Manual Handling Of Loads
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Manual Handling Of Loads

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Training in manual handling techniques (Ireland)

Training in manual handling techniques (Ireland)

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Manual Handling Of Loads Manual Handling Of Loads Presentation Transcript

  • Manual Handling of Loads Frank Keenan, EHS Manager, PPI Adhesive Products Ltd. 20/07/09 1
  • WHAT IS MANUAL HANDLING ? Manual Handling is the transporting or supporting of a load by one or more people and includes And which by means of its characteristics or of unfavourable 20/07/09 ergonomic conditions, involves risk, particularly of back 2
  • Manual Handling- a Life Tool  Why Manual Handling courses?  Legislation  The skeleton  How injuries occur  Flexibility  Ergonomics  Principles of lifting 20/07/09 3
  • WHY ATTEND THIS TRAINING DAY ? To prevent back injury & its consequences  Pain & decreased mobility  Affects hobbies, family & social life  Financial consequences if unable to work 20/07/09 4
  • STATISTICS  Accident statistics  >30% in the Western world  80-90% will suffer back pain  Build up over time  Early return to work key to recovery 20/07/09 5
  • Irish Legislation  SHWW Act (1989)  SHWW (General Applications) Regulations (1993)  SHWW (Pregnant Employees etc.) Regulations (2000)  SHWW Act (2005)  SHWW (General Applications) Regulations (2007) 20/07/09 6
  • Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act (2005)  Replaces 1989 Act  Defines “reasonably practicable”  Extends employers responsibility to contractors etc.  Allows for issues such as intoxicants and other psychosocial issues to be dealt with  More detailed Safety Statement based on Risk Assessment 20/07/09 7
  • Employer’s Responsibilities  Provide a safe place to work  Safe equipment/ safe systems  PPE  Safety devices  Training and Information  Supervision  Emergency Plans  Competent person to examine H&S issues 20/07/09 8
  • Employee’s Responsibilities  Must take reasonable care of own safety and others that may be affected by their activities  To cooperate with management to comply with the law  To use PPE provided for their own safety  Not to misuse/interfere with equipment  Report defects to the employer 20/07/09 9
  • General Applications Regulations (2007)  Extended responsibilities of all parties.  Definition of “Director”.  Covers areas such as VDU’s, PPE, workplace equipment, electricity, notification of accidents/ dangerous occurrences. 20/07/09 10
  • MANUAL HANDLING REGULATIONS 2007 The employer must ……….  Avoid Manual Handling (Organisational or Mechanical Means)  If Manual Handling cannot be avoided carry out risk assessment T.I.L.E.  If Manual Handling cannot be avoided take organisational measures, use appropriate means or give employee means to reduce the risk involved with manual handling  Protect particularly sensitive risk groups (see next slide)  Where tasks are entrusted to an employee, take their capabilities into account.  Provide training & information (Weight & C.O.G. of load) 20/07/09 11
  • SENSITIVE RISK GROUPS  Children & Young Persons  Pregnant, Post Natal & Breast Feeding Women  Night Work & Shift Work 20/07/09 12
  • SCHEDULE 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LOAD Too heavy/large Un weildy/difficult to grasp Unstable/contents likely to shift Stooping/twisting Contours/consistency esp. in collision WORKING ENVIRONMENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE ACTIVITY PHYSICAL EFFORT REQUIRED Not enough Room (vertically) Over frequent/prolonged Physical Too strenuous Unable to handle loads at safe height effort of the spine Twisting movement of trunk Floor uneven/variations in levels Insufficient rest/recovery of the body Sudden movement of the load Floor or footrest unstable Excessive lifting, lowering, carrying Made with body in unstable posture Temperature, Humidity, Ventilation Distances INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTORS Employee Physically unsuited to carry out task Wearing unsuitable clothing, footwear Does not have adequate/appropriate 20/07/09 Knowledge or training 13
  • PROTECTION OF PREGNANT, POST NATAL & BREAST FEEDING EMPLOYEES 2007 Applies to women The employer MUST…… WHO ……….  Carry out a risk assessment  Are Pregnant (Schedule 8) &  Have recently given  If necessary ↓ risk by……  Changing work conditions / birth (14 weeks) working hours  Are breastfeeding  Alternative work  H & S leave (26 weeks) 20/07/09 14
