for Stimulate 10, International training program about information, 8th of November, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

F. Questier, Free and Open software, access, content, ... Workshop for Stimulate 10, International training program about information, 8th of November, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,561
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
46
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  1. Free and Open Software Access Content Prof. dr. Frederik Questier Vrije Universiteit Brussel Workshop for Stimulate 10, International Training Program about INFORMATION 8th of November 2010
  2. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 2 Frederik Questier May 2010 2 My background
  3. ➢ Teaching courses: ➢ Educational Technologies ➢ Learning Technologies ➢ Virtual Learning Environments ➢ E-learning design ➢ Departments ➢ Interdisciplinary Teacher Training ➢ Educational Sciences ➢ Former head of center for ➢ Education innovation ➢ Teacher staff training ➢ Virtual learning Environment
  4. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 4 My research interestsMy research interests
  5. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 5 Projects with CubaProjects with Cuba
  6. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 6 Projects with KeniaProjects with Kenia (Nairobi and Moi universities)(Nairobi and Moi universities) Expertise Centre ICT for eduExpertise Centre ICT for edu TrainingTraining ConsultancyConsultancy ResearchResearch Postgraduate master ICT in EducationPostgraduate master ICT in Education
  7. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 7 Frederik Questier May 2010 7 Research and Innovation Director
  8. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 8 Frederik Questier May 2010 8 Our social responsibility: how open is the future?
  9. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 9 Frederik Questier May 2010 9 Would you accept tools with these rules? ➢ You are forbidden to ➢ modify this paper-clip ➢ let other people use your hammer ➢ use this hammer for removing nails ➢ tell others what is written in this book
  10. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 10 Frederik Questier May 2010 10 Why do we accept such rules for software tools? ➢ You are forbidden to ➢ copy ➢ reverse engineer ➢ modify ➢ use in certain circumstances ➢ use in certain countries ➢ ...
  11. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 11 Frederik Questier May 2010 11
  12. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 12 Frederik Questier May 2010 12 Electronic books? ➢ Would you buy or advise your students ➢ electronic versions of (educational) books ➢ if they were 30% cheaper than paper books ➢ maybe many books on a good reading device ~ paper? ➢ ➢ Be aware: often ➢ limited to 1 year ➢ no access in the higher years of study ➢ limited to buyer ➢ no second hand buying or sale ➢ no library ➢ no extensive printing
  13. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 13 Frederik Questier May 2010 13 Expensive and incompatible
  14. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 14 Frederik Questier May 2010 14 Text To Speech software on e-books ➢ Blessing for the blind ➢ 'Copyright violation' according to 'Author's Guild' (publishers) → TTS disabled in Amazon Kindle 2 Remote kill flags discovered!
  15. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 15 Frederik Questier May 2010 15 DRM: Digital Rights Management or Digital Restrictions Management? ➢ Restricted ➢ export ➢ copying ➢ printing ➢ Text To Speech ➢ in time ➢ to buyer (no second hand market) ➢ biometric identification ➢ user info “inscribed” in the work (Microsoft Reader) ➢ access info sent back to publisher ➢ to certain hardware (e.g. Mac OS X - Apple hardware) ➢ to geographic regions
  16. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 16 Frederik Questier May 2010 16 Regional lockout (DVDs, Videogames, UMD, ...)
  17. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 17 Frederik Questier May 2010 17 DRM ➢ is killing innovation ➢ can prevent legal rights such as ➢ fair use private copying ➢ time shifting ➢ lending services (library) ➢ 2nd hand resale of works ➢ donation ➢ access for disabled ➢ archival ➢ public domain ➢ …
  18. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 18 Frederik Questier May 2010 18 Copyright Law started good... ➢ UK 1710: ➢ “for the encouragement of learning” ➢ 1 copy for royal library and each academic library ➢ protection for authors ➢ against abuse and monopoly of publishers ! ➢ reproduction privilege ➢ on request 14 year; on request 14 year renewal ➢ afterwards public domain
  19. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 19 Frederik Questier May 2010 19 Copyright Law started good... ➢ US 1790: ➢ “to promote the progress of science and useful arts ➢ by securing for limited times ➢ to authors and inventors ➢ the exclusive right ➢ to their respective writings and discoveries."
