1By: Mrs.Badache LyndaUniversity of BatnaMay 2013
2First impressionsPronunciation is definitely the biggest thing that people notice whenyou are speaking English.You can live without advancedvocabulary, you can use simple words to say what you want to say.You can use ‘simple’grammar.But there is no such thing as"simple pronunciation ». If the pronunciation is poor , neitherGrammar nor vocabulary would help you !Here is an anecdote about this:After coming back from a vacation in the USA, a friend of minesaid:"Whenever I spoke to a person in America, they kept askingme What? What? I would repeat my sentence again and again.Finally they would say Ah-ha! and then say my sentence, usingexactly my words! It was very humiliating. I knew my wordsand grammar were good, but nobody would understand me, justbecause of my Pronunciation.
3ContentContentLearnersLearners TasksTasksGoalsGoalsWhat to take into account when....
Should pronunciation be taughtand acquired early? Or is itsomething we can worry aboutlater?WHEN TO ACQUIRE ?4
In the absence of a good model and withoutguidance, the learner will perceive, produceand internalize sounds of the target languagebased on the native language sounds.For this reason, if not given emphasis at thevery beginning, pronunciation will never beacquired well.5
When accuracy is neglected, the resultwill be fossilized pronunciation errors.Since pronunciation habits are formedearly, it seems obvious that it is at thatpoint that the development of a goodpronunciation should be emphasized.6
HOW TO ACQUIRE?• Naturally: as a result of exposure andinteraction in the environment of the targetlanguage and its culture.• By teaching: providing a good pronunciationmodel (instructors with native-like pronunciation,recordings, etc.), explaining differences, usingphonetic symbols to make pronunciation visible,limited peer interaction, effective errorcorrection, exercising accurate pronunciation.7
SPELLING INTERFERENCEThe written language is a significant sourceof input to EFL students.The higher the spelling inconsistency is, themore negative the influence onpronunciation will be. The English spellingdoes not serve as a guide to pronunciation.On the contrary, it can often bemisleading. For instance:8
SPELLING VS. PRONUNCIATION“s” has got five different waysof pronunciation:1. /s/ as in basic, past, say2. /z/ as in because, rose3. /ᶘ/ as in sugar, sure4. /ᶘ/ as in casual, usually, television5. /mute/ as in aisle, island9
The frustration of the EFL learner never ends:1. bough / baʊ /2. cough / k fɒ /3. dough / dəʊ/4. rough / r fʌ /5. through / θruː /6. hiccough / h k pˈ ɪ ʌ /10
11“Comfortable” Intelligibility• Convey message•“Positive face”•Expectations on the listener• Understand message•Tolerance•Expectations on the speakerForeign Speaker Native listener‘threshold level’ acceptability accessibilityinteractiointeractionn
121. Features of pronunciation2. Criteria for selection teachability intelligibility integration differences with L2 perception - production institutional requirements time availability
13BiologicalFactors affecting pronunciation learningPsycho-sociological Background•Age•Closeness to L1acquisition•Phonetic codingability•Motivation•Attitude•View of the foreigncountry• prior instruction• opportunities forpractice outside theclassroom•amount of exposure
15What makes Pronunciation difficult to teach?•The lack of adequate language teacher training inpronunciation, with the result that teachers may lackknowledge and confidence.•Teachers are often left without clear guidelines and areconfronted with contradictory purposes and practices forpronunciation instruction ,no systematic way of decidingwhat, when and how to teach it (Derwing & Foote,2011).•A common problem is deciding whether to focus onsegmentals or on suprasegmentals, and to what extent?•A related challenge is how to address production andperception.
Conclusion• It all brings us to the overall conclusions that:1. Pronunciation is more important than it seemsto be and has always been acknowledged thatit is a fundamental part of one’s oral ability inthe target language.2. The students need intensive contact with goodpronunciation models in the beginning of thelearning process.3. The goal of teaching pronunciation is to enablestudents to become “not perfect pronouncersof English but intelligible , communicative,confident users of spoken English for whateverpurposes they need. 16