Creating Taxonomies: Methods and Processes

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Creating Taxonomies: Methods and Processes

  1. 1. Creating Taxonomies Presented by Fred Leise ContextualAnalysis ASI Upper Midwest Chapter Fall Meeting September 14, 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis 1
  2. 2. Presentation Overview 1. Working Example: GoToEuropeTravelPlanner.com 2. Methodology Overview 3. Business Context 4. User Context 5. Content Analysis 6. Facet Development 7. CV Creation © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 2 2
  3. 3. GoToEuropeTravelPlanner.com [This doesn’t exist, but we’ll use it for exercise purposes throughout the workshop.] Purpose: a new website to help U.S. travelers plan trips to Europe © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 3 3
  4. 4. Methodology: Overview 1. Context: stakeholder interviews; comparative/competitive analysis 2. Context: user demographics 3. Context: user mental models © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 4 4
  5. 5. Methodology: Overview 4. Context: content audit/review 5. Facet creation (and testing) 6. Vocabulary development and testing © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 5 5
  6. 6. CV Development Methodology Identify patterns in content Determine how stakeholders want to organize and present their information © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis Determine how target audience(s) search for and use information Explore what other, similar organizations/ businesses do 6 6
  7. 7. CV Development Methodology In every decision, always consider the user first. Can real users actually use what we are constructing? CVs must reflect users’ terminology, mental model. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 7 7
  8. 8. Methodology: Context Stakeholder Interviews 5–10 individuals: project sponsors, project owners, project leaders, project team members Goals Understand business perspective behind taxonomy development © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 8 8
  9. 9. Methodology: Context Stakeholder Interviews: Methods One-on-one interviews In-person or via phone No longer than one hour Use open-ended questions Prepare interview script/validate with client, project team © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 9 9
  10. 10. Methodology: Context Stakeholder Interviews: Content What is the larger project that taxonomy development is part of? What are the “pain points” that are driving taxonomy development at this time? © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 10 10
  11. 11. Methodology: Context Stakeholder Interviews: Content Challenges in/to project? Other relevant projects? Purpose for taxonomy? © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 11 11
  12. 12. Methodology: Context Stakeholder Interviews Analysis using spreadsheet Trends and commonalities Areas of agreement/disagreement © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 12 12
  13. 13. GoToEuropeTravelPlanner.com Stakeholder Interviews Content: will not include cruises or river barge trips; will focus on non-hotel accommodations Educational activities, e.g., museums not Disneyland Paris © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 13 13
  14. 14. Methodology: Context User Demographics Audience segments/roles (important for later user interviews) Age Experts/lay individuals (affects terminology) Computer experience © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 14 14
  15. 15. Methodology: Context User Demographics Location: local/global Number of site visitors Returning vs. new site visitors © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 15 15
  16. 16. GoToEuropeTravelPlanner.com Target audience singles, groups, families experienced travelers age: 25–65 household income > $50K © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 16 16
  17. 17. User Research Importance You do not See things like they do Know what they know Want what they want Work how they work © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 17 17
  18. 18. User Research: Interviews Potential Interviewees Representative sample of all users, including demographics 5–8 users from each audience segment Users (potential users) of website Current or potential customers or clients © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 18 18
  19. 19. User Research: Interviews Recruiting Screener 1. Self-completed questionnaire or 2. Phone questionnaire Weed out individuals not meeting the qualifications for participation Obtain demographic information Get agreement to participate in research © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 19 19
  20. 20. User Research: Screener GoToEuropeTravelPlanner.com will be conducting user research into how people think about European vacations. If you would like to participate in these individual, one-hour calls, please complete the questions below. Because we are looking for a mix of people with different demographics, you may or may not hear anything further from us about your participation. Please check answers to questions as appropriate. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 20 20
