Introduction To Controlled Vocabularies
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Introduction To Controlled Vocabularies

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A basic introduction to taxonomies/controlled vocabularies, what they are and how they are used. Presented originally at the Society of Indexers conference, July 2008.

A basic introduction to taxonomies/controlled vocabularies, what they are and how they are used. Presented originally at the Society of Indexers conference, July 2008.

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Introduction To Controlled Vocabularies Introduction To Controlled Vocabularies Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Controlled Vocabularies
    • Presented by Fred Leise
    • ContextualAnalysis, LLC
    • The Round Table Conference
    • Society of Indexers
    • Sunday, July 13, 2008
  • About Fred Leise
    • Co-Founder and Chief Operating Officer, Intuitect (software for website creators)
    • ContextualAnalysis, LLC
      • Specializing in metadata and controlled vocabulary development
      • www.contextualanalysis.com
  • About Fred Leise
    • Recent Clients
      • Scripps Newspapers
      • Disney Studios
      • Harpo, Inc. (Oprah.com)
      • Dow Corning
      • Abbott Laboratories
  • About Fred Leise
    • Freelance back-of-book indexer since 1995
    • Scholarly texts in the humanities
    • President, American Society for Indexing
  • Goals for This Presentation
    • Introduce basic concepts and terminology about controlled vocabularies
    • (Feel free to ask questions or contribute examples at any time)
  • Workshop Overview
    • Indexes vs. Controlled Vocabularies (CVs)
    • An Introduction to CVs
    • Using CVs
    • Facets
    • CV Development Methodology Overview
    • CV Governance and Maintenance
  • Terminology Problem
    • Taxonomy
      • generally, any kind of controlled vocabulary
      • also a specific type of controlled vocabulary
  • Indexes vs. CVs
  • Indexes vs. CVs
    • Similarities
      • Concept identification
      • Term selection
  • Indexes vs. CVs
    • Differences
    research reading Methodology months weeks Project time content tagging, website navigation, search enhancement content locator Use term list index End product CVs Indexes Item
  • About Controlled Vocabularies
    • H. Wellisch
      • A list of terms that may be used for indexing, produced by the operation of vocabulary control.
    What are Controlled Vocabularies?
    • F. Leise:
      • A list of terms and term relationships designed to:
      • 1. Collect similar information,
      • 2. Assist content authors in consistently tagging content, and
    What are Controlled Vocabularies?
    • F. Leise:
      • 3. Enable users to find the information they need by translating their language into the language of the information store.
    What are Controlled Vocabularies?
  • Equivalence (Synonyms)
    • Country = Nation
    • Chief of State = Prime Minister
    • Brunei = Sultanate of Brunei = Negara Brunei Darussalam = سلطنة بروناي = برني دارالسلام
  • Hierarchical Relationships
    • Whole/Part
    • Automobile
      • Air bags
      • Engine
      • Seats
      • Steering
      • Wheels
  • Hierarchical Relationships
    • Instances
    • Buildings
      • Great Pyramid of Giza
      • Madison Square Garden
      • Petronas Towers
      • Sears Tower
      • Taipei 101
    • Examples
      • operation/agent turning : lathes
      • occupation/person social work : social worker
      • causal dependence friction : wear
      • agent/counteragent pests : pesticides
      • concept/opposite tolerance : prejudice
      • concept/origin water : water wells
    Associative Relationship
    • Synonym Ring
    • Words with equivalent meanings (in a given context)
      • pound sterling = pound = quid
      • CD-ROM = CD = disk
      • chips = French fries
      • Houses of Parliament = Palace of Westminster
    Types of CVs
    • Authority File
    • Has all the features of a synonym ring, plus preferred terms (approved terms/keywords) for tagging content.
    Types of CVs
  • Authority File: Alphabetical
      • community USE neighborhood
      • health and safety UF safety
      • levy USE tax
      • neighborhood UF community
      • parks UF recreation
      • rebate USE refund
      • recreation USE parks
      • refund UF rebate
      • safety USE health and safety
      • tax UF levy
  • Authority File: Spreadsheet levy tax rebate refund recreation parks community neighborhood safety health and safety Variant Terms Preferred Term
    • Taxonomy
    • Also called hierarchy
    • All features of authority files, plus:
    • Broader terms (BT)
    • Narrower terms (NT)
    Types of CVs
    • Taxonomy
    • All terms must be part of a hierarchical relationship (no orphan terms).
    • May be presented in indented (hierarchical) or alphabetical format.
    Types of CVs
    • total compensation . compensation . . base salary [salary] . . deferred payments [deferred compensation] . . variable pay . benefits . . 401(k) plan . . health benefits . . . dental plan . . . disability insurance
    Taxonomy Example (Indented)
    • 401(k) plan BT benefits
    • base salary BT compensation UF salary
    • benefits BT total compensation NT 401(k) plan; health benefits
    • compensation BT total compensation NT base salary; deferred payments; variable pay
    • deferred compensation USE deferred payments
    • deferred payments BT compensation UF deferred compensation
    • dental plan BT health benefits
    • disability insurance BT health benefits
    • health benefits BT benefits NT dental plan; disability insurance