  • Control of Manual Handling tasks  Where there is a risk of injury- avoid manual handling  If it is unavoidable, a risk assessment must be done  Training and information must be provided to employees, who must accept this  Competent person to examine H&S issues 20/07/09 15
  • Guideline weights for Manual Handling Guideline weights 20/07/09 16
  • Effects on the Guideline weights  Twisting during lifting operation reduces weights by:  10 % twisting through 45o  20% twisting through 90o  Frequency of operation also reduces guideline weights:  30% for 1/ 2 times per minute  50% for 5/ 8 times per minute  80% for >12 times per minute 20/07/09 17
  • Points to note:  Everybody's responsibility  Legislation being updated regularly  More awareness of your safety 20/07/09 18
  • STRUCTURE OF THE SPINE 20/07/09 19
  • OBJECTIVES Skeletal system (Bones & joints of spinal column)  Discs  Soft tissue (muscles & ligaments) 20/07/09 20
  • The musculoskeletal system  206 bones in an adult  Divided into 2 groups  3 major tasks  4 principle types of bone  3 types of joints  >600 muscles- largest: quadriceps 20/07/09 21
  • The Spine  33 bones divided into 5 regions  Upper 24 separated by disks- allowing various degrees of movement  S- shaped 20/07/09 22
  • POSTURES TO BE AVOIDED (Where, why & how to avoid these postures) 20/07/09 23
  • The Vertebrae 20/07/09 24
  • The Vertebral Functional Unit  Each vertebra consists of:  Pedicles  Transverse processes  Facet joints  Posterior superior spine  Spinal canal 20/07/09 25
  • The Facet Joint  Restricts twisting movement of the lumbar region of the spine  Allows forward and backward bending of the spine 20/07/09 26
  • The Lumbar Disc  2 separate parts  Annulus  Nucleus  Functions:  Allows movement  Cushions shock  Separates bones  Allows nerves to exit 20/07/09 27
  • SOFT TISSUE: LIGAMENTS  Taut bands of fibrous tissue  Flexible but not elastic (Avoid over-stretching)  Poor blood supply (Heal very slowly) 20/07/09 28
  • The muscles  Muscles in the back- attached to T. Processes .  Shortens by contraction- moves joints.  Only pull- cannot push.  Strongest in mid range. 20/07/09 29
  • SOFT TISSUE: MUSCLE MUSCLES WORK DYNAMICLY & STATICALLY X 20/07/09 30
  • HOW THE SPINE IS INJURED 20/07/09 31
  • OBJECTIVES  Disc: degeneration, prolapse  Soft tissue: muscle,tendon, ligaments, joint capsule  Bony injury: arthritis, fracture of the arch or end plate 20/07/09 32
  • DISC DEGENERATION  Natural Ageing Process  Begins @ age 30  Disc Looses its Water Content  Accelerated by poor posture & lifting techniques 20/07/09 33
  • RESULTS OF DISC DEGENERATI0N Slack ligaments Arthritis Slipped disc 20/07/09 34
  • SOFT TISSUE INJURIES  Overstretched  Muscles are torn when cold  Ligaments are torn because they are not elastic  May become slack due to disc degeneration  Overloaded  Muscles are torn if load is too heavy AND IF  Muscles do not have enough time to recover (repetitive work) 20/07/09 35
  • Prolapsed Disc (“Slipped Disc”) 20/07/09 36
  • STOOPING V’S STRAIGHT LIFT X  20/07/09 37
  • AVOID STOOPING AND TWISTING X X STOOPING TWISTING 20/07/09 38
  • BONE INJURY  The partly movable joints:  Facet joint (Arthritis due to wear and tear)  Sacro iliac joint 20/07/09 39
  • WHAT IS TO BE LEARNT  As we do not always initially feel pain when we cause damage to our spine we may think all is o.k.  But Be warned!!! Injuries can build up over time. Bad postures and bad handling techniques may cause problems later on in life. 20/07/09 40
  • FITNESS FOR WORK 20/07/09 41
  • OBJECTIVES  What is fitness?  Muscles relevant to manual handling  Safety when exercising  Benefits of fitness  Stretch break, How to use large leg muscles for manual handling (weight transference/ ankle, knee & hip movements) 20/07/09 42
  • WHAT IS FITNESS “Ability to do ones daily work with enough energy left over”  Strength  Aerobic (Heart & lungs)  Flexibility  Endurance 20/07/09 43
  • RELEVANT MUSCLE GROUPS  FLEXIBILITY  Calves  Hamstrings  STRENGTH:  Quadriceps (Thighs)  Abdominals (Stomach 20/07/09 44
  • ELEMENTS OF SAFE STRETCH  Warm up/cool down  Avoid sudden jerky movements  Stretch to point of slight discomfort  Hold stretch for 30 seconds x 3 times  Stretch for minimum of 6 weeks to restore flexibility 20/07/09 45
  • BENIFITS OF FITNESS  More stamina and energy  Decreased risk of injury  Improved mental alertness  Improved sense of well-being  May live longer!!! If not, you’ll definitely….  ‘Get more out of life !!!!!’. 20/07/09 46