  21. 21. User Research: Screener 1. How old are you?  17 or younger [Disqualification]  18–25 [No more than 2]  26–35 [No more than 5]  36–45 [No more than 5]  46–55 [No more than 5]  56–65 [No more than 5]  66 or older [No more than 3] 2. Are you:  Male  Female [No more than 6] [No more than 6] 3. Do you have any children under the age of 18 living in your home?  Yes. If so, how many? __________  No [No more than 6] © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 21 21
  22. 22. User Research: Screener 4. In the last 12 months, have you booked a European vacation (including flight and accommodations)?  Yes What was your destination? _________________  No [Disqualification] 5. How would you rate your own travel expertise? [Recruit mix]  Beginner  Intermediate  Expert 6. Do you usually travel:  By yourself?  With a spouse or partner (no kids)?  With your family?  With friends? © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis [No more than 2] [No more than 4] [No more than 4] [No more than 4] 22 22
  23. 23. User Research: Screener 7. What is your household income?  Less than $50,000/year [No more than 2]  Between $50,000 and $100,000/year [No more than 5]  Over $100,000/year [No more than 5] 8. What is your highest educational level?  Did not graduate high school [No more than 2]  Graduated high school [No more than 2]  Some college [No more than 5]  Graduated college [No more than 6] © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 23 23
  24. 24. User Research: Screener 9. Where do you live?  East Coast [No more than 4]  South [No more than 4]  Midwest [No more than 4]  Southwest [No more than 4]  West Coast [No more than 4] 10 How often do you buy items Amazon.com or eBay?  Never [No more than 4]  Sometimes [No more than 4]  Frequently [No more than 4] 11. Do you or anyone in your family work in the travel industry?  Yes [Disqualification]  No © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 24 24
  25. 25. User Research: Screener 12. Do you or anyone in your family work in marketing or public relations?  Yes [Disqualification]  No 13. Have you participated in any user research, including focus groups, in the last 12 months?  Yes [Disqualification]  No © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 25 25
  26. 26. User Research: Interviews Methodology One-on-one interviews In-person or via phone No longer than one hour Use open-ended questions Prepare interview discussion guide/validate with client, project team © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 26 26
  27. 27. User Research: Interviews Methodology Compensation for participation ~$100/hour Paid at end of session Recruit on own or using recruiting company © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 27 27
  28. 28. User Research: Interviews Use “ethnographic inquiry” techniques Encourage open answers, rather than to lead the interviewee in any preconceived direction Use predefined questions as prompts in a conversation, not a verbatim script Allow the interviewee to direct the flow of conversation © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 28 28
  29. 29. What is a Mental Model? Grocery Shopping Talk to spouse Look in fridge How much time do I have? Does the car need gas? Clip coupons Plan meals Look for discounts Prepare shopping list Walk the store aisles Illustration by Adaptive Path © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 29 29
  30. 30. GoToEuropeTravelPlanner.com User Interviews Need a volunteer to be user for a 15-minute interview about planning travel to Europe You can be as creative as you’d like in your answers. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 30 30
  31. 31. Methodology: Context Content Analysis Discussion with content authors Size of content (number of pages/documents to be analyzed) Content stable or constantly changing ROT (redundant, outdated, trivial) New content or content areas © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 31 31
  32. 32. Methodology: Context Content Audit/Review Goal: Become familiar with current content Method: Visit every piece of content (or a representative sample) by following site links in order © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 32 32
  33. 33. Methodology: Context Content Audit/Review Information to capture URL Page/document title Document type Description of document content Keyword extraction © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 33 33
  34. 34. Methodology: Context Content Review (Content Sampling) Be sure to include breadth of content Visit different content types Visit as many sections of the site as possible Ask about important content © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 34 34
  35. 35. Technology Taxonomy interface with Technology Capability for handling hierarchies or flat lists only? Number of hierarchy levels? Indication of related terms? Can system handle CV maintenance? © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 35 35
  36. 36. Facet Creation Facet Analysis Detailed analysis of user interview transcripts to determine the kinds of information users look for Compile list of every type of information mentioned, including examples Arrange like types together © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 36 36
  37. 37. Facet Creation Determine facets based on groupings of information types Assign preliminary labels to facets Follow principles of facet creation © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 37 37
