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Nanotechnology and research funding organizations

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Slides from a lecture given at the Athena Institute, VU University of Amsterdam. The lecture focuses on a part of my PhD thesis, which is concerned with the boundary work that research councils …

Slides from a lecture given at the Athena Institute, VU University of Amsterdam. The lecture focuses on a part of my PhD thesis, which is concerned with the boundary work that research councils perform when they finance a new emerging fields of science and technology. In particular, research councils that are organized along disciplinary boundaries, tend to fraction the new interdisciplinary fields along the established disciplinary borders, unless decision-making entities are organized 'above' or 'next to' the disciplinary structures. Similarly the distinction between research funding organizations for science and those for technology development, creates a split in the funding of fields such as nanotechnology that tend to cross this boundary. The Swiss National Science Foundation, the Swedish foundation for Strategic Research, Academy of Finland, and Tekes are discussed in these respects.

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  • 1. Nanotechnology and research funding organizations Frank van der Most 14 September 2011 Managing Science and Technology in Society Management, Policy Analysis & Entrepreneurship in health care Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 2. What’s up for today ✦ Who is Frank? ✦ What are Research Funding Organizations ✦ The research question ✦ Introduction to Boundary Work Theory ✦ What is nanotechnology? ✦ Disciplinary fractioning (2 cases) ✦ Science | technology divide (2 cases) ✦ Concluding 2 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 3. A short introduction to Frank van der Most ✦ 1988 - 1997 Computer science and Sciences and Arts ✦ 1997 - 2004 Research in history of technology, evaluation of Norwegian Research Council, and more ✦ 2002 - 2003 One-man company; software for research ✦ 2004 - 2009 PhD; research funding; STePS, Twente ✦ 2009 - 2011 Postdoc places; research evaluation; CIRCLE, Lund University & e-Humanities group, KNAW 3 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 4. What are Research Funding Organizations (RFOs)? ✦ Independent or semi independent, public organizations which finance public research activities on temporary basis. ✦ Finance: projects, programs, networks, equipment/laboratories, research centers 4 In these and following slides, pages between <> at the bottom right corner of the slide refer to pages in : Van der Most (200) Research Councils facing new science and technology. Available on-line at www.frankvandermost.nl <p. 3-5> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 5. 5 Basic scheme of an RFO in context Ministry Research Performer 3 Research Performer 2 Research Performer 1 RFO RFO <p. 23-24> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 6. What are RFOs? ✦ May have a convening aspect ✦ May have their own research institutes ✦ Many shapes and sizes •Disciplinary structure / thematic •Science / technology •Stand alone / umbrella organization 6 <p. 3-5> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 7. Where are RFOs? ✦ Most countries have at least one ✦ Both ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries ✦ Supra-national RFOs (ESF, ERC) ✦ They show many different constellations 7 <p. 45-60> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 8. RFO constellations Research performer 2 Ministry A Research performer 6 Research performer 5 Research performer 4 Research performer 3 Research performer 1 Ministry B Ministry C RFO II RFO IV Ministry D RFO IIIRFO I Research performer 2 Research performer 6 Research performer 5 Research performer 4 Research performer 3 Research performer 1 Ministry A Ministry B Ministry C Ministry D RFO Research performer 2 Research performer 6 Research performer 5 Research performer 4 Research performer 3 Research performer 1 Ministry for Trade and Industry Ministry for Research and Education Technology RFO Science RFO Ministry Research Performer 3 Research Performer 2 Research Performer 1 RFO <p. 24-26> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 9. Thesis research question How do RFOs respond to emerging fields of research and what is the effect of the response on both the new field and the RFO itself? RFO ⟺ new field 9 <p. 1> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 10. Sub questions ✦ Disciplinary structure highly interdisciplinary field ✦ Pressure for societally relevant research ✦ High costs and costs structure of facilities ✦ How to deal with a new field while it is still new and unclearly defined? 