Mental Models: How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
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Mental Models: How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?

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So how do you really a solve business problem from a customer-centric approach and discover innovate ideas in the process? ...

So how do you really a solve business problem from a customer-centric approach and discover innovate ideas in the process?

You might be revamping your website, looking to develop a new financial or health service or enhance an existing product, web or mobile application? In this presentation, I explore my 4 Design Tools and explain my 10 step Design Process.

Key feature of this presentation is a case study of NSW City Rail that I did focusing on the business problem of 'overcrowding' on platforms. Using a Mental Model, Persona and Concept Scenario Design, I was able to discover core issues and opportunities to improve. I key secret of the Mental Model is the need to segment users into ‘task-based’ audiences (not demographics) in order to gain better insight to the consumer train travel experience.

A Mental Model is essentially a visual representation of how users view a flow (i.e. consumer journey). It allows us to easily get behind the business problem and gain insight. It also allows us to easily conduct a gap analysis between the consumer action (i.e. does, think and feel) vs. how we as a business can support that task.

I am a BIG fan of Indi Young, a Founding Partner of Adaptive Path, who developed the concept of a Mental Model.

Enjoy and feel free to ask any questions or email me for a copy. Happy to share.

More in: Design , Business , Technology
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  • 1. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    ?
    Mental models
  • 2. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    Using Design Tools
  • 3. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    You need to understand your customer, more importantly understand the tasks that they do, feel and think – that’s right its that empathy thing again…
  • 4. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    Ok, here's the deal…
  • 5. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    Standard market segmentation techniques typically produce misleading results when trying solve a consumer problem that is unarticulated
  • 6. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    Knowing more about customer preferences may help you sell to customers initially, but it doesn't really help you design innovative and intuitive business solutions for the long term
  • 7. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    However, a task-based segmentation can help you create a more effective consumer study because you are getting behind the intentions of peoples actions
  • 8. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    I have 4 top Design Tools
    that I use over a 10 step Design Process to identify, analysis and design a customer centric solution…
  • 9. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    These are simply...
  • 10. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    These are simply...
    1. Persona
  • 11. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    These are simply...
    1. Persona
    2. Task/ Mental Model
  • 12. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    These are simply...
    1. Persona
    2. Task/ Mental Model
    3. Concept Design Scenario
  • 13. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    These are simply...
    1. Persona
    2. Task/ Mental Model
    3. Concept Design Scenario
    …and my good friend
  • 14. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    These are simply...
    1. Persona
    2. Task/ Mental Model
    3. Concept Design Scenario
    4. Prototype
  • 15. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    Lets quickly review this process & the tools
  • 16. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    1
    Define Problem
    ?
  • 17. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    1
    2
    Understand your segment
    Define Problem
    ?
  • 18. Taking the train
    • Buy ticket at station
    • 19. Read timetable
    • 20. Park car at station
    • 21. Walk to station
    How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    3
    1
    2
    Understand your segment
    List all segment tasks
    Define Problem
    ?
  • 22. Taking the train
    • Buy ticket at station
    • 23. Read timetable
    • 24. Park car at station
    • 25. Walk to station
    How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    3
    4
    1
    2
    Understand your segment
    List all segment tasks
    Analysis & group tasks
    Define Problem
    ?
    #Group1Buy ticket at station
    #Group2Walk to trainCheck weather
    #Group3Read timetableTime
  • 26. Taking the train
    • Buy ticket at station
    • 27. Read timetable
    • 28. Park car at station
    • 29. Walk to station
    How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    3
    4
    5
    1
    2
    Understand your segment
    List all segment tasks
    Analysis & group tasks
    Create task-base personas
    Define Problem
    ?
    #Group1Buy ticket at station
    #Group2Walk to trainCheck weather
    #Group3Read timetableTime
  • 30. Taking the train
    • Buy ticket at station
    • 31. Read timetable
    • 32. Park car at station
    • 33. Walk to station
    How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    3
    4
    5
    1
    2
    Understand your segment
    List all segment tasks
    Analysis & group tasks
    Create task-base personas
    Define Problem
    ?
    #Group1Buy ticket at station
    #Group2Walk to trainCheck weather
    #Group3Read timetableTime