  20. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 20 Frederik Questier May 2010 20 Copyright Law started good... ➢ Balance between ➢ stimulating authors ➢ and allowing reuse → Private or non-commercial reproductions allowed
  21. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 21 Frederik Questier May 2010 21 Today disturbed balance ➢ Educational and scientific goals ➢ replaced by economic goals ➢ Protection automatically, not on request ➢ Copyrights most often again owned by publishers ➢ Protection term extended: ➢ now 70 years after dead author ➢ American & international lobby work ➢ pro ➢ copyright protection term extension ➢ against ➢ exceptions for private, educational and scientific use
  22. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 22 Frederik Questier May 2010 22 Today disturbed balance ➢ Technological anti-copy measures (DRM) ➢ are bypassing legal exceptions and public domain ➢ are protecting ➢ not authors or artists ➢ but corporate profits and broken business models ➢ The law provides protection ➢ for "technological measures", ➢ in any technology device or component ➢ which is designed ➢ to restrict or prevent certain acts ➢ which are not authorised by the right-holder.
  23. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 23 Frederik Questier May 2010 23 Limiting your control
  24. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 24 Frederik Questier May 2010 24 The horror of 'Trusted' computing ➢ DVD User Operation Prohibition ➢ HD-DVD key revocation system (disable your player) ➢ Broadcast flag (no TV recording) ➢ Advanced Access Content System (AACP) ➢ High-Definition Content Protection (HDCP) ➢ Image Constraint Token (ICT) ➢ MS Next-Generation Secure Computing Base (NGSCB) ➢ not protecting ➢ users against viruses and malware, ➢ but media companies against users
  25. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 25 Frederik Questier May 2010 25
  26. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 26 Frederik Questier May 2010 26
  27. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 27 Frederik Questier May 2010 27 DRM in cars
  28. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 28 Frederik Questier May 2010 28 Side effects of DRM ➢ extra cost ➢ extra waste ➢ lower quality ➢ less competition ➢ less innovation Digital Rights Management: A failure in the developed world, a danger to the developing world http://www.eff.org/IP/DRM/itu_drm.php
  29. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 29 Frederik Questier May 2010 29 Software Patents ➢ Software can be protected by ➢ copyright ➢ (not perfect, but acceptable) ➢ software patents ➢ killing (incremental) innovation ➢ killing fair competition ➢ Compare with patent on books with passionate murder story ➢ Companies file patents to get protection against patents ➢ ~ People buy guns to get protection against guns
  30. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 30 Frederik Questier May 2010 30 Software Patents ➢ Valid and enforceable in US ➢ Not valid nor enforceable in EU ➢ but already >30.000 EU software patents ➢ registered by European Patent Office (€ € €)
  31. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 31 Frederik Questier May 2010 31
  32. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 32 Frederik Questier May 2010 32 Secret data formats Secret protocols ➢ Vendor and data lock-in ➢ (changes) force us/others to buy (and buy again) ➢ → viral ➢ vendors don't want us to talk together or to share data ➢ vendors want us to use buy their products ➢ no free competition ➢ no guarantee eternal access
  33. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 33 Frederik Questier May 2010 33 Monopoly abuse
  34. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 34 Frederik Questier May 2010 34 The computer of the future? ➢ # mobile phones = 3 x # PCs ➢ powerful performance ➢ positive mobile e-learning studies! ➢ P. Thornton & C. Houser, Using mobile phones in English education in Japan, 2005, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 21, pp217–228
  35. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 35 Frederik Questier May 2010 35 → Dead of the multi purpose computer ! ➢ (Initially) forbidden to ➢ run your own programs ➢ use other phone company ➢ Unlocked iPhones remotely destroyed ➢ Now ➢ software requires ➢ approval ➢ non disclosure agreement ➢ no approval for 'duplicate software' ➢ e.g. no iTunes competition ➢ remote software kill switch
  36. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 36 Frederik Questier May 2010 36 iPad tablet-pc
  37. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 37 Frederik Questier May 2010 37 ➢ Apple customers ➢ “We want porn, if necessary with parental control” ➢ Steve Job, CEO Apple ➢ “Folks who want porn can buy an Android phone”
  38. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 38 Frederik Questier May 2010 38
  39. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 39 Frederik Questier May 2010 39 My fear ➢ (Media and software) companies will do everything possible to limit your possibility to copy their works, or to maximize their profits, even if it means that user freedoms and privacy are reduced in internet, technologies and law, to an unworkable level.
  40. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 40 Frederik Questier May 2010 40 Effect on education? ➢ Computers without programming environment ➢ Black box devices and software ➢ Point and click courses → less students study computer science
  41. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 41 Frederik Questier May 2010 41 1 computer per user? ➢ Esperenza Computer Classroom ➢ with software sponsored by Microsoft
  42. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 42 Frederik Questier May 2010 42 One library catalog computer per user?
