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Biotechnology R

  1. 1. Biotechnology R & D in the Philippines Evelyn Mae Tecson-Mendoza, PhD Member, National Academy of Science & Technology Research Professor, Institute of Plant Breeding, Crop Science Cluster, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Ba ños; email: [email_address] COMSTE Conference August 14, 2008
  2. 2. Objective of conference: assessment of the state of SME Education in relation to Philippine competitiveness on the global stage <ul><li>Defining the scope of biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Biotech R & D in the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Biotech Education </li></ul><ul><li>Status and prospects of commercialization </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints and major concerns and addressing them </li></ul>
  3. 3. We define biotechnology---as any biology-based technology which uses organisms or their parts to make or modify products, or improve plants, animals and microorganisms
  4. 4. Biofertilizers, biological nitrogen fixation, fermentation Plant tissue culture Cell culture Recombinant diagnostics, DNA & protein markers Recombinant microorganisms Genetic engineering of animals Genetic engineering of plants Scope: processes & products of biotechnology Scope of Biotechnology Classical Modern
  5. 5. BIOTECHNOLOGY Genetics Biochemistry Microbiology Engineering & computer science medicine agriculture & forestry environment industry Other traditional disciplines Mole-cular biology
  6. 6. <ul><li>One of the fastest growing industry sectors worldwide, with annual growth of > 20% </li></ul><ul><li>1500 biotech companies in North America, 1200 in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Comprise of small companies, only 10% employ more than 250 people </li></ul><ul><li>Health products (therapeutic pharmaceuticals, vaccines), diagnostics, bioagriculture, industrial enzymes etc) </li></ul>Bioindustry--- biotechnology based industry
  7. 7. <ul><li>“ includes companies involved in the research, development, and manufacture of materials such as cell cultures, catalysts, genetic materials, immune response materials, biochemicals, enzymes, proteins and equipment used in biological and genetic research on humans, plants and animals.” </li></ul><ul><li>Includes service organizations that perform consulting, testing, processing and storage of such products. </li></ul>Bioindustry--- biotechnology based industry
  8. 8. Biotech R & D in the Philippines <ul><li>Mostly based in Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Government Research Institutes (PhilRice, Philippine Coconut Authority, Philippine Carabao Center) </li></ul><ul><li>Private (St. Luke’s) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Biotech R & D in the Philippines <ul><li>Use of biotech tools in crop and animal breeding or production </li></ul>
  10. 10. Biotech R & D in the Philippines and products <ul><li>Biopesticides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bt formulations, biological control agents--- Diadegma and Cotesia against vegetable pests and Trichogramma against corn and sugarcane pests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biofertilizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycogroe, Bio N , MykoVam, NitroPlus (Biotech) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital N (Arnichem, private) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Biotech R & D in the Philippines and products <ul><li>Animal health products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella, E. coli , red tide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccines against </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hemorrhagic septicemia due to Pasteurella multocida for cattle and carabao </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fowl cholera for poultry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Biotech R & D in the Philippines and products <ul><li>Tissue Culture of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo culture of makapuno </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneered by Dr. Emerita de Guzman, UPCA 1960s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved by DA Scientist Linda Rillo, PCA 1990s </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Biotech R & D in the Philippines and products <ul><li>Tissue culture of orchids at UP CA </li></ul><ul><li>1960s </li></ul>Prof. Helen Valmayor
  14. 14. <ul><li>Micropropagation of banana early 1980s, IPB CA UPLB </li></ul>Biotech R & D in the Philippines and products Dr. Ramon C. Barba Prof. Lilian F. Pateña Dr. Olivia P. Damasco
  15. 15. Home grown biotech products and products <ul><li>Orchids </li></ul><ul><li>Banana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Davao Musatech (Stanfilco), largest in the world; produces 23 M seedlings per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dolefil has capacity to produce 6 M per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lapanday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secura Plant Genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Makapuno </li></ul><ul><li>Sugarcane--disease free cane seeds distributed to growers </li></ul>
  16. 16. Biotech R & D in the Philippines and products <ul><li>Sex reversal technology for tilapia </li></ul>
  17. 17. Biotech R & D in the Philippines and products 2000s
  18. 18. Biotech R & D in the Philippines and products <ul><li>Use of molecular markers in plant breeding </li></ul><ul><li>For marker-aided breeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PHILRICE’s NSICRc142 or Tubigan 7 resistant to bacterial leaf blight (BLB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSIC Rc154 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For studying genetic diversity of plants, microorganisms, insect pests </li></ul><ul><li>For identification of crop varieties, hybrids (IPB CA UPLB) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Biotech R & D in the Philippines and products (ongoing ) <ul><li>Use of genetic engineering or recombinant DNA tools in crop breeding to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed ripening trait in papaya </li></ul><ul><li>Papaya ringspot virus resistance in papaya </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot and fruit borer resistance in eggplant (Bt eggplant) </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Plant Breeding, Crop Science Cluster, CA UPLB </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>How were these technologies transferred to the private sector? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Historically, this is how we have transferred our technologies <ul><li>Seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue culture technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Orchids </li></ul><ul><li>Makapuno </li></ul><ul><li>Banana </li></ul>FREE Retail Thru consultancies Case study: Crop Science Cluster-IPB technologies thru bulk sales to DA technologies To individuals, companies etc.