    6
    Create task Model
  • 34. Taking the train
    • Buy ticket at station
    • 35. Read timetable
    • 36. Park car at station
    • 37. Walk to station
    How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    3
    4
    5
    1
    2
    Understand your segment
    List all segment tasks
    Analysis & group tasks
    Create task-base personas
    Define Problem
    ?
    #Group1Buy ticket at station
    #Group2Walk to trainCheck weather
    #Group3Read timetableTime
    6
    7
    Run Task-base Personas modelling
    Create task Model
  • 38. Taking the train
    • Buy ticket at station
    • 39. Read timetable
    • 40. Park car at station
    • 41. Walk to station
    How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    3
    4
    5
    1
    2
    Understand your segment
    List all segment tasks
    Analysis & group tasks
    Create task-base personas
    Define Problem
    ?
    #Group1Buy ticket at station
    #Group2Walk to trainCheck weather
    #Group3Read timetableTime
    6
    7
    8
    Concept DesignScenario
    Run Task-base Personas modelling
    Create task Model
  • 42. Taking the train
    • Buy ticket at station
    • 43. Read timetable
    • 44. Park car at station
    • 45. Walk to station
    How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    3
    4
    5
    1
    2
    Understand your segment
    List all segment tasks
    Analysis & group tasks
    Create task-base personas
    Define Problem
    ?
    #Group1Buy ticket at station
    #Group2Walk to trainCheck weather
    #Group3Read timetableTime
    9
    6
    8
    7
    Concept DesignScenario
    Run Task-base Personas modelling
    Create task Model
    Prototype until DVF
  • 46. Taking the train
    • Buy ticket at station
    • 47. Read timetable
    • 48. Park car at station
    • 49. Walk to station
    How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    3
    4
    5
    1
    2
    Understand your segment
    List all segment tasks
    Analysis & group tasks
    Create task-base personas
    Define Problem
    ?
    #Group1Buy ticket at station
    #Group2Walk to trainCheck weather
    #Group3Read timetableTime
    9
    10
    6
    7
    8
    Concept DesignScenario
    Run Task-base Personas modelling
    Create task Model
    Documentrequirements
    Prototype until DVF
  • 50. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    Lets look at them in more detail...
  • 51. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    1. Define Problem
    5. Create task-base personas
    2. Focus on your segment
    4. Analysis & group tasks
    3. List all segment tasks
    Process step
    ?
    Conducting contextual enquire - Using Step 2 segment definition PLUS the new task-based segment discovered in Step 4
    We go out into THEIR WORLD and interview these people to discover their specific beliefs, philosophies, daily routines and actions. How they THINK, FEEL and DO
    These contextual enquires allows us to create insight,empathy and our Personas
    Conduct a task brainstorm (or t-storm). Based on your target segment and business problem, what are the task's) people do-think or feel before,during and after the event.
    Once a task-list is created, we start to analysis the task and discover patterns, themes and common groups.
    Define business problem or opportunity –to understand root problem or opportunity?
    Review Stakeholders - ensure agreement and capture feedback and understanding of problem/opportunity.
    Define & agree scope – to ensure everyone understand what will be delivered and what will not
    Conduct market and competitive analysis - gain insight to what the market and competitive are going, if any
    Task-analysis: Here we identify all the tasks and sub tasks and that your target segment.
    Group tasks and name group by Affinity diagram: Sort and track tasks
    Patterns emerging and we start to identify “Task-Base audience” segment best suited to business problem.
    We NOW go out to interview this segment
    Define & understand your target audience or segment - who are are we engaging and why? What characterises do this segment have? What is the opportunity? What are the key pain points? What location to they reside?
    What does this mean
    Possible audience segments
    “ Concerned for safety and access“
    people
    “Travelling with load – kids, pram,
    luggage, wheelchair, pets” people
    “Need to be on time (Work)” people
    “Try to avoid it” people etc
    Focusing problemHow can City Rail effectively manage ‘overcrowding’ on its rail system
    For NSW City Rail
    their “target Segment”
    are essentially:
    “NSW Train passenger s”
    For NSW City Rail
    What do people do before,
    during and after a train journey?
    We brainstormed
    ALL the tasks that
    people perform.
    Example
  • 59. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    10. Documentrequirements
    8. Concept Scenario Design
    7. Task Modelling
    9. Prototype until DVF
    6. Create task Model
    Process step
    Prototype 5.2
    This is where magic happens
    Prototype allows us to explore and test our ideas within a specific step of the Concept Scenario.
    The aim is to discover innovative ways to meet our Persona activity and determine whether they are DVF:
    • Desirable - will the Persona use it?
    • 60. Viable - does it make commercial sense?
    • 61. Feasible - do we have the technology/process, people? to run with this idea?
    After the prototype is done and we have learnt, we start to clearly understand and document the solution..
    A business requirement document is a communication tool that allows us tell stakeholders what is required, the scope, when it would be done, why and how.
    It is also used to estimate cost or used as a blueprint for functional requirements.