  43. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 43 Frederik Questier May 2010 43 1 computer per user? Computer access for every person is a nice goal ! But is there really a need for one computer per user? Microsoft: “maximum one concurrent user per license (computer)!”
  44. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 44 Frederik Questier May 2010 44 Free yourself from dogmas!
  45. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 45 Frederik Questier May 2010 45
  46. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 46 Frederik Questier May 2010 46 K12LTSP Linux Terminal Server Project Networked classrooms Fat server runs the applications Thin clients visualize the applications need no hard disk can be 15 years old PC's
  47. 47 "The most fundamental way of helping other people, is to teach people how to do things better or how to better their lives. For people who use computers, this means sharing the recipes you use on your computer, in other words the programs you run."
  48. 48 Free Software ➢The freedom to ➢ use ➢ study ➢ distribute ➢ improve the program
  49. 49 The software Freedoms require access to the source code → “Open Source Software” Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) Source code: if encrypt(password) == encryptedpassword, then login=1, end Compiled code: 001001011101010011001100001111011000110001110001101
  50. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 50 Frederik Questier May 2010 50 Free Software Licenses ➢ The freedoms are guaranteed and enforced by licenses, e.g. ➢ GNU GPL (General Public License) ➢ The 4 freedoms + copyleft (share alike) ➢ if binary offered, source code must be offered too ➢ (on request, at low cost) ➢ redistributed modified GPL programs must stay GPL. ➢ BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) ➢ Attribution ➢ No copyleft requirements for distribution ➢ BSD code often in closed source software (MS, Mac, ...) ➢ Apple Public Source License v2
  51. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 51 Frederik Questier May 2010 51 Different kinds of software ➢ Proprietary software (closed source – 'commercial') ➢ $$$ ➢ Shareware ➢ x days for free, afterwards $ ➢ Adware ➢ for free, with ads ➢ Freeware ➢ for free (small projects and often spyware!) ➢ Free Software / Open Source Software ➢ Free as in Freedom, not as in free beer ➢ OSS, FOSS, FLOSS (Free Libre Open Source Software)
  52. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 52 Frederik Questier May 2010 52 Servers Internet / Institution ➢ Operating systems: Linux, BSD, OpenSolaris, Android, ... ➢ Domain Name Resolving: BIND ➢ Web server: Apache ➢ Mail: Sendmail, Postfix, Cyrus, Exim ➢ E-learning: Moodle, Chamilo, Dokeos, Chisimba ➢ Helpdesk: Open Ticket Request System, RT ➢ ERP: Compière, SugarCRM, (Chisimba) ➢ Library: ABCD, Greenstone, Koha, Evergreen ➢ Institutional repository: Greenstone, Dspace, Eprints, Fedora ➢ ...
  53. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 53 Frederik Questier May 2010 53 Free & Open Source Integrated Library Systems ➢ Greenstone http://www.greenstone.org ➢ Koha http://koha.org/ ➢ Evergreen http://www.evergreen-ils.org/ ➢ PhpMyBibli http://www.sigb.net ➢ NewGenLib http://www.newgenlib.com/ ➢ ABCD http://reddes.bvsalud.org/projects/abcd
  54. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 54 Frederik Questier May 2010 54 Free & Open Source (institutional) repository software ➢ Dspace http://www.dspace.org/ ➢ Eprints http://software.eprints.org/ ➢ Fedora http://fedora-commons.org/ ➢ Greenstone http://www.greenstone.org
  55. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 55 Frederik Questier May 2010 55 Desktop
  56. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 56 Frederik Questier May 2010 56 Linux ➢ GPL unix-like kernel ➢ 1991 Comp Sci student Linus Torvalds -> 1000 dev, 100 professionals ➢ GNU/Linux distributions ➢ (K)ubuntu (35K programs), Debian, Redhat, Mandriva, Suse, ... ➢ With user friendly window managers (KDE, Gnome, ...) ➢ Support for many languages, also the non-commercial profitable
  57. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 57
  58. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 58
  59. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 59
  60. Copyleft Frederik Questier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 60
  61. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 61 Frederik Questier May 2010 61 ➢ Free Open Source version of Sun's StarOffice ➢ Compatible with MS Office ➢ Cross-platform (Win, Linux, Mac, ...) ➢ Open document Format (ODF) ➢ XML based, OASIS & ISO standard ➢ >50M users, 170K community members, 12500 developers ➢ 60 languages ➢ PDF & Flash export ➢ Bibliographic manager
  62. ➢ Platform independent web browser (Win, Linux, Mac, PDA, ...) ➢ 40 languages ➢ '101 reasons why Mozilla is better than MS IE' ➢ Standards compliancy, popup-blokkers, tabbed browsing, ... ➢ in contrast with MS IE which ➢ Security problems! ➢ Only for Windows. (no longer for Mac) ➢ Development was stalled for many years ➢ MSHTML violates W3C standards ➢ Try validator.w3.org !