10 <p. 8-13> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 11. Today’s focus on Boundary Work (BW) questions ✦ How do RFOs define nanotechnology? ✦ How is this related to funding practices, organizational structure, their location in their environment and their environment? 11 Ministry Research Performer 3 Research Performer 2 Research Performer 1 RFO Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 12. Where are we? ✓ Who is Frank? ✓ What are Research Funding Organizations ✓ The research question ✦ Introduction to Boundary Work Theory ✦ What is nanotechnology? ✦ Disciplinary fractioning (2 cases) ✦ Science | technology divide (2 cases) ✦ Concluding 12 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 13. Boundary Work: What is it? Why do it? Boundary work is a rhetorical style : “the attribution of selected characteristics to the institution of science ... for purposes of constructing a social boundary that distinguishes some intellectual activity as non-science” (Gieryn, 1983, p. 782, emphasis added) 13 <p. 18-19> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 14. Boundary Work: when is it done? ✦ It occurs when science’s cognitive authority and the accompanying credibility, prestige, power and material resources are at stake. ✦ Science is conceptualized as a social space, which boundaries need to be marked and which remains “empty until its insides get filled and its borders drawn amidst context-bound negotiations over who and what is 'scientific' ” Gieryn (1995, p. 405 stress in the original). 14 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 15. Boundary work 15 Bla bla1, Xyz xyz 2, Bla bla 3.5 Bla bla 1, Bla bla 2 & Bla bla 3 <p. 18-19> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 16. Boundary Work: who does it? ✦ Scientists - they have an interest ✦ Scientists, engineers and politicians (Jasanoff 1987 ; as mentioned by Sismondo 2004, p. 30) ✦ Everybody who wants to demarcate a social space. 16 <p. 18-19> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 17. Boundary work 17 Bla bla 1, Bla bla 2 & Bla bla 3 Bla bla1, OOO ooo 1, Xyz xyz 3 456 C, Xyz xyz 2, Bla bla 1 456 C, Xyz xyz 2, Bla bla 1 Bla bla1, Xyz xyz 2, Bla bla 3.5 Bla bla1, OOO ooo 2, Bla bla 3.5 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 18. Boundary work, RFOs and new fields ✦ Boundaries within science (Gieryn, 1983, p. 792) ✦ Who and when in case of RFOs? •Researchers •RFOs, program managers •Officials at ministries •... 18 Ministry Research Performer 3 Research Performer 2 Research Performer 1 RFO Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 19. What is at stake for RFOs? ✦ “credibility, prestige, power and material resources” (Gieryn, 1983, p. 782) ✦ Justify towards Ministry ✦ Justify towards researchers •non-nanotechnologists •nanotechnologists 19 Ministry Research Performer 3 Research Performer 2 Research Performer 1 RFO <p. 22-24> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 20. Where are we? ✓ Who is Frank? ✓ What are Research Funding Organizations ✓ The research question ✓ Introduction to Boundary Work Theory ✦ What is nanotechnology? ✦ Disciplinary fractioning (2 cases) ✦ Science | technology divide (2 cases) ✦ Concluding 20 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 21. What is nanotechnology? Intentionally left blank, for the time being 21 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 22. Disciplinary fractioning 22 Research Funding Organization <p. 60-61, 178-179> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 23. Swedish foundation for Strategic Research Table: SSF programs carrying 'nano' in their titles, launched from 1997 to 2004 Area Funding instrument Chemistry for the Life Sciences • Designed Nanotubes as Artificial Membrane Channels (2004-2006; SEK 3 M) Life Science Technologies • Nanochemistry (1999 - ...; SEK 40.7 M) Biomedical Engineering • Novel Medical in vivo Monitoring and Targeting of Chemical Microenvironment by Functionalised Nanoparticles (1999-2004; SEK 6.4 M) <p. 53-57> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 24. Table: SSF programs carrying 'nano' in their titles, launched from 1997 to 2004 (continued) Area Funding instrument Materials Science and Technology • Nanoscience Lund (1997-2002; SEK 26 M) • Nano Semiconductors for Optoelectronics (NANOPTO) (2000-2005; SEK 10.2 M) • Nano Science, Lund, Extended Graduate School (2002-2004; SEK 5 M) • Multifunctional Photoactive Nanoparticles, Nanoparticle Arrays and Nanoarchitectures (2003-2007; SEK 14.5 M) • Nanostructures from Self-assembly - in Solution, at Surfaces and as a Synthesis Tool (2003-2007; SEK 14.5 M) Microsystems Technology • Micro and Nano Pore Arrays for Radiation Detectors and Other Applications (2002-2005; SEK 4 M) <p. 53-57> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 25. Table: SSF programs carrying 'nano' in their titles, launched from 1997 to 2004 (continued) Area Funding instrument Microelectronics • CMOS Integrated Carbon-based Nano-electromechanical Components (2003-2007; SEK 10 M) • Magneto-electronic Nano-device Physics (2003-2007; SEK 15 M ) • Wide Bandgap Nanolasers and Transistors for Integration into Silicon Technology (2003-2007; SEK 10 M) • Strategic Research Centre for Nanodevices and Quantum Computing (NANODEV) (2003-2008; SEK 30 M) • Strategic Research Centre for Nanoscience (2003-2008; SEK 40 M) Interdisciplinary programs • Next-NIL (Nano-Imprint Technology) (SEK 4 M) • Quantum Devices and Nanoscience, Gothenburg (1997-2003 ; SEK 21 M) <p. 53-57> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 26. Interdisciplinary funding: Swiss National Science Foundation 26 Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) Section I Humaniti es and social sciences Section II Mathema tics, natural and Engineeri Section III Biology and medicine Section IV Targeted research / program funding <p. 71-72> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 27. NFP 36 - nanosciences ✦ Call for proposals 1995; projects 1996-’99 ✦ No formal definition, but a description: “Die physikalische, chemische und biologische Untersuchung von Strukturen un Prozessen auf der Nanometerskala (10-9 Meter) ..." (SNF, 1994, p. 1) The physical, chemical and biological investigation of structures and processes at the Nanometer scale. (My translation) 27 <p. 74-78> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 28. NFP 36 (continued) ✦ Focused on Scanning Tunneling Microscope ✦ The program made a subdivision in nano- ... •... electronics, •... mechanics, •... biophysics, •... chemistry, •... optics, nano-tools and methods 28 <p. 75-76> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 29. NFP 36 (continued) ✦ Program chair, G. Wagnière: •One cannot start immediately with something completely new •To define it in detail, one has to start with existing disciplines •Risk of ill-defined projects •Prepare for a next more interdisciplinary step 29 <p. 77> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 30. 30 Discipline ZDiscpline YDiscipline X Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) Section I Discipline A Section II Discipline B Section III Discipline C Section IV Program funding <p. 179-180> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 31. Questions? 31 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 32. Break 32 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 33. Where were we? ✓ Who is Frank? ✓ What are Research Funding Organizations ✓ The research question ✓ Introduction to Boundary Work Theory ✓ What is nanotechnology? ✦ Disciplinary fractioning (2nd case) ✦ Science | technology divide (2 cases) ✦ Concluding 33 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 34. Interdisciplinary funding: the Academy of Finland 34 The Academy of Finland (AKA) Program funding <p. 115-116> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 35. Program funding @ AKA 35 ✦ Bottom up procedure ✦ Central board decides after annual discussions •members are chairs of divisions / research councils <p.115-116 > Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 36. FinNano @ AKA ✦ Development started in the Research Council for Natural Sciences and Engineering in 2002 ✦ December 2003, green light from Board for negotiations about a "research programme on chemical, physical and biological nanosciences" 36 <p. 115-116> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 37. FinNano @ AKA ✦ K. Väänänen, Chair RC for Health, contacted the group •issue of health risks ✦ April 2004: exploratory workshop ✦ Autumn 2004: program preparation group, also including RC for Biosciences and Environment 37 <p. 115-116> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 38. FinNano @ AKA ✦ November 2005: Board approved FinNano ✦ Program