    In Task modelling we apply our Persona through the Tasks Model to test whether we are missing anything.
    Again under each “Tower” we ask yourself what ways can we as a business support each task that our Persona is doing or thinking or feeling along the pathway.
    We select business priority ‘Tower’ and explore in more detail possible solutions by creating a design ‘Concept Scenario‘.
    A Concept Scenario is simply a storytelling tool allows us to visually see how our Persona will likely perform each activity in a new ‘improved’ world.
    This document is the start of our business requirements
    It is also used as stakeholder communication tool
    We review the business priority and scope and narrow down our Personas
    In creating the Mental Model/Task model we arrange the tasks in Step 4, and map each task out across the page.
    Under each “Tower” or “Mental Space” we determine what ways we can support this users task.
    What does this mean
    City Rail Task Modelling
    Taking 1 persona, “Nee to Be On
    time’ Worker” we run through
    ask Model to determine Task
    missing and identify ways to
    support Alan with his goal
    City Rail Concept Scenario Design
    Focusing on Alan’s one specific
    Mental Space, we discover a
    possible solution: pre-purchase
    ticket and scenario play how this would be done
    Here we prototype and mock up
    screen of how the pre-purchase
    ticketing solution would work. We
    test this and refine.
    WE determine Whether its:
    Desirable, Viable or Feasible to run with the idea
    This traditional method of documentation
    requirements post prototype results. The
    solution is further refined and cost and
    implementation implications (e.g. system,
    process, behaviour mapped) as well as
    stakeholder review and sign off
    Priority segments
    “ Concerned Traveller”
    “Travel challenged”
    “Need to Be On time’ Worker”
    Example
  • 62. How do we solve business problems from a customer-centric approach ?
    What more?
  • 63. Here is a Mental Model I did of NSW City Rail to get behind the business problem of ‘overcrowding’. Mapping the model allows me to understand the context of which the business problem exist and indentify gaps, set priorities and discover amazing innovation concepts to prototype
    Persona phase/step
    Mental space
    Detail list of persona ‘Tasks’(i.e. do, think, feel)
    Possible business ways to support it
    Page 2 of 11
    Persona& Business Legend
    Contextual enquires
    Affinity Brainstorm
  • 64. Looking at a specific mental space and listing possible ways we can support this task, starts to uncover potential solutions not visible before. By only focusing on a couple of mental spaces reveals some interesting insight and innovative solutions that where not easily visible before. These can be prototyped ASAP to determine desirability, viability and feasility.
    To help with ‘Prepare for departure’for example,
    Providing‘on-time’ announcements can help remove passenger concern
    over wether the train is running late
    Dive into a Mental Space of a Task Model
  • 65. Idea # 1:
    What if we introduced an ‘e-ticket’ system allowing passengers to pre-purchase their ticket online and visit their station to print it? How would this look like?
    High level task
    Key goal of task
    Recap on persona
    Design principles
    Explore single Mental space further
    Mock up screen or process
    Description of how the persona would perform the task
    Task Model
    How the business will support it and changes required
    Concept Scenario
    How do you create this?
    Taking the single or group of mental space(s), we narrow in and explore the way further and detail next level of task and determine possible idea to support this persona task.
    Key inputs:
    Task Model, Persona.
  • 66. Prototype allows us to explore possible ideas by looking at a specific step within a Concept Scenario. The idea is to discover innovative ideas and determine whether they are DVF: Desirable (will the Persona use it?), Viable (does it make commercial sense?) and Feasible (do we have the technology/process, people?) to run with this idea?
    Explore rapid prototype designs
    Looking at a specific
    Step of the Concept Design
    Prototype possible solutions
    Explore a single action step in more detail
    Prototype solution evaluated against DVF
    How do you create this?
    Prototyping is a great way to communicate the intent of a design both clearly and effectively. Prototypes help you to flesh out design ideas, test assumptions, and gather real-time feedback from users.
    Key inputs:
    Concept Scenario, Task Model, Persona
  • 67. Idea # 2:
    What if we introduced a system that displays capacity allowing passengers to determine next best service before or during train arrival similar to major shopping centre car parking assistance
    Shopping centre car
    park assist
    Display allows passengers to spread across the platform to freer carriages
    Display same information BEFORE enter into station
    Provide information for next train services and capacity via web and mobile BEFORE enter into station
  • 68. Once we have finished our prototype and learnt, we can be confident about the documentation of the enablers. Here we go into more detail as to what are the system, process, marketing and behavioural changes that are needed by the business to implement this solution?
    The documentation is also used to confirm the scope, get stakeholder agreement and used for cost estimation and implementation
    How do you create this?
    Business requirement is typical preformed by a business analysis .
    Key inputs:
    Concept Scenario, Output/learning of prototype
  • 69. Thank you.
    What more information or copies of templates?
    Feel free to contact me
    www.Frankichamaki.com