  63. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 63 Frederik Questier May 2010 63 FLOSS characteristics ➢ User friendly ← written by users for users ➢ Cross-platform ← recompile source code ➢ High development pace ← reuse of best modules ➢ High quality ← peer review, reuse = survival of the fittest ➢ High security ← peer review, Unix origin, modular, encryption
  64. 64
  65. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 65 Frederik Questier May 2010 65 Development Linus Torvalds' style ➢ release early and often ➢ delegate everything you can ➢ be open to the point of promiscuity ➢ Linus' Law ➢ "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow."
  66. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 66 Frederik Questier May 2010 66 Book published under Open Publication License 19 lessons for open source development ➢ Commercial development = Cathedral style ➢ Open Source development = Bazaar style
  67. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 67 Frederik Questier May 2010 67 The Cathedral and the Bazaar about developers 1. Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer's personal itch. 2. Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite (and reuse).
  68. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 68 Frederik Questier May 2010 68 The Cathedral and the Bazaar about users 6. Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and effective debugging. 7. Release early. Release often. And listen to your customers. 8. Given a large enough beta-tester and co-developer base, almost every problem will be characterized quickly and the fix obvious to someone. 11. The next best thing to having good ideas is recognizing good ideas from your users. Sometimes the latter is better.
  69. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 69 Frederik Questier May 2010 69 The Cathedral and the Bazaar about development 17. A security system is only as secure as its secret. Beware of pseudo-secrets. 18. To solve an interesting problem, start by finding a problem that is interesting to you. 19. Provided the development coordinator has a medium at least as good as the Internet, and knows how to lead without coercion, many heads are inevitably better than one.
  70. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 70 Frederik Questier May 2010 70 Business ?
  71. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 71 Frederik Questier May 2010 71 Gartner: 24% of software market
  72. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 72 Frederik Questier May 2010 72 Study on Economic impact Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU, 2006, R.A. Ghosh, UNU-MERIT, NL. et al., 287 pp. ➢ FLOSS applications are 1st, 2nd, 3rd in many markets ➢ High market penetration ➢ 65% written by individuals, 15% companies, 20% other institutions ➢ FLOSS code base = $12B ➢ FLOSS code base = 131000 programmers years ➢ FLOSS code base doubles every 18-24 months ➢ Proprietary software firms only responsible for 10% of total software developers, so no cannibalisation fear ➢ FLOSS can save companies 36% on R&D costs ➢ Unique (European) opportunities to create new software businesses
  73. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 73 Frederik Questier May 2010 73 Study on Economic impact Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU, 2006, R.A. Ghosh, UNU-MERIT, NL. et al., 287 pp.
  74. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 74 Frederik Questier May 2010 74 Study on Economic impact Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU, 2006, R.A. Ghosh, UNU-MERIT, NL. et al., 287 pp.
  75. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 75 Frederik Questier May 2010 75 "Open Source: Why Freedom Makes a Better Business Model" Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQL, 2009 ➢ FLOSS ➢ is ➢ not against ownership ➢ not anti-commercial ➢ not a business model ➢ but is ➢ a smarter way to produce the goods ➢ a smarter way to distribute the goods
  76. 76 Success in FLOSS requires you to serve ➢ those who spend time to save money ➢ those who spend money to save time -- Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQL
  77. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 77 Frederik Questier May 2010 77 "Open Source: Why Freedom Makes a Better Business Model" Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQL, 2009 ➢ Software freedom allows you to tap into innovation power and network effects otherwise not available
  78. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 78 Frederik Questier May 2010 78 "Seven open source business strategies for competitive advantage" John Koenig, IT Manager's Journal, 2004 “Companies continue to waste their development dollars on software functionality that is otherwise free and available through Open Source. They persist in buying third-party proprietary platforms or creating their own proprietary development platforms that deliver marginal product differentiation and limited value to customers” Picture reproduced with permission
  79. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 79 Frederik Questier May 2010 79
  80. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 80 Frederik Questier May 2010 80 Android
  81. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 81 Frederik Questier May 2010 81 business models www.flossmetrics.org/ 2009
  82. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 82 Frederik Questier May 2010 82 Joachim Henkel, 2004