  22. 22. More recently we have learned of another more profitable way! technologies Licensing <ul><li>5 Inbred lines of maize, licensed to Ayala in 1995 for PhP 2.32 M </li></ul><ul><li>Sinta papaya hybrid licensed to East West Seeds at 7% royalty of gross sales, from 2005-2007, royalty amounted to PhP1.822 M </li></ul>
  23. 23. More recently we have learned of another more profitable way! technologies Licensing <ul><li>Bio N of UPLB Biotech is licensed to private companies through TRC </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Silicon Valley Model: Have there been companies spun off from schools? <ul><li>At UPLB </li></ul><ul><li>STEMP Biotech Inc. was registered in 2007; was 2005 Grand Prize Winner of PESO Challenge for Enhanced Solo. </li></ul>Startup Companies Technologies from Universities
  25. 25. What is the promise of commercialization of research project results? <ul><li>Three UPLB Technologies were finalists the past three PESO (Philippine Emerging Startup Open) Challenges where two won the Grand Prize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced Solo (Papaya with long shelf life and ring spot virus resistance) (Grand Prize 2005) (IPB CA UPLB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNAP Nutrients (Finalist 2006) (IPB CA UPLB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIO N (Grand Prize 2007 BIOTECH) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal vaccines from BIOTECH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fowl Cholera Vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enzymes for improving animal feeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mannanase </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. DA Biotech-EMERGE USAID- ACIAR-DOST-IPB-UPLB Our product---Transgenic papaya with delayed ripening trait
  27. 27. DA Biotech-EMERGE USAID- ACIAR-DOST-IPB-UPLB Future biotech product Enhanced Solo We are introducing PRSV resistance to our long shelf life transgenic papaya at IPB Backcross 3 x transgenic papaya PRSV resistant Backcross 3: Carica papaya x Vasconcellea quercifolia
  28. 28. What is the promise of commercialization of research project results? <ul><li>Two more promising technologies from IPB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunchy top virus resistant banana var Lakatan for licensing variety to companies that produce Lakatan for export and local markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papaya ringspot virus resistant papaya for licensing as parental line to local and foreign companies </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Damasco et al, 2006 Total irradiated plants 6,012 After greenhouse 114 After field 64 Resistant plants 1.06% Banana var Lakatan Resistant to bunchy top virus through gamma irradiation of tissue cultured shoot tips Funded by IAEA, IPB CA UPLB, PCARRD
  30. 30. Can globally competitive industries possibly be built around their research centers? <ul><li>The UPLB Science Park is presently being strengthened. </li></ul><ul><li>There are efforts to systematize the evaluation of the commercialization potential of UPLB technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship is now a key program of the UPLB College of Economics and Management </li></ul><ul><li>At the College of Agriculture, entrepreneurship is being emphasized. </li></ul><ul><li>Bioentrepreneurship course is offered to MBB and other students. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Academic programs that support the biotechnology sector <ul><li>BS, MS and PhD Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (MBB), UP Diliman, since 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>MS MBB (1999), PhD MBB (2002), UPLB </li></ul><ul><li>BS Biotech (BS Bioengineering) (2003), Mapua Institute of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed BS Agricultural Biotechnology at UPLB College of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Allied programs </li></ul><ul><li>Need to introduce Biotechnology as a GE course </li></ul><ul><li>Need Funds to upgrade laboratories and for research grants for students </li></ul>
  32. 32. Strengths <ul><li>(Many) Policies in place </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and working biosafety system </li></ul><ul><li>Manpower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small (group) but tenacious and dedicated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pockets of strength in facilities and resources </li></ul>
  33. 33. Major Concerns <ul><li>Lack of scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of scientific business managers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of strong research base </li></ul><ul><li>Low R & D expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional education systems which do not foster innovative and creative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of appreciation or understanding of intellectual property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of venture capital </li></ul><ul><li>Weak industry-academe-govt liaisons </li></ul>Tecson-Mendoza 2002, Tang 2003, Arroyo 2005,
  34. 34. <ul><li>The Philippines has 157 scientists and engineers (S & E) per million population engaged in R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Japan had the highest number, with 4,909 S&Es per million population engaged in R&D. Russia had 3,801 S & Es while the US had 3,676 S&Es per million population </li></ul>Lack of scientists From: National Science and Technology Plan 2002-2020
  35. 35. In the Philippines <ul><li>Gene cloning, mapping, fingerprinting 11.5% microbial biotechnology 6 genetic engineering 4 molecular markers 3 others 7.5 </li></ul><ul><li>tissue culture (plant) 14 microbiology 10.5 biofertilizer 5.5 enzymes 4 fermentation 4 reproductive biotechniques 3.5 others 24.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Total number, 317 </li></ul>Faylon et al, 2006
  36. 36. Addressing: Lack of scientists <ul><li>Government Scholarship programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOST (SEI, PCASTRD), DA,CHED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BS, MS, PhD programs in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, or Biotechnology and allied programs locally available </li></ul><ul><li>If we can only keep the ones we graduate and those sent abroad for advanced degrees! </li></ul><ul><li>Need to address brain drain </li></ul>
