FLOSS - Business Aspects of Software Industry
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Free Libre Open Source Software - Guest Lecture for the course Business Aspects of Software Industry of Prof. R. S'Jegers and M. Goldchstein, with students from management science and computer ...

Free Libre Open Source Software - Guest Lecture for the course Business Aspects of Software Industry of Prof. R. S'Jegers and M. Goldchstein, with students from management science and computer science, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (18/05/10)

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  • Thanks Yannick,
    Compact indeed.
    But
    1. I got more time promised for next year (now I had to share the time with somebody talking about IP).
    2. Sometimes slides are very compact (like the Claroline -> Chamilo one, or ones about the business models), but I discuss the complete (hi)stories ;)
    3. Since you have a real 'from inside' perspective into the Open Source Business, I'm looking forward to any additions you could suggest...
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  • Nice but a little compact ;-)
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FLOSS - Business Aspects of Software Industry Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Free Libre Open Source Software Prof. dr. Frederik Questier Vrije Universiteit Brussel Guest Lecture for the course Business Aspects of Software Industry 18th of May 2010
  • 2. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 2 2
  • 3. Contents ➢ Ethics ➢ Software model ➢ Development model ➢ Business models Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 3 3
  • 4. Our social responsibility: how open is the future? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 4 4
  • 5. Would you accept tools with these rules? ➢ You are forbidden to ➢ modify this paper-clip ➢ let other people use your hammer ➢ use this hammer for removing nails ➢ tell others what is written in this book Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 5 5
  • 6. Why do we accept such rules for software tools? ➢ You are forbidden to ➢ copy ➢ reverse engineer ➢ modify ➢ use in certain circumstances ➢ use in certain countries ➢ ... Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 6 6
  • 7. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 7 7
  • 8. Electronic books? ➢ Would you buy or advise your students ➢ electronic versions of (educational) books ➢ if they were 30% cheaper than paper books ➢ maybe many books on a good reading device ~ paper? ➢ ➢ Be aware: often ➢ limited to 1 year ➢ no access in the higher years of study ➢ limited to buyer ➢ no second hand buying or sale ➢ no library ➢ no extensive printing Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 8 8
  • 9. Expensive and incompatible Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 9 9
  • 10. Text To Speech software on e-books ➢ Blessing for the blind ➢ 'Copyright violation' according to 'Author's Guild' (publishers) → TTS disabled in Amazon Kindle 2 Remote kill flags discovered! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 10 10
  • 11. DRM: Digital Rights Management or Digital Restrictions Management? ➢ Restricted ➢ export ➢ copying ➢ printing ➢ Text To Speech ➢ in time ➢ to buyer (no second hand market) ➢ biometric identification ➢ user info “inscribed” in the work (Microsoft Reader) ➢ access info sent back to publisher ➢ to certain hardware (e.g. Mac OS X - Apple hardware) ➢ to geographic regions Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 11 11
  • 12. Regional lockout (DVDs, Videogames, UMD, ...) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 12 12
  • 13. DRM ➢ is killing innovation ➢ can prevent legal rights such as ➢ fair use private copying ➢ time shifting ➢ lending services (library) ➢ 2nd hand resale of works ➢ donation ➢ access for disabled ➢ archival ➢ public domain ➢ … Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 13 13
  • 14. Copyright Law started good... ➢ UK 1710: ➢ “for the encouragement of learning” ➢ 1 copy for royal library and each academic library ➢ protection for authors ➢ against abuse and monopoly of publishers ! ➢ reproduction privilege ➢ on request 14 year; on request 14 year renewal ➢ afterwards public domain Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 14 14
  • 15. Copyright Law started good... ➢ US 1790: ➢ “to promote the progress of science and useful arts ➢ by securing for limited times ➢ to authors and inventors ➢ the exclusive right ➢ to their respective writings and discoveries." Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 15 15
  • 16. Copyright Law started good... ➢ Balance between ➢ stimulating authors ➢ and allowing reuse → Private or non-commercial reproductions allowed Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 16 16
  • 17. Today disturbed balance ➢ Educational and scientific goals ➢ replaced by economic goals ➢ Protection automatically, not on request ➢ Copyrights most often again owned by publishers ➢ Protection term extended: ➢ now 70 years after dead author ➢ American & international lobby work ➢ pro ➢ copyright protection term extension ➢ against ➢ exceptions for private, educational and scientific use Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 17 17