  83. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 83 Frederik Questier May 2010 83 Why is FLOSS not used more? ➢ Anti-competitive behaviour of closed source companies ➢ Monopoly abuse ➢ Secret formats & protocols ➢ Data lock-in ➢ Vendor lock-in ➢ Not a lot of advertising ➢ Not a lot of teaching
  84. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 84 Frederik Questier May 2010 84 Who can break the monopoly? ➢ Education ➢ We teach MS because that is what companies use ➢ Companies ➢ We cannot use OSS because our employees don't know it ➢ Employees ➢ Growing number starts using OSS at home ➢ Not happy with inferior software at work
  85. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 85 Frederik Questier May 2010 85 Why for education? ➢ Social responsibility ➢ freedom and user rights ➢ home use for students without costs or piracy ! ➢ Savings ➢ Zero cost of software acquisition ➢ Less administration effort ➢ No license management effort ➢ Study of internal workings of software ➢ Student projects ➢ experience international online collaboration ➢ FLOSS knowledge = competitive advantage
  86. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 86 Frederik Questier May 2010 86 Why for education? ➢ Social responsibility ➢ freedom and user rights ➢ home use for students without costs or piracy ! ➢ Savings ➢ Zero cost of software acquisition ➢ Less administration effort ➢ No license management effort ➢ Study of internal workings of software ➢ Student projects ➢ experience international online collaboration ➢ FLOSS knowledge = competitive advantage
  87. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 87 Frederik Questier May 2010 87 Institutional FLOSS taskforce / expertise / innovation center ➢ Create awareness ➢ Involve all stakeholders ➢ including highest management ➢ Expertise & capacity building ➢ Resources for experimentation & innovation ➢ Provide support – sustainability ➢ Documentation ➢ Training → certification
  88. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 88 Frederik Questier May 2010 88 Policies ➢ Purchasing policies ➢ FLOSS, except if no good alternative ➢ Ask ➢ argumentation ➢ which alternatives considered ➢ Build or buy? ➢ Open standards ➢ Open courseware ➢ Free & Open Licenses
  89. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 89 Frederik Questier May 2010 89 How to handle the plethora of choice? ➢ define requirements ➢ indicators of high quality & sustainability ➢ mature, stable software ➢ active community ➢ availability of support & documentation ➢ need/possibility to change the code? ➢ need/possibility to participate in the community?
  90. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 90 Frederik Questier May 2010 90 When to migrate? ➢ Time transitions ➢ at the end of existing contracts ➢ at hardware / software upgrade times ➢ Consider migrating in phases ➢ servers ➢ desktop applications ➢ → multi-platform ➢ → web-based ➢ desktop OS
  91. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 91 Frederik Questier May 2010 91 Key success factors for migration & implementation ➢ resources to experiment ➢ an evidence-based choice ➢ involvement of both technical and non-technical users in the selection process ➢ choice for a new system which is in all aspects at least as good and easy as the previous one ➢ reporting detailed migration plan to management and get their approval and support ➢ in-house expertise with open source software and communities ➢ contact with the developers and users community ➢ Constant communication with all stakeholders
  92. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 92 Frederik Questier May 2010 92 Advantages of being a contributing community member ➢ co-decide the direction of development ➢ create extensions ➢ user requested ➢ research driven innovation ➢ more contacts with other educational institutions ➢ programming projects for students ➢ better knowledge of the system ➢ better trouble solving ➢ possibilities for grants
  93. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 93 Frederik Questier May 2010 93 The open way ➢ avoid local customization without ➢ contributing back ➢ participating in the community ➢ establish an 'open source culture' of re-use, collaboration and sharing ➢ Provide FLOSS repositories / CDs ➢ share experiences
  94. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 94 Frederik Questier May 2010 94 The possible effects Example: extremadura ➢ poorly developed region → economic revival ➢ based on FLOSS (customized GNU/LinEx) ➢ computer access for every student ➢ saved >18M € on initial 80,000 school computers ➢ total software cost: 1.08 Euro/PC/year ➢ bigger project ➢ stimuli for companies, centres for citizens ➢ economic revival -> European regional innovation award
  95. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 95 Frederik Questier May 2010 95 Personal example E-learning software
  96. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 96 Frederik Questier May 2010 96 Where to find more FLOSS? ➢ Use your software package manager ➢ if your are using a Free and Open Operating System! ➢ Sourceforge.net ➢ Hosting and tools for >230K Open Source projects ➢ >2M registered users (contributors) ➢ Freshmeat.net ➢ >40.000 projects, mostly Free Software ➢ Google: x AND GPL OR “open source”
  97. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 97 Frederik Questier May 2010 97 Where to find more FLOSS? ➢ http://livecdlist.com/ ➢ If you want to test software without installing ➢ http://www.theopendisc.com/ ➢ High Quality OSS for Windows: Firefox, Openoffice, Inkscape, Scribus, Clamwin, GIMP, Audacity, Filezilla, 7- zip, PDFCreator, Freemind, ...