  38. 38. Principles of Facet Creation Principle of Differentiation When dividing an entity into its component parts, it is important to use facets that will distinguish clearly among these component parts. Good: height, width, weight, color Bad: dimensions, height, color © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 38 38
  39. 39. Principles of Facet Creation Principle of Relevance Facets should be chosen for their relevance to the purpose, subject, and scope of the particular context. Facets must be relevant to the tasks users will be completing. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 39 39
  40. 40. Principles of Facet Creation Principle of Ascertainability It is important to choose facets that are definite and that can be ascertained. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 40 40
  41. 41. Principles of Facet Creation Principle of Permanence Use facets that reflect permanent qualities of the entity in question. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 41 41
  42. 42. Principles of Facet Creation Principle of Mutual Exclusivity The values in any two facets should not overlap. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 42 42
  43. 43. Principles of Facet Creation Principle of Fundamental Categories There exist no categories that are fundamental to all subjects; categories should be derived based upon the nature of the subject being classified. “There are no rules, there are only contexts.” Fred Leise’s Rule #1 of Indexing © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 43 43
  44. 44. GoToEuropeTravelPlanner.com Exercise: Facet Creation What are some of the facets that should be created for GoToEuropeTravelPlanner.com, based on what you heard in the interview? What are some other facets that logically should also be created? © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 44 44
  45. 45. CV Creation Content Analysis/Term Extraction Using content audit results, revisit representative sample of content Identify potential vocabulary terms based on preliminary facets, e.g., doc type, products, services, etc. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 45 45
  46. 46. CV Creation User Interviews Analyze user interviews for specific search or content terms mentioned © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 46 46
  47. 47. CV Creation Search Log Analysis What terms to do users use when they are searching? With what frequency are terms used? Are there groups of related/alternate terms (including common misspellings)? © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 47 47
  48. 48. CV Creation Publicly Available Taxonomies www.TaxoBank.org Taxonomywarehouse.com Thesauri on-line (www.fbi.fh-koeln.de/institut/labor/ Bir/thesauri_new/thesen.htm) competitor sites (view source) © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 48 48
  49. 49. CV Creation Publicly Available Taxonomies Getty vocabularies Art and Architecture Thesaurus Union List of Artist Names Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 49 49
  50. 50. CV Creation Free Listing Purpose Identify user terms, core concepts Understand structure of a domain May be used to explore differences in audience segments © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 50 50
  51. 51. CV Creation Free Listing Methodology Start by interviewing 5-6 users “Name all the [X] you know.” © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 51 51
  52. 52. CV Creation Free Listing Analysis Note early occurrences of a term List items by frequency mentioned; more frequent = more central to domain Note co-occurrences of terms; may indicate logical term grouping © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 52 52
  53. 53. CV Creation Free Listing Analysis Note any differences by audience segment © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 53 53
  54. 54. Reference Rashmi Sinha. “Beyond cardsorting: Free-listing methods to explore user categorizations” BoxesandArrows.com, 24 February 2003 http://www.boxesandarrows.com/beyond-cardsortingfree-listing-methods-to-explore-user-categorizations © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 54 54
  55. 55. GoToEuropeTravelPlanner.com Free Listing Exercise Take about two minutes to list all the types of accommodations you know in Europe that are not hotels Write them down first, then we’ll go around the room and compare the lists. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 55 55
  56. 56. CV Creation CV Organization Given the vocabulary terms identified, what type of CV is necessary for this facet? Is the facet required or optional when tagging content? Who needs to review the CV before finalization? © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 56 56
  57. 57. CV Creation CV Organization Is this facet for administrative purposes only, or will it be visible to users? How will the facet be used? browsing? filtering search results? © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 57 57
  58. 58. CV Creation: Spreadsheet © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 58 58
  59. 59. Resources Databases Michael J. Hernandez, Database Design for Mere Mortals, 3d ed. © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 59 59
  60. 60. Contact Information Fred Leise 6530 N. Greenview Ave., #2 Chicago, IL 60626 773.764.2588 www.ContextualAnalysis.com fredleise@contextualanalysis.com © 2013 © 2013 by ContextualAnalysis by ContextualAnalysis 60 60

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