Section B –Psychological aspects that optimiseperformance Aspects of Personality Lesson 1
Learning Outcomes:By the end of the lesson you will be able to:• define personality• explain and evaluate the 3 main theories of personality• explain how performance and behaviour of sports performers may be affected by their personalities
What is Personality?• Use 5 words to describe yourself.• How did you get your personality?• Does your personality effect the way you behave?• Does your personality effect the sport/position that you play?
Is there a winning personality?Athletics Mens 100m Final Full Replay - London2012 Olympic Games - Usain Bolt – YouTubePlay at 3:10Play at 5:00Play at 9:18
DefinitionsPersonality is the sum total of an individualscharacteristics which make him or her unique.(Gill, 1997)Personality is the underlying relatively stablepsychological structures and processes thatorganise human experiences and shape a person’sactions and reactions to the environment.(Lazarus and Mowat, 1979)
Personality Theories• The Trait Approach (Eysenck, Cattell)• The Situational Approach (Bandura)• The Interactional Approach (Hollander)
The Trait ApproachTraitsRelatively stable and enduring characteristics whichcould be used to predict our behaviour in a varietyof situations.• we all have these traits but to limiting degrees• they are long lasting and stable• they are frequently evident in our behaviour• they enable us to predict a person’s behaviour• emphasises the person and not the situation
Eysenck’s Trait TheoryEysenck believed that personalitywas inherited throughcharacteristics/traits.He devised a PersonalityQuestionnaire (1975) and aPersonality Inventory (EPI, 1964) inan attempt to measure thesecharacteristics.He identified 2 major dimensions:Introvert – ExtrovertNeurotic – Stable
Examples from Eysenck’s• Questionnaire Does your mood often go up and down?• Are you a talkative person?• Would being in debt worry you?• Are you rather lively?• Were you ever greedy by helping yourself to more than your share of anything?• Would you take drugs which may have strange or dangerous effects?• Have you ever blamed someone for doing something you knew was really your fault?• Do you always practice what you preach?• Do you prefer to go your own way rather than act by the rules?• Do you often feel ‘fed-up’?• Have you ever taken anything (even a pin or button) that belonged to someone else?• Would you call yourself a nervous person?• Do you think marriage is old-fashioned and should be done away with?• Can you easily get some life into a rather dull party?•• Are you a worrier? Do you tend to keep in the background on social occasions? A reliable test?• Does it worry you if you know there are mistakes in your work?• Have you ever cheated at a game?• Do you suffer from ‘nerves’? What are the• Have you ever taken advantage of someone?• Are you mostly quiet when you are with other people? limitations?
He concluded thatmost people arenot found at theextremes of the 2dimensions butsomewhere in themiddle.He calculated that75% was a geneticinfluence and 25%wasenvironmentalinfluence i.e. it isdifficult to changeor modify thesepersonality traits.
Eysenck and SportWhat claims do you think he made about Introvertsand Extroverts?……………. are more likely to take part in sport……………. cope better in competitive and stressful situations……………. cope better with distractions (audience, noise)……………. cope better with pain……………. are more likely to be distance runners……………. are more likely to be games players
Eysenck and SportWhat claims do you think he made about Introvertsand Extroverts?Extroverts are more likely to take part in sportExtroverts cope better in competitive and stressful situationsExtroverts cope better with distractions (audience, noise)Extroverts cope better with painIntroverts are more likely to be distance runnersExtroverts are more likely to be games players
Cattell’s Trait TheoryCattell also adopted a traitapproach to personality butbelieved that more than 2 or3 dimensions were neededto create a whole picture ofpersonality.He developed a personalityprofile that measured 16personality factors (16PFQuestionnaire, 1965).
Cattells 16 Factors of Personality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8reserved - - - - - - - outgoingless intelligent more intelligentaffected by feelings emotionally stablesubmissive dominantserious happy-go-luckyexpedient conscientioustimid venturesometough-minded sensitivetrusting suspiciouspractical imaginativeforthright shrewdself-assured apprehensiveconservative experimentinggroup dependent self-sufficientuncontrolled controlledrelaxed tense How would you score?
Evaluation of Trait Theories• Cattell realised that personality was more dynamic than Eysenck had suggested and could fluctuate according to the situation.However:• too simplistic• trait theories do not take into account the nurture or personal development of an athlete• they are an unreliable predictor of behaviour• they do not take into account the environment or situation
The Situational Approach (Social Learning Theory)• Banduras Social Cognitive Theory – YouTubePersonality is built up out of our experiences ofthe social world.(Bandura, 1977)
Bandura’s Situational Approach Bandura believes that we learn through 2 different types of experience – modelling and reinforcement. As we grow up we observe what other people do and imitate it (modelling). If we are rewarded (reinforcement) when we do something, we are likely to do it again.
The 4 Stages ofObservational Learning Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Motivational Response
Sporting ExamplesA 10 year old boy is keen on tennis. He is sat watching the men’s Wimbledon finals. Bothplayers become models for the boy because he sees them as powerful (well-known, on TV) andsimilar to him (male and tennis players). One player has lost the first 2 sets and is behind in the3rd. The boy pays particular attention to the losing player because he knows what it is like to bein a losing situation. He notices how the player closes his eyes and Attention seems relaxed. His stance shows confidence and he bounces the ball twice before he serves to win with an ace serve. He remembers how the player closes his eyes Retention and seems relaxed and confident. He associates this with the player winning. The next time the boy is in a losing situation – Motor Reproduction he imitates the behaviour – eyes closed, confident stance, bouncing the ball twice. If he feels more confident and improves his Motivational Response game, this rewards his behaviour and makes him more likely to repeat it.
Evaluation of Situational Theories• Bandura realised that a performer may appear confident/aggressive in a specific situation but may appear very differently in another environment .However:• criticised for going too far in the opposite direction of the trait theories.• still an unreliable predictor of behaviour
The Interactional ApproachHollander’s theory states that behaviour is acombination of both inherent (built-in)personality traits and environmental factorsthrough this equation:B = F (P.E)Behaviour is the Function of Personality andEnvironment
Hollander’s Model, 1971 Psychological Core Typical Responses Role Related Behaviours Social Environment
Hollander’s Model• 1 : The Psychological Core: – the ‘real you’ – attitudes and values, self concept – private, relatively permanent• 2 : Typical Responses: – usual way we respond to the environment – learned & stored experience – responses may indicate the nature of the core.• 3 : Role-related behaviour: – determined by our perception of the environment – can be changed at any time depending on situation – action may not be a typical response but uncharacteristic action
Overview• The Interactional approach suggests that we base behaviour on inherent traits that we then adapt to the situation we are in.• It takes into account personal factors, the situation in which the behaviour occurs and the interaction of these 2 factors.• A games player might be loud, extrovert & dominant manner in the game because that is the best way to succeed, but would be more quiet & focused when in a training session designed to improve individual technique.
Review of Learning Outcomes:You should be able to:• define personality• evaluate the Trait Approach• evaluate the Situational Approach• evaluate to Interactional Approach• explain how performance and behaviour of sports performers may be affected by their personalities
Home LearningTake an online personality test – how can wemake an accurate measure of someone’spersonality?Exam Style Questions
Who would be your sports personality of the year 2012?Smithy at Sports Personality of the Year - BBCSport Relief Night 2010 - YouTube