  • 18. Today disturbed balance ➢ Technological anti-copy measures (DRM) ➢ are bypassing legal exceptions and public domain ➢ are protecting ➢ not authors or artists ➢ but corporate profits and broken business models ➢ The law provides protection ➢ for "technological measures", ➢ in any technology device or component ➢ which is designed ➢ to restrict or prevent certain acts ➢ which are not authorised by the right-holder. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 18 18
  • 19. Limiting your control Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 19 19
  • 20. The horror of 'Trusted' computing ➢ DVD User Operation Prohibition ➢ HD-DVD key revocation system (disable your player) ➢ Broadcast flag (no TV recording) ➢ Advanced Access Content System (AACP) ➢ High-Definition Content Protection (HDCP) ➢ Image Constraint Token (ICT) ➢ MS Next-Generation Secure Computing Base (NGSCB) ➢ not protecting ➢ users against viruses and malware, ➢ but media companies against users Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 20 20
  • 21. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 21 21
  • 22. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 22 22
  • 23. DRM in cars Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 23 23
  • 24. Side effects of DRM ➢ extra cost ➢ extra waste ➢ lower quality ➢ less competition ➢ less innovation Digital Rights Management: A failure in the developed world, a danger to the developing world http://www.eff.org/IP/DRM/itu_drm.php Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 24 24
  • 25. Software Patents ➢ Software can be protected by ➢ copyright ➢ (not perfect, but acceptable) ➢ software patents ➢ killing (incremental) innovation ➢ killing fair competition ➢ Compare with patent on books with passionate murder story ➢ Companies file patents to get protection against patents ➢ ~ People buy guns to get protection against guns Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 25 25
  • 26. Software Patents ➢ Valid and enforceable in US ➢ Not valid nor enforceable in EU ➢ but already >30.000 EU software patents ➢ registered by European Patent Office (€ € €) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 26 26
  • 27. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 27 27
  • 28. Secret data formats Secret protocols ➢ Vendor and data lock-in ➢ (changes) force us/others to buy (and buy again) ➢ → viral ➢ vendors don't want us to talk together or to share data ➢ vendors want us to use buy their products ➢ no free competition ➢ no guarantee eternal access Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 28 28
  • 29. Monopoly abuse Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 29 29
  • 30. The computer of the future? ➢ # Mobile phones = 3 x # PCs ➢ performance ~ early 2000's PC ➢ positive mobile e-learning studies! ➢ P. Thornton & C. Houser, Using mobile phones in English education in Japan, 2005, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 21, pp217–228 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 30 30
  • 31. → Dead of the multi purpose computer ! ➢ (Initially) forbidden to ➢ run your own programs ➢ use other phone company ➢ Unlocked iPhones remotely destroyed ➢ Now ➢ software requires ➢ approval ➢ non disclosure agreement ➢ no approval for 'duplicate software' ➢ e.g. no iTunes competition ➢ remote software kill switch Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 31 31
  • 32. iPad tablet-pc Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 32 32
  • 33. Dictatorship? ➢ Apple customers ➢ “We want porn, if necessary with parental control” ➢ Steve Job, CEO Apple ➢ “Folks who want porn can buy an Android phone” Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 33 33
  • 34. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 34 34
  • 35. My fear ➢ (Media and software) companies will do everything possible to limit your possibility to copy their works, or to maximize their profits, even if it means that user freedoms and privacy are reduced in internet, technologies and law, to an unworkable level. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 35 35
  • 36. Effect on education? ➢ Computers without programming environment ➢ Black box devices and software ➢ Point and click courses → less students study computer science Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 36 36
  • 37. 1 computer per user? ➢ Esperenza Computer Classroom ➢ with software sponsored by Microsoft Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 37 37
  • 38. 1 computer per user? Computer access for every person is a nice goal ! But is there really a need for one computer per user? Microsoft: “maximum one concurrent user per license (computer)!” Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 38 38
  • 39. Free yourself from dogmas! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 39 39
  • 40. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 40 40
  • 41. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 41 41