  • ERGONOMICS AT 20/07/09 WORK 47
  • OBJECTIVES  Definition of Ergonomics  Manual Handling Assessment  Benefit of Ergonomics 20/07/09 48
  • Definition  Ergonomics aims to “fit the job, environment and equipment to the person” instead of making the person fit the above (e.g. car, sports equipment, kitchen design.  This will ensure that work is done in a way that minimises physical and mental effort while maximising efficiency. 20/07/09 49
  • RISK FACTORS Where, why & how to avoid at work? X STOOPING TWISTING LOADS 20/07/09 AWAY FROM BODY 50 OVER REACHING
  • YOU MUST ASSESS YOUR JOB TO SEE IF YOU ARE CAPABLE OF DOING IT SAFELY T task I individual L load 20/07/09 51
  • T.I.L.E. TASK Loads away from the body Twisting/stooping Reaching upwards Long carrying distances Strenuous effort Large vertical movements LOAD Heavy ENVIRONMENT INDIVIDUAL Bulky/unweildy Poor floors Require unusual capabilities Hazard to those with health problems Difficult to grasp Variations in levels Hazard to those who are pregnant Unsteady/unpredictable Constraints on postures Require special information/training Harmful – Lighting conditions Require PPE Co-operative Strong air movements Attachments Hot, cold humid conditions Walking aids 20/07/09 52
  • SOLUTIONS SHORT TERM SOLUTIONS LONG TERM SOLUTIONS  Extra staff  Relocate Kitchen into main  Improve lighting Hospital  Fill Potholes  Fix Wheels  Contract out catering to outside company  Training  Put ramp at kerb  Reflective clothing 20/07/09 53
  • BENEFITS OF ERGONOMICS I f you assess your job, you will be…  Better able to recognise potentially harmful tasks  Safer – decreased risk of injury  More comfortable – more energy, less stress  More efficient & productive 20/07/09 54
  • PRINCPLES OF SAFER MANUAL 20/07/09 HANDLING 55
  • OBJECTIVES  The thought process involved before loads are moved  Principles of manual handling  Team handling 20/07/09 56
  • BEFORE ANY HANDLING TASK “Think before you begin” AVOID  Must you do the task at all?   If you must do the task, Assess – T.I.L.E  Can the task be made more manageable by: Spliting the load Getting help from other staff member Using equipment  20/07/09 57
  • The 8 Principles of Lifting  Assess the task (area & load)- TILE  Bend the knees  Ensure broad stable base  Back straight (Neutral position & Avoid combined bending & twisting)  Firm grip with palm of hand  Arms in line with trunk  Weight close to centre of gravity  Turn feet in direction of movement 20/07/09 58
  • SPINAL BIOMECHANICS  X X 20/07/09 59
  • 5 Types of basic lift  To and from the floor  To and from a bench  To and from a height  Pushing  Pulling 20/07/09 60
  • TEAM HANDLING  Be aware of limitations of team handling  Work with people of similar height  Appoint a leader  Plan the manoeuvre  Agree a command, to ensure a smooth co- co-ordinated movement (Ready, Steady lift.. pull…lower etc.) 20/07/09 61
  • Conclusion  This training course must be used outside work- LIFE TOOL  Always follow the 8 Principles wherever you are (whenever possible)  Remember- you only have one back- take care of it and it will “back” you up for life! 20/07/09 62
  • The Radon Problem U-238 4.5 billion yr U-234 250,000 yr Pa-234 1.2 min Th-234 Th-230 24 days 77,000 yr Ra-226 1,600 yr Rn-222 3.8 days Po-218 Po-214 Po-210 3.05 min 164 microsec 138 days Bi-214 Bi-210 19.7 min 5.0 days Pb-214 Pb-210 Pb-206 Stable 26.8 min 22 yr 20/07/09 63
  • Use of intoxicants  Companies moving towards manditory testing/random testing.  Can have a very serious impact on work H&S.  Where possible let your employer know if on meds that affect work. 20/07/09 64
  • Noise  Reduction in exposure levels  Obligations if levels are between 80 and 85 dB A and above 85 dB A  If levels vary daily then a weekly average can be used  Preventative audiometric testing 20/07/09 65
  • Chemical Agents  Use of PPE when using chemicals  Personal hygeine is important  Familiarise yourself with the material MSDS  Use proper soap etc to claen affected areas NOT solvents 20/07/09 66
  • Reviewing MSDS’s  Check for associated hazards (Sec. 3)  PPE to be used (Sec. 8)  Toxicological information (Sec. 11)  Other areas of interest (Sec. 4, 5 & 7)  New material = new MSDS 20/07/09 67
  • Dignity at Work  People need no longer feel threatened by other employees or managers  Physical and sexual harassment dealt with through H&S Legs and Regs. 20/07/09 68