  37. 37. Addressing: Lack of strong research base <ul><li>Only four or five Biotech capable-institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UPLB (Biotech, IPB-CSC, IBS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UP Diliman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PhilRice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Luke’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UP Manila </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot recruit new R & D personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy load of teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low salaries of researchers in UP System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in number of trained personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retirement, going abroad </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Addressing: Lack of scientific business managers <ul><li>Increased promotion of entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University-wide and national competitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private sector and govt initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GO Negosyo, PESO, Hybridigm, SMART, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Offering of entrepreneurship courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BS level---in the UPLB College of Agriculture, a required course in BS FT, and will be required in other CA curricular programs and in BS Agricultural Biotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioentrepreneurship course in MBB program at UPLB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More interaction between the technology developers and experts in business side </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Addressing: L ack of strong research base <ul><li>Strengthen existing ones and build up more research bases where there are pockets of strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. SEAFDEC, beautiful buildings and equipment, few researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retooling </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment of qualified staff </li></ul><ul><li>More conducive environment for research including inspiring leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Do not appoint young PhDs to administrative positions! </li></ul>
  40. 40. Addressing: Low R & D expenditures <ul><li>PhP 180 M from 2003-2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger budgets promised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DA Sec. A. Yap talks of PhP500 M to 1 B budget for biotech from 2007 to 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UP Diliman College of Science obtained a PhP 500 M grant in 2006 released through DOST </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to absorb released money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow process of grant evaluation and release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly bureaucratic and expensive purchasing system in government </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Addressing : Traditional education systems do not foster innovative and creative thinking <ul><li>NAST is promoting the building of a culture of science among our people </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strategic change in science education in elementary schools which involves discovery- and inquiry-based method of teaching; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing support for young talent and genius; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthening institutions of research and scholarship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theme of 2007 Annual Scientific Meeting of NAST </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Addressing : Lack of appreciation or understanding of intellectual property rights <ul><li>Continuous promotion through seminars, lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property Research and Training Institute (IPRTI) established by the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) of the Philippines as its training arm </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the course “Biotechnology and Society” in the UPLB MBB program </li></ul><ul><li>Included in the GE course on biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Pro Filipino approach to IP </li></ul>
  43. 43. Addressing : Lack of venture capital <ul><li>Seed venture fund being initiated by Dr. Vic Ilag, COO, Patrys ( ) Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Narra Venture Capital ( ) Paco Sandejas </li></ul><ul><li>In Malaysia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysian govt established Malaysian Management Venture Capital, with initial RM 500M and four startups granted RM56 M </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Thailand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VNET Venture Capital and One Asset Management Limited, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Singapore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) HAS US$600 M fund for investments </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Addressing : Weak industry-academe-government linkages <ul><li>More interactions among Industry-Academe-Government </li></ul><ul><li>Promote Biotechnology Industry Cluster activities </li></ul><ul><li>Promote Techno-Entrepreneur activities </li></ul><ul><li>Build a strong technology commercialization office in university </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen science parks near selected Universities and research institutes </li></ul>
  45. 45. To move bioindustry: Biotechnology Industry Cluster established by EDC <ul><li>Mid 2005, Biotechnology Cluster was constituted under the Export Development Council </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Biotech sector as an export earner 2007-2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agri-biotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Bio-industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incentives for industry players not clear </li></ul>
  46. 46. Targets: TO INCREASE <ul><li>Number of high caliber scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Number of commercializable biotech products </li></ul><ul><li>PhP generated by biotech products annually </li></ul><ul><li>Number of biotech companies in the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Number of people employed directly by biotech industries </li></ul>
  47. 47. Objective of conference: assessment of the state of SME Education in relation to Philippine competitiveness on the global stage <ul><li>Defining the scope of biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Biotech R & D in the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Biotech Education </li></ul><ul><li>Status and prospects of commercialization </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints and major concerns and addressing them </li></ul>
  48. 48. Salamat po at Mabuhay!