  • 42. Sharing "The most fundamental way of helping other people, is to teach people how to do things better or how to better their lives. For people who use computers, this means sharing the recipes you use on your computer, in other words the programs you run." Richard Stallman Free Software Foundation. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 42 42
  • 43. Free (Open Source Libre) Software FLOSS ➢ The freedom to ➢ run the program for any purpose ➢ study how the program works, and to adapt it to your needs ➢ redistribute copies ➢ improve the program, and release your improvements to the public. ➢ These freedoms require access to the source code Source code: if encrypt(password) == encryptedpassword, then login=1, end Compiled code: 001001011101010011001100001111011000110001110001101 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 43 43
  • 44. Free Software Licenses ➢ The freedoms are guaranteed and enforced by licenses, e.g. ➢ GNU GPL (General Public License) ➢ The 4 freedoms + copyleft (share alike) ➢ if binary offered, source code must be offered too ➢ (on request, at low cost) ➢ redistributed modified GPL programs must stay GPL. ➢ BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) ➢ Attribution ➢ No copyleft requirements for distribution ➢ BSD code often in closed source software (MS, Mac, ...) ➢ Apple Public Source License v2 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 44 44
  • 45. Different kinds of software ➢ Proprietary software (closed source – 'commercial') ➢ $$$ ➢ Shareware ➢ x days for free, afterwards $ ➢ Adware ➢ for free, with ads ➢ Freeware ➢ for free (small projects and often spyware!) ➢ Free Software / Open Source Software ➢ Free as in Freedom, not as in free beer ➢ OSS, FOSS, FLOSS (Free Libre Open Source Software) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 45 45
  • 46. Servers Internet / Institution ➢ Operating systems: Linux, BSD, OpenSolaris, Android, ... ➢ Domain Name Resolving: BIND ➢ Web server: Apache ➢ Mail: Sendmail, Postfix, Cyrus, Exim ➢ E-learning: Moodle, Chamilo, Dokeos, Chisimba ➢ Helpdesk: Open Ticket Request System, RT ➢ ERP: Compière, SugarCRM, (Chisimba) ➢ Library: ABCD, Greenstone, Koha, Evergreen ➢ Institutional repository: Greenstone, Dspace, Eprints, Fedora ➢ ... Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 46 46
  • 47. Desktop Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 47 47
  • 48. Linux ➢ GPL unix-like kernel ➢ 1991 Comp Sci student Linus Torvalds -> 1000 dev, 100 professionals ➢ GNU/Linux distributions ➢ (K)ubuntu, Debian (30K programs), Redhat, Mandriva, Suse, ... ➢ With user friendly window managers (KDE, Gnome, ...) ➢ Support for many languages, also the non-commercial profitable Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 48 48
  • 49. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 49 49
  • 50. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 50 50
  • 51. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 51 51
  • 52. ➢ Free Open Source version of Sun's StarOffice ➢ Compatible with MS Office ➢ Cross-platform (Win, Linux, Mac, ...) ➢ Open document Format (ODF) XML based, OASIS & ISO standard ➢ ➢ >50M users, 170K community members, 12500 developers ➢ 60 languages ➢ PDF & Flash export ➢ Bibliographic manager Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 52 52
  • 53. ➢ Platform independent web browser (Win, Linux, Mac, PDA, ...) ➢ 40 languages ➢ '101 reasons why Mozilla is better than MS IE' ➢ Standards compliancy, popup-blokkers, tabbed browsing, ... ➢ in contrast with MS IE which ➢ Security problems! ➢ Only for Windows. (no longer for Mac) ➢ Development was stalled for many years ➢ MSHTML violates W3C standards ➢ Try validator.w3.org ! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 53 53
  • 54. FLOSS characteristics ➢ User friendly ← written by users for users ➢ Cross-platform ← recompile source code ➢ High development pace ← reuse of best modules ➢ High quality ← peer review, reuse = survival of the fittest ➢ High security ← peer review, Unix origin, modular, encryption Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 54 54
  • 55. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 55 55
  • 56. Development Linus Torvalds' style ➢ release early and often ➢ delegate everything you can ➢ be open to the point of promiscuity ➢ Linus' Law ➢ "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow." Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 56 56
  • 57. Book published under Open Publication License 19 lessons for open source development ➢ Commercial development = Cathedral style ➢ Open Source development = Bazaar style Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 57 57
  • 58. The Cathedral and the Bazaar about developers 1. Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer's personal itch. 2. Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite (and reuse). Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 58 58
  • 59. The Cathedral and the Bazaar about users 6. Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and effective debugging. 7. Release early. Release often. And listen to your customers. 8. Given a large enough beta-tester and co-developer base, almost every problem will be characterized quickly and the fix obvious to someone. 11. The next best thing to having good ideas is recognizing good ideas from your users. Sometimes the latter is better. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 59 59