  98. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 98 Frederik Questier May 2010 98 Total Cost of Ownership ➢ Free Software is about freedom, not price ➢ In practice: zero cost acquisition ➢ Support is similar or cheaper because of competition ➢ No license management / procurement needed ➢ Cheaper hardware can be used ➢ Less administration work ➢ Bandwidth savings (local central update/software repository) ➢ Training ➢ Usability tests ➢ {MS Windows XP → Vista} = {MS Windows → Linux} ➢ {MS Office 2003 → 2007} > {MS Office 2003 → OpenOffice}
  99. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 99 Frederik Questier May 2010 99 Privacy and security? ➢ From the European Parliament investigation into the Echelon system (05/18/2001): ➢ “ensure that sensitive information is only transmitted via secure media....” ➢ “If security is to be taken seriously, only those operating systems should be used whose source code has been published and checked, since only then can it be determined with certainty what happens to the data.”
  100. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 100 Frederik Questier May 2010 100 From open source to open innovation? ➢ Software development started Open Source avant la lettre ➢ 1976: Bill Gates open letter to hobbyists: 'your sharing is stealing' ➢ Modifyable nature and modularity ideal for fostering innovation ➢ All major internet software started open ➢ TCP/IP, mail, web, newsgroups, irc, wiki, ... ➢ Community maintained software repositories ➢ Live CDs ➢ 3D desktops ➢ Virtual Networking Computing ➢ Netbooks, $100 laptop ➢ Google (File system, Chrome browser, ...) ➢ ... ➢
  101. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 101 Frederik Questier May 2010 101 ➢ "Africa can bridge the digital divide ➢ by adopting open source ➢ thus narrowing the effect of techno-colonialism" ➢ “Need for technology ➢ that is controlled by local communities ➢ and not by foreign companies, ➢ that is public property ➢ and empowers people to be self-reliant”
  102. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 102 Frederik Questier May 2010 102 Disadvantages? Issues? ➢ Plethora of choice can be overwhelming ➢ Largest projects are high quality and well supported ➢ But be aware of small projects ➢ (US) software patents could be used for FLOSS attacks ➢ Not enforceable in EU. Africa/Asia/...? ➢ Now: patent attacks against closed > against open source ➢ In OSS: possibility to remove the patented feature ➢ Legal awareness and willingness to comply is large ➢ Patented multimedia codecs not included in main repository ➢ DRMed content most often not readable
  103. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 103 Frederik Questier May 2010 103 Secret data formats Secret protocols ➢ Vendor and data lock-in ➢ (changes) force us/others to buy (and buy again) ➢ → viral ➢ vendors don't want us to talk together or to share data ➢ vendors want us to use buy their products ➢ no free competition ➢ no guarantee eternal access ➢ Students need more and more (costly?) software ➢ Students' IT diversity risks to be beaten down ➢ Integration with other tools is hindered (e.g. indexing on e-learning platforms)
  104. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 104 Frederik Questier May 2010 104 ➢ De facto “standards” ➢ Wrong term for something that is used a lot. ➢ No real standards unless published ➢ e.g. MS Office file formats ➢ De jure standards ➢ Quality recognized by a standards organization ➢ E.g. ethernet, WiFi (Open?) standards
  105. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 105 Frederik Questier May 2010 105 ➢ Definition EU commission: ➢ The standard is adopted and will be maintained by a not-for-profit organisation, and its ongoing development occurs on the basis of an open decision-making procedure available to all interested parties (consensus or majority decision etc.) ➢ The standard has been published and the standard specification document is available either freely or at a nominal charge. It must be permissible to all to copy, distribute and use it for no fee or at a nominal fee. ➢ The intellectual property - i.e. patents possibly present - of (parts of) the standard is made irrevocably available on a royalty-free basis. Open standards
  106. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 106 Frederik Questier May 2010 106 Open standards ➢ E.g.: TCP IP, HTML, XML, ODF, PDF, ... ➢ Sometimes called 'open specifications' until approval by standards organization
  107. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 107 Frederik Questier May 2010 107 Office standard ➢ Open Document format ➢ Developed by OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) and OpenOffice ➢ Incorporates other open standards (SVG, MathML, ...) ➢ ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standard since 5/2006 ➢ Native format of OpenOffice, KDE Office, ... ➢ Open (Document) Formats requested by growing number of governments ➢ Decision Belgian government 23th of june 2006: ➢ ODF obligatory in administration ➢ in 2008 administration can only exchange documents in ODF