    • salary USE base salary
    • total compensation NT benefits; compensation
    • variable pay BT compensation
    Taxonomy Example (Alpha List)
    • Thesaurus (pl. thesauri)
    • All the features of taxonomies, plus the associative relationship of related terms (RT)
    Types of CVs
    • Building Permits BT Permits
    • Business Licenses BT Licenses
    • Business Taxes BT Taxes
    • Fees BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; RT Taxes
    • Licenses BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; NT Business Licenses; RT Permits
    • Operating Permits BT Permits
    • Permits BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; NT Building Permits, Operating Permits; RT Licenses
    • Taxes BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; NT Business Taxes RT Fees
    Thesaurus: Alphabetical
  • Thesaurus: Indented   Business Taxes . . Fees   Taxes .   Operating Permits . .   Building Permits . . Licenses   Permits .   Business Licenses . . Permits   Licenses . Taxes   Fees .     Licenses, Permits & Taxes Related Terms Vocabulary Terms
    • Synonym Ring
    • + preferred terms
    • = Authority File
    • + broader/narrower terms
    • = Taxonomy
    • + related terms
    • = Thesaurus
    Types of CVs—Summary
    • International standards
      • ISO 2788:1986 Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Monolingual Thesauri (BS 5723: 1987)
      • ISO 5964:1985 Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Multilingual Thesauri (BS 6723: 1985)
      • www.iso.org ; www.bsi-global.com/en
    CV Construction Standards
    • National standards
      • BS 8723-3:2007 Structured vocabularies for information retrieval. Guide. Vocabularies other than thesauri
      • BS 8723-2:2005 Structured vocabularies for information retrieval. Guide. Thesauri
      • www.bsi-global.com/en
    CV Construction Standards
  • Polyhierarchies
    • Terms live in multiple categories, have multiple parent/child relationships
      • Sultanates Countries
      • Audhali Albania
      • Brunei Brunei
      • Oman China
  • Using Controlled Vocabularies
    • Organizes content using CV terms as category labels
    • Represents vocabulary hierarchy by browsing levels
    Navigation Taxonomy
  • Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
    • Offers options for expanding or reducing scope of search using broader or narrower terms
    • Differentiates between multiple meanings of terms
    Search Enhancement
  • CV Use: Search Results
    • Synonym Ring
    • During search, when one of the words in a synonym ring is searched for, the search engine returns items containing any of the words in the ring.
      • “biscuit” = “cookies”
    Search Enhancement
  • Facets
  • Facets
    • First introduced by S. J. Ranganathan in the early 1930s.
      • , Personality What is it?
      • ; Matter What is it made of?
      • : Energy What action is it performing?
      • . Space Where is it?
      • ‘ Time When is it?
  • Facets
    • "research in the cure of tuberculosis of lungs by x-ray conducted in India in 1950"
      • L,45;421:6;253:f.44'N5
    • Components of this call number
      • Medicine,Lungs;Tuberculosis:Treatment;X-ray:Research.India'1950
      • P,P;M:E;M:E.S’T
    • Fundamental categories by which an object or concept may be described
    • Example: facets describing a ball:
      • size, weight, shape, color, texture, material
    • What are some other possible facets describing this ball?
    Facets
    • Used for Browsing Hierarchies
    • Facets allow users to follow the path best matching the way they think.
    • Allows multiple paths to same information.
    • Example: epicurious.com > recipes > browse
    Facets
  •  
  • pcworld.co.uk Laptop Search
  • alibris.co.uk Advanced Search
  • Facets
    • Reference
    • Louise Spiteri, “A Simplified Model for Facet Analysis,” in Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science v23, 1-30 (April-July 1998).
    • Available at: http://iainstitute.org/pg/a_simplified_model_for_facet_analysis.php
  • CV Maintenance
  • CV Maintenance
    • Possible Taxonomy Changes
    • Add/delete facet
    • Modify facet label
    • Reorganize hierarchy
    • Add/delete taxonomy term
    • Revise taxonomy term
    • Add/delete related term relationships
  • CV Maintenance
    • Change Control Process
      • Submit the changes for approval
      • Decide on changes to be made
      • SME validation?
      • Approve the changes
      • Edit the vocabulary file to make the changes
  • CV Maintenance
    • Process for Submitting New Terms
      • Who submits proposed terms?
      • How are proposed terms submitted?
      • Who receives/processes term submissions?
      • Are provisional terms as part of tagging process allowed?
  • Speed of Change
    • Facets
    • Hierarchy
    • Terms
    Slowest Fastest
  • Impact of Change
    • Facets
    • Hierarchy
    • Terms
    Most Least
  • CV Review
    • Establish regular reviews of all existing taxonomies
      • Frequency
      • Responsibility
  • CV Ownership
    • Department/business unit responsible for taxonomy maintenance
    • Teams/individuals responsible for maintenance
  • Resources
    • Fast, Karl, Mike Steckel and Fred Leise: series of articles on CVs and facets for BoxesandArrows.com
      • “ Controlled Vocabularies: A Glosso-Thesaurus” available at: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/ archives/controlled_vocabularies_a_ glossothesaurus.php
  • Contact Information
    • Fred Leise
    • 6530 N. Greenview Ave.
    • Chicago, IL 60626
    • 773.791.2849
    • www.ContextualAnalysis.com
    • www.Intuitect.com
    • [email_address]