Pronunciation of –s and –edFind the odd one out.• WRAPPED BEGGED KISSED WORKED• BEES BIRDS CATS DOGS• STUDIED LOVED BURIED STARTED• MAKES KILLS SHOWS EXPLAINSWhy is this being studied in a grammar book?
Pronunciation of –s and –ed-s• With nouns, -s is the plural marker.• With nouns, -s is also used to mark possession.• With verbs, -s is used for the third person singular form in the Simple Present.-ed• -ed is associated with the Simple Past.• -ed is also associated with the Past Participle form. PERFECT TENSES / PASSIVE VOICE / ADJECTIVES
Pronunciation of –s and –edTypical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- Some cats /s/ are sleeping by the trees /s/ that we planted /əd/ last year.- The police followed /əd/ the speeding car and proceeded / əd/ to interrogate the driver and her passengers /z/.- The most popular animals at the zoo are the monkeys /s/, giraffes /s/ and elephants /s/.- There are many reasons /z/ why the judges / əz/ reached / əd/ their verdict so quickly.- When spring arrived əd/, the seeds /z/ that she had planted / əd/ a month earlier began to sprout from the earth.
Pronunciation of –s and –edHow can we pronounce –s? Which one is the mostcommon?/s/ /z/ /əz/How can we pronounce –ed? Which one is themost common?/t/ /d/ /əd/
Pronunciation of –s and –edHow are sounds made? How do sounds vary?Variations of sounds are produced by...1) ... altering the place where the sound is made.2) ... altering the manner in which the sound is made.3) ... altering voicing.1) beat ≠ but 2) f≠b 3) p≠b
Pronunciation of –s and –edConsonantsVoiced Voiceless/b/ cab /ð/ bathe /p/ cap/d/ grade /l/ call /t/ grate/g/ bag /m/ name /k/ back/v/ have /n/ can /f/ half/z/ rise /ŋ/ song /s/ rice/dʒ/ surge /tʃ/ search/ʒ/ massage /ʃ/ cash/r/ purr /θ/ bathWhat about the vowels? Which ones are voicedand which ones are voiceless?
Pronunciation of –s and –ed Voiced VoicelessDo we need to memorize /b/ cab /ð/ bathe /p/ capthis chart at this point? /d/ grade /l/ call /t/ grate /g/ bag /m/ name /k/ back /v/ have /n/ can /f/ halfHow else can we find out /z/ rise /ŋ/ song /s/ riceif a sound is voiced or /dʒ/ surge all vowels /tʃ/ search /ʒ/ massage /ʃ/ cashvoiceless? /r/ purr /θ/ bath To verify if a phoneme is voiced or voiceless, try putting your fingers over your Adam’s apple. If you can feel an increased vibration when pronouncing the sound, then it is a voiced sound.
Pronunciation of –s and –edClassify these words according to their ending phoneme.sock love listen stop number watch soundfollow influence take language dog elephantwrite measure victory giraffe business tieVoiceless Ending Phoneme Voiced Ending Phoneme
Voiced VoicelessPronunciation of –s /b/ cab /d/ grade /ð/ bathe /l/ call /p/ cap /t/ grate /g/ bag /m/ name /k/ back /v/ have /n/ can /f/ halfMatch the phonemes to their /z/ rise /ŋ/ song /s/ ricecorresponding uses and /dʒ/ surge all vowels /tʃ/ search /ʒ/ massage /ʃ/ cashcome up with examples. /r/ purr /θ/ bathAdd This Sound Ending Sound Voiceless 1. /z/ 2 _____ /t/, /f/, /k/, /p/, /θ/ Other 2. /s/ 3 _____ /s/, /z/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /dʒ/,/ʒ/ Voiced 3. /əz/ 1 _____ /d/, /v/, /g/, /b/, /ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /r/, all vowels
Pronunciation of –s Classify these words according to their ending phoneme. cats bees birds dresses plants dogs houses giraffes judges trees elephants arrives works reaches washes follows/s/ /z/ /əz/
Voiced VoicelessPronunciation of –ed /b/ cab /d/ grade /ð/ bathe /l/ call /p/ cap /t/ grate /g/ bag /m/ name /k/ back /v/ have /n/ can /f/ halfMatch the phonemes to their /z/ rise /ŋ/ song /s/ ricecorresponding uses and come /dʒ/ surge all vowels /tʃ/ search /ʒ/ massage /ʃ/ cashup with examples. /r/ purr /θ/ bathAdd This Sound Ending Sound Voiceless 1. /t/ 1 _____ /f/, /k/, /p/, /θ/, /s/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/ Other 2. /d/ 3 _____ /d/, /t/ Voiced 3. /əd/ 2 _____ /v/, /g/, /b/, /ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /r/, /z/, /dʒ/,/ʒ/, all vowels
Pronunciation of –ed Classify these words according to their ending phoneme. avoided disarmed chewed disliked calculated educated closed faced faxed extended fetched explained guided guarded influenced imagined/t/ /d/ /əd/
Passive Voice- Active Voice: Subject + Verb + Direct Object Mary has written six e-mails.- Passive Voice: Subject + Verb to be + Past Participle Six e-mails have been written.Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- Thousands of people went to California in the 1840s because gold discovered there.- Where were you when the accident was happened?- More than one hundred people killed in that plane crash.- The Japanese language can write from left to right or form top to bottom.- If you find a wallet, it should be returning to the owner immediately.