  108. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 108 Frederik Questier May 2010 108 Office standard? ➢ Microsoft Office Open XML (OOXML) ➢ Complex ➢ 6000 pages ➢ No incorporation of existing standards ➢ Reference to unpublished old MS Office formats ➢ MS needed 150 man years for Mac version → competition? ➢ Patent problems ➢ Ecma (European Computer Manufacturers Association) standard since 7th of december 2006 ➢ ISO fasttrack approval april 2008 ➢ Many complaints about irregularities ➢ No implementation in software
  109. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 109 Frederik Questier May 2010 109 EU recommendation ➢ For all parties involved, ➢ the exchange of documents and data ➢ between authorities, businesses and citizens ➢ must be possible without technical barriers. ➢ The public administration ➢ must not exclude anyone ➢ from participating in an electronic procedure ➢ owing to the use of a specific product. ➢ The Member States are agreed that in the future ➢ electronic documents should be exchanged ➢ fully on the basis of open document exchange formats
  110. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 110 Frederik Questier May 2010 110 Reflection task ➢ Which problems do you see (in libraries) around copyright, scientific journals, access, … issues?
  111. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 111 Frederik Questier May 2010 111 Copyright / journal / access problems for libraries ➢ $$$ for access to scientific journals ➢ prices rising much faster than consumer price index ➢ difficult in developed countries ➢ impossible in developing countries ➢ only for universities and largest companies ➢ problems for doctors, journalists, … the public ➢ Paper → Electronic subscriptions with centralized copies ➢ No access (to old material) after end of subscription ➢ All copies lost for the world ➢ if data loss at publisher? ➢ if publisher goes bankrupt?
  112. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 112 Frederik Questier May 2010 112
  113. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 113 Frederik Questier May 2010 113 The scientific publishing model Scientists Commercial publishers Have ideas Search funding Perform research Describe research Search reviewers Review Demand all copyrights Print (or serve online) Pay for scientific journals Make profit
  114. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 114 Frederik Questier May 2010 114 Activism ➢ "An Open Letter to Scientific Publishers" ➢ Signed by 34,000 scholars in 2001 ➢ Wanted unrestricted free distribution rights after embargo time of 6 months since publication → Unsatisfying response from publishers → Foundation of Public Library of Science
  115. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 115 Frederik Questier May 2010 115
  116. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 116 Frederik Questier May 2010 116 Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities ➢ free, irrevocable, worldwide ➢ right of access to, ➢ and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly ➢ and to make and distribute derivative works, ➢ in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, ➢ subject to proper attribution of authorship ➢ Published in a online repository by an academic institution, government agency, ... ➢ ➢ 274 signatories, including all Belgian Universities.
  117. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 117 Frederik Questier May 2010 117
  118. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 118 Frederik Questier May 2010 118
  119. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 119 Frederik Questier May 2010 119
  120. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 120 Frederik Questier May 2010 120 Open Content licenses ➢ Free licenses ➢ Public domain ➢ No control at all ➢ No attribution required ➢ Can be locked up in commercial works ➢ Free Documentation License = GNU FDL ➢ Interesting for technical documentation, manuals, ... ➢ Creative Commons Public License = CCPL
  121. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 121 Frederik Questier May 2010 121 Creative Commons ➢ www.creativecommons.org ➢ 6 combinations of ➢ Commercial – no commercial use allowed ➢ Modifications – no modifications allowed ➢ Sharealike – not sharealike Share what you want, keep what you want
  122. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 122 Frederik Questier May 2010 122 Creative Commons ➢ Movie ➢ Wanna work together? ➢ http://support.creativecommons.org/videos/#wwt ➢ > 1000 journals under CCPL !