runs 2006 - 2010 ✦ Subtitle :“Research program on nanoscience” 38 <p. 116-120> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 39. FinNano @ AKA "Nanoscience is targeted at studying the nanoscale, atomic or molecular level, systems and related phenomena. The phenomena and objects under investigation must be novel, which claims that merely a small size is not a sufficient parameter. The approach in this research programme must be interdisciplinary." (Academy of Finland, 2005, p. 35, emphasis added) 39 <p. 117> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 40. FinNano @ AKA Projects "should be focused on novel properties and functions. Traditional research on chemistry, physics and life sciences, as such, does not fulfil the characteristics of nanoscience. ... , a research project should not be built on a single discipline or engineering point of view" (Academy of Finland, 2005b, p. 38, emphasis added) 40 <p. 118> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 41. FinNano @ AKA ✦ Chosen subdivision: •Directed self-assembly •Functionality in nanoscience •Properties of single nanoscale objects 41 <p. 118> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 42. FinNano @ AKA ✦ 'Directed self-assembly' •'Self-assembly with lithography and electronics' ✦ 'Functionality in nanoscience' •‘Bionanotechnology for electronics and materials science’ ✦ 'Properties of single nanoscale objects' •Nanoscale circuitry, mechanics, actuators and photoactive systems' •'Molecular data storage and machines' (AKA, 2005, p. 38 - 39, emphasis added) <p. 118> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 43. Better than SNF solution? ✦ Much later in time. Nano meanwhile has become ‘big’ and well known ✦ Contingent development ✦ Time consuming ✦ Different deals can be made at board level 43 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 44. Boundary work ⟺  structure  / location Research Funding Organization SNF AKA = location of decision making SSF Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 45. Disciplinary fractioning + bridging 45 Science | technology divide + bridging Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 46. S | T divide in Finish funding constellation ±2008 46 Research performer 2 Research performer 6 Research performer 5 Research performer 4 Research performer 3 Research performer 1 Ministry of Trade and Industry Ministry of Education Tekes Academy of Finland <p. 104-106> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 47. Cooperation 47 AKA ✦ FinNano Tekes ✦ FinNano Joint annual meetings Mutual exchange of information Exchange of application information Mutual representation in program management <p. 120-121> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 48. Science | Technology 48 FinNano @ AKA FinNano @ Tekes Nanoscience Nanotechnology Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 49. Science | Technology FinNano @ AKA FinNano @ Tekes “Nanoscience is targeted at studying the nanoscale, atomic or molecular level, systems and related phenomena. ... Nanotechnology, on the other hand, can be considered to include applied nanoscience together with exploitation.” (Academy of Finland, 2005, p. 35, emphasis added) “Nanotechnology refers to science and technology operating at the level of atoms and molecules, i.e., in the nano size class, as well as scientific phenomena and new characteristics which one can learn to understand when operating at this level.” (Anonymous, s.a., emphasis added) <p. 113, 117> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 50. Science | Technology 50 FinNano @ AKA FinNano @ Tekes Nanoscience Nanotechnology Atoms, molecules, systems Nanoscience class Interdisciplinary division Industrial actor based division Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 51. Science | Technology FinNano @ AKA FinNano @ Tekes ✦Directed self-assembly ✦Functionality in nanoscience ✦Properties of single nanoscale objects ✦Innovative nanostructure materials ✦Nanosensors and nanoactators ✦New nanoelectronics solutions <p. 114, 118> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 52. Science | Technology 52 FinNano @ AKA FinNano @ Tekes Nanoscience Nanotechnology Atoms, molecules, systems Nanoscience class Interdisciplinary division Industrial actor based division Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 53. Science | Technology 53 FinNano @ AKA ✦ 2006 - 2010 ✦ Bottom-up proposals ✦ External peer review ✦ Loose monitoring ✦ € 9 M budget (± € 280 M annual) FinNano @ Tekes ✦ 