  • 60. The Cathedral and the Bazaar about development 17. A security system is only as secure as its secret. Beware of pseudo-secrets. 18. To solve an interesting problem, start by finding a problem that is interesting to you. 19. Provided the development coordinator has a medium at least as good as the Internet, and knows how to lead without coercion, many heads are inevitably better than one. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 60 60
  • 61. Business ? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 61 61
  • 62. Gartner: 24% of software market Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 62 62
  • 63. Study on Economic impact Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU, 2006, R.A. Ghosh, UNU-MERIT, NL. et al., 287 pp. ➢ FLOSS applications are 1st, 2nd, 3rd in many markets ➢ High market penetration ➢ 65% written by individuals, 15% companies, 20% other institutions ➢ FLOSS code base = $12B ➢ FLOSS code base = 131000 programmers years ➢ FLOSS code base doubles every 18-24 months ➢ Proprietary software firms only responsible for 10% of total software developers, so no cannibalisation fear ➢ FLOSS can save companies 36% on R&D costs ➢ Unique (European) opportunities to create new software businesses Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 63 63
  • 64. Study on Economic impact Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU, 2006, R.A. Ghosh, UNU-MERIT, NL. et al., 287 pp. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 64 64
  • 65. Study on Economic impact Study on the Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU, 2006, R.A. Ghosh, UNU-MERIT, NL. et al., 287 pp. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 65 65
  • 66. "Open Source: Why Freedom Makes a Better Business Model" Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQL, 2009 ➢ FLOSS ➢ is ➢ not against ownership ➢ not anti-commercial ➢ not a business model ➢ but is ➢ a smarter way to produce the goods ➢ a smarter way to distribute the goods Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 66 66
  • 67. "Open Source: Why Freedom Makes a Better Business Model" Mårten Mickos, CEO MySQL, 2009 ➢ Success in FLOSS requires you to serve ➢ Those who spend time to save money ➢ Those who spend money to save time Differentiation ! ➢ Software freedom allows you to tap into innovation power and network effects otherwise not available Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 67 67
  • 68. "Seven open source business strategies for competitive advantage" John Koenig, IT Manager's Journal, 2004 “Companies continue to waste their development dollars on software functionality that is otherwise free and available through Open Source. They persist in buying third-party proprietary platforms or creating their own proprietary development platforms that deliver marginal product differentiation and limited value to customers” Picture reproduced with permission Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 68 68
  • 69. Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 69 69
  • 70. Android Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 70 70
  • 71. business models www.flossmetrics.org/ 2009 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 71 71
  • 72. The possible effects Example: extremadura ➢ poorly developed region → economic revival ➢ based on FLOSS (customized GNU/LinEx) ➢ computer access for every student ➢ saved >18M € on initial 80,000 school computers ➢ total software cost: 1.08 Euro/PC/year ➢ bigger project ➢ stimuli for companies, centres for citizens ➢ economic revival -> European regional innovation award Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 72 72
  • 73. Personal example (PointCarre) Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 73 73
  • 74. Reflection task ➢ Why would you open source your (company) software? Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 74 74
  • 75. Joachim Henkel, 2004 Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 75 75
  • 76. Open Society? ➢ "How open is the future? Future Economic, Social & Cultural Scenarios based on Free & Open Source Software" Book: Eds. M. Wynants & J. Cornelis (Crosstalks) Open Courseware and Open Scientific Publications Chapter: F. Questier, W. Schreurs Openly published under CCPL See questier.com, crosstalks.vub.ac.be Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 76 76
  • 77. Questions? Comments? Thanks! Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 77 77
  • 78. Credits and sources not mentioned before ➢ Photo Gears: Ralphbijker @ Flickr (CC-by) ➢ Photo Linus Torvalds: GFDL. Permission of Martin Streicher, Editor-in- Chief, LINUXMAG.com ➢ Picture (open source business strategies) from IT Manager's Journal, may 2004, with personal permission from John Koenig ➢ Screenshot http://www.olsonbroserv.com/autorepair.htm ➢ Screenshot http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2009/05/right-repair-law-pro ➢ Screenshot http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ ➢ Claroline → Dokeos → Chamilo picture by Pieter Hens Frederik Questier Werken met portfolio's May 2010 04/10/05 | pag. 78 78