  123. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 123 Frederik Questier May 2010 123 Why Open Course Ware? ➢ Why not: should we consider academic knowledge as (secret) Intellectual Property? ➢ The dark ages of scarcity of information are over! ➢ (Peer) recognition ➢ for teacher ➢ Whose course is referred to most? ➢ Yours or the one one from your 'competitor'? ➢ for university/schools
  124. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 124 Frederik Questier May 2010 124 Why Open Course Ware? ➢ Increase quality ➢ Teachers working together ➢ Best course modules are ➢ reused most often ➢ getting most feedback ➢ getting better again ➢ Saving time & costs ➢ Teachers can start building course from existing material ➢ Creation of animated or interactive learning objects is often too expensive for development/use by only one institution
  125. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 125 Frederik Questier May 2010 125 (Firefox) Creative Commons Search
  126. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 126 Frederik Questier May 2010 126 www.gutenberg.org (public domain)
  127. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 127 Frederik Questier May 2010 127 ocw.mit.edu (CCPL)
  128. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 128 Frederik Questier May 2010 128 www.merlot.org
  129. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 129 Frederik Questier May 2010 129 cnx.org
  130. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 131 Frederik Questier May 2010 131 wikibooks.org
  131. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 132 Frederik Questier May 2010 132 Example made with my students nl.wikibooks.org/wiki/Onderwijstechnologie
  132. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 133 Frederik Questier May 2010 133 OLPC One laptop per child ➢ non-profit organization, education project ➢ based on constructionist learning theories ➢ aimed at first 6 years of study (often no more ed) ➢ $100 laptops designed from scratch for learning ➢ minimal power consumption ➢ hand or foot operated power generator ➢ screen readable in sunlight ➢ robust, water resistant ➢ safe and environmentally friendly materials ➢ low voltage ➢ zero admin ➢ wireless mesh networks Mesh
  133. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 134 Frederik Questier May 2010 134 OLPC software ➢ Linux based (no costs; adaptable; no limits for study) ➢ Completely new user interface ➢ Student-teacher & student-student interaction
  134. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 135 Frederik Questier May 2010 135 OLPC deployment
  135. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 136 Frederik Questier May 2010 136 openmoko FIC 1973 smartphone ➢ open software (linux based) ➢ open hardware design ➢ wish for community of mobile application developers
  136. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 137 Frederik Questier May 2010 137
  137. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 138 Frederik Questier May 2010 138 Reflection task ➢ Which recommendations do you take home? ➢ What can you do for a more open world?
  138. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 139 Frederik Questier May 2010 139 Recommendations for libraries ➢ Use FLOSS for ➢ Integrated Library System ➢ Repository ➢ library computers ➢ Use multiseat computers or thin clients ➢ Lend out or distribute CDs/DVDs with FLOSS ➢ Provide links to ➢ Open Access journals and repositories ➢ Consider local cache systems such as LOCKSS ➢ If internet in your country is slow: take copies with you!
  139. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 140 Frederik Questier May 2010 140 Recommendations for teachers & researchers ➢ Publish your research and teaching material using ➢ Free Licenses ➢ Open Access journals ➢ Open repositories ➢ Teach students FLOSS and give Free CD/DVDs
  140. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 141 Frederik Questier May 2010 141 Recommendations for universities ➢ Start with Open Source Lab and sensitization ➢ Consider migrating in phases ➢ servers / (multiplatform) desktop applications / desktop OS ➢ starting with new computers ➢ Policy: FLOSS, except if no good alternative ➢ Ask argumentation and which alternatives considered ➢ Policy: open formats ➢ Contribute to FLOSS ➢ Share experiences
  141. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 142 Frederik Questier May 2010 142 Open Society? ➢ "How open is the future? Future Economic, Social & Cultural Scenarios based on Free & Open Source Software" Book: Eds. M. Wynants & J. Cornelis (Crosstalks) Open Courseware and Open Scientific Publications Chapter: F. Questier, W. Schreurs Openly published under CCPL See questier.com, crosstalks.vub.ac.be
  142. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 143 Frederik Questier May 2010 143 Questions? Comments?
  143. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 144 Frederik Questier May 2010 144
  144. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 145 Frederik Questier May 2010 145 Frederik Questier with Stimulate 10 students, VUB, 8th of November 2010
  145. Werken met portfolio's 04/10/05 | pag. 146 Frederik Questier May 2010 146 Credits ➢ Photo Gears: Ralphbijker @ Flickr (CC-by) ➢ Photo Linus Torvalds: GFDL. Permission of Martin Streicher, Editor-in- Chief, LINUXMAG.com ➢ Picture (open source business strategies) from IT Manager's Journal, may 2004, with personal permission from John Koenig ➢ Screenshot http://www.olsonbroserv.com/autorepair.htm ➢ Screenshot http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2009/05/right-repair-law-pro ➢ Screenshot http://www.lockss.org ➢ Screenshot http://www.doaj.org/ ➢ Screenshot http://www.retrovirology.com/content/3/1/55/abstract/ ➢ Screenshot http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ ➢ Picture of Stimulate 10 students by Kitenda Douglas Kelly

×