Passive Voice- BE + PAST PARTICIPLE1) correct verb tense2) correct form be + PAST PARTICIPLEThe residence of the president of is called the Whitethe United States House.The current White House was built in 1818.By 1815, the original White had been in a fire.House destroyed
Active Voice X Passive Voice- Active Voice1) Common sentence pattern: Subject + Verb + Direct Object.2) Most important topic: The person or thing doing the action.3) The subject is the agent of the action.4) Examples:a) The people of France gave the Statue of Liberty to the United States.b) Leonardo da Vinci painted the famous Mona Lisa.c) We will make a decision about our trip soon.d) The people reelected George Washington for a second term in 1792.
Active Voice X Passive Voice- Passive Voice1) Common sentence pattern: Subject + Verb to be + Past Participle.2) Most important topic: The person or thing receiving the action.3) The subject is the receiver of the action.4) Examples:a) The Statue of Liberty was given to the United States by the people of France .b) The famous Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.c) A decision about our trip will be made soon.d) George Washington was reelected for a second term in 1792.
Passive Voice – Verb Tenses Verb Active PassiveTensesPresent People buy candies at the Candies are bought at theSimple supermarket. supermarket.Present People are buying candies at Candies are being bought at Cont. the supermarket. the supermarket.Present People have bought candies Candies have been bought atPerfect at the supermarket. the supermarket. Past People bought candies at the Candies were bought at theSimple supermarket. supermarket. Past People were buying candies Candies were being bought at Cont. at the supermarket. the supermarket. Past People had bought candies at Candies had been bought atPerfect the supermarket. the supermarket.
Passive Voice – Verb Tenses Verb Active PassiveTensesFuture People will buy candies at the Candies will be bought at the supermarket. supermarket. People are going to buy Candies are going to be bought candies at the supermarket. at the supermarket.Modal People could buy candies at Candies could be bought at theVerbs the supermarket. supermarket. People should buy candies at Candies should be bought at the supermarket. the supermarket. Intransitive Verbs are never used in the passive voice, for they are never followed by a direct object. Examples: happen/die/arrive/depart
Passive Voice- When is the passive voice used? Generally when the agent of the action is not the most important thing. Even though, if you want to name the agent of the passive, you can use the by + agent phrase. However, it can sometimes be strange to name it. a) The Statue of Liberty was given to the United States by the people of France . b) The famous Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. c) A decision about our trip will be made by us soon. d) George Washington was reelected for a second term by the people in 1792.- We should not name the agent if it is not new information or if it is not important.
Passive Voice with GET- get + past participle It indicates sudden change, while the passive voice with be indicates a result. Examples: a) We were lost. (It describes our situation at a certain point.) b) We got lost. (It indicates that we were traveling and suddenly did not know our location.)- The passive voice with get is considered informal.
Passive Voice used as Adjectives- In some situations, it is possible to use a passive verb form as an adjective to describe a condition or state instead of an action. Sentence Notes The window is closed. This sentence describes the condition of the window now. All of the checks are gone. This sentence describes the condition of the checks now.
Past Participles x Present Participles- Both past participles and present participles can function as an adjective.Participial Form ExamplePast Participle When I heard the news yesterday. I was suprised.Present Participle The news was surprising.- ELLs have a particularly difficult time figuring out when to use the past participle and the present participle forms as adjectives.- Present Participles: The person or thing causes the action.- Past Participles: The person or thing suffers the action.
Past Participle + Preposition- past participles in passive voice They were married by an old minister.- past participles used as adjectives I am interested in something. be accustomed to be divorced from be married to be acquainted with be done with be opposed to be ashamed of be dressed in be related to be bored with / by be excited about be satisfied with be commited to be exhausted from be scared of be composed of be finished with be surprised at/by be confused about be fed up with be terrified of be convinced of be impressed by/with be tired of/from be dedicated to be interested in be used to be devoted to be known for be worried about be disappointed with be made of/from