2005 - 2009 ✦ In house discussion ✦ In house expert review ✦ Close monitoring ✦ € 45 M (± € 500 M annual) <p. 126> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 54. Where are we? ✓ Who is Frank? ✓ What are Research Funding Organizations ✓ The research question ✓ Introduction to Boundary Work Theory ✓ What is nanotechnology? ✓ Disciplinary fractioning (2 cases) ✦ Science | technology divide (2nd case) ✦ Concluding 54 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 55. Science | technology divide 55 ✦ TOP NANO 21 (Switzerland) ✦ A different way of bridging •Disciplinary fractioning •Science|technology divide Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 56. ETH in the science | technology divide ✦ Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology (ETH). ✦ Two technical universities + handful of research institutes. ✦ ETH Board (1993) 56 Research performer 2 Research performer 6 Research performer 5 Research performer 4 Research performer 3 Research performer 1 Ministry for Trade and Industry Ministry for Research and Education Technology RFO Science RFO ETH Board <p. 83-84> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 57. TOP NANO 21 ✦ 1999 - 2003 ✦ CHF 60 M (ETH annual budget 1.700 M) ✦ Organized by a consultancy firm and a well known researcher as scientific director ✦ Main objective was to "strengthen the Swiss economy through the application of new technologies based on the NANOMETER." (TOP NANO 21 website) 57 <p. 85-91> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 58. TOP NANO 21 ✦ No definition of ‘the NANOMETER’ ✦ Elaborate list of helpful headings and criteria: •material, chemistry, methods, components and systems ✦ Plus a list of don’ts. Among others: •No ‘nano clothing’ or copying of old projects •No microtechnology in disguise 58 <p. 86> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 59. TOP NANO 21 ✦ Final decision about left to ‘Group of Experts’ ✦ Idea of scientific director, H.J. Güntherodt •Well informed •Dead set on new research proposals 59 <p. 86-87> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 60. NANOMETER ✦ "As we have already seen from conventional technologies, nanotechnology will develop from the nanosciences." (TOP NANO 21 website) ✦ Consistent use of ‘NANOMETER’ in stead of nanoscience or nanotechnology 60 <p. 87> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 61. 3D project structure <p. 87> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 62. Program structure ✦ 8 types of projects •Technological fundamental projects (3D) •Feasibility studies (3D) •Alliance projects (3D) •Individual projects (3D) •Projects for knowledge and technology transfer •Projects for the preparations for launching new companies •Strategic projects •Special projects 62 <p. 88-90> Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 63. Boundary work ⟺ structure / location 63 Research performer 2 Research performer 6 Research performer 5 Research performer 4 Research performer 3 Research performer 1 Ministry for Trade and Industry Ministry for Research and Education Technology RFO Science RFO RFO Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 64. Conclusions How does it all add up? 64 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 65. Nanotechnology definitions 65 Types of descriptions ‘Core’ of the definition Other characteristics Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 66. 66 Boundary work National funding constellations Internal RFO structure National research landscape Fractioning Bridging/merging ConstrainingEnabling International landscapes + constellations Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 67. Is RFOs’ boundary work actually shaping a new field? ✦ Money is attached to definitions ✦ Clearly not ‘everything goes’ ✦ Dependency on researchers ✦ Scientists know how to cloak their plans. •Reviewers may ‘see’ this ✦ Will researchers do what they promised to do? ✦ Can RFOs prevent funding of other nano? ✦ Is the field systematically filled as a field? 67 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 68. Normative? ✦ Does nanotechnology have to funded according to acclaimed characteristics : interdisciplinary, both science and technology? ✦ Do RFOs really have to build such bridges? 68 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 69. Questions? 69 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011
  • 70. Thank you! www.researchaffairs.net 70 Wednesday, 14 September, 2011

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