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  • 1. TDC 1Pedagogical GrammarClass 6
  • 2. Present Verb Tenses- Not as easy as one might assume. Simple Present1) Actions that happen repeatedly - _________________2) Actions that are happening right now - _____________ Present Progressive3) Actions that began in the past and are still happening now - ________________ Present PerfectTypical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- I am in this city for all my adult life.- The solution to my problem isn’t depend on another person.- Is working your uncle at the bank now?- Modern cars are having much better tires than in the past.- Do you have worked at this bank since the last time I saw you?
  • 3. Present Verb TensesVerb Tense Example MeaningSimple I study Chinese every day. a habitual or repeating actionPresentPresent I am studying Chinese today. a current actionProgressivePresent I have studied Chinese since an action that began in the pastPerfect 2006. and continues to be truePresent I have been studying an action that began in the pastPerfect Chinese all morning. and is continuing now (withProgressive emphasis on the fact that it is still happening now. - Simple Present* Present Progressive* Present Perfect Present Perfect Progressive - Simple Present / Present Progressive – Future Meaning* - Present Perfect – Unspecified Past*
  • 4. Simple PresentVerb Tense Example MeaningSimple I study Chinese every day. a habitual or repeating actionPresentPast Now Future X X X X X I X X X X XSingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI walk we walk - -s in the third person singularyou walk you walk - irregular forms (-ies / -es / has)he/she/it walks they walk Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - Laura cook scrambled eggs for breakfast every day. - My baby sister crys when she is hungry. - I am walk to school every day.
  • 5. Present Progressive Verb Tense Example Meaning Present I am studying Chinese today. a current action ProgressivePast Now Future X IXSingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI am walking we are walking - am/is/are + present participleyou are walking you are walking - Formation of presenthe/she/it is walking they are walking participles* Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - We study very hard for tomorrow’s test. - The earth is going around the sun once a year. - My baby brother crying now. - He is siting on the table. - I am having two cars.* What is the mistake here?
  • 6. Present Perfect Verb Tense Example Meaning Present I have studied Chinese since an action that began in the past Perfect 2006. and continues to be truePast Now Future X X X X X ISingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI have walked we have walked - has / have + past participleyou have walked you have walked - formation of pasthe/she/it has walked they have walked participles* Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - I lived here my whole life. - Sarah have rented the same apartment since 2005. - Sarah has already complete all the homework. - Macy has putted the book on the teacher’s table.
  • 7. Present Perfect ProgressiveVerb Tense Example MeaningPresent I have been studying an action that began in the past and isPerfect Chinese all morning. continuing now (with emphasis on theProgressive fact that it is still happening now).*Past Now Future X X X X X ISingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI have been walking we have been walking - has / have + beenyou have been walking you have been walking + present participlehe/she/it has been walking they have been walking Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - I been waiting for the bus for almost 45 minutes. - I am waiting for the bus for almost 45 minutes.
  • 8. Negative FormsTense Negative FormSimple Present I/you/we/they + do + not + verb he / she / it + does + not + verbPresent I am + not + present participleProgressive you/we/they + are + not + present participle he / she / it + is + not + present participlePresent Perfect I/you/we/they + have+ not + past participle he / she / it + has + not + past participlePresent Perfect I/you/we/they + have+ not + been + present participleProgressive he / she / it + has + not + been + present participleWhat ELLs Should Know- Most difficult – Present Simple*Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- I no speak French well. // The soup doesn’t smells good.- The man is not like this food. // We don’t have eaten yet.
  • 9. ContractionsTense Affirmative NegativeSimple Present ----- do not – don’t does not – doesn’tPresent I am – I’m am not - ---Progressive he/she/it is – he’s/she’s/ it’s is not – isn’t (he’s not...) you/we/they are – you’re, are not – aren’t (you’re not...) we’re, they’rePresent Perfect I/you/we/they have – I’ve / I/you/we/they have not –+ Present you’ve / we’ve / they’ve haven’t (I’ve not...)Perfect he / she / it has – he’s / he / she / it has not – hasn’tProgressive she’s / it’s* (he’s not...)Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- I amn’t from northern India.- Linda’s bought a new car. It’s an amazing sound system.
  • 10. Forming QuestionsTense Negative FormSimple Present do + I/you/we/they + verb does + he / she / it + verbPresent am + I + present participleProgressive are + you/we/they + present participle is + he / she / it + present participlePresent Perfect have + I/you/we/they + past participle has + he / she / it + past participlePresent Perfect have + I/you/we/they + been + present participleProgressive has + he / she / it + been + present participleWhat ELLs Should Know- Most difficult – Present Simple*Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- Do Luke like hockey? // Does Valery goes to class every day?- Is Mary have a sports car? // Do you wearing a new tie today?- How many international trips did you have taken in your life?
  • 11. Present TensesPortuguese Interference Common ErrorsEnglish Present Perfect tense can be 1. “I live here all my life.”rendered in Portuguese by the 2. “I already watched this film.”present form or the past form.Portuguese speakers frequently use 1. “If you need a ride to thethe simple present to talk about the store, I take you.”future. 2. “In a little while, I cook dinner.”In Portuguese, the ending of verbschange according to the subject.Students might get confused.In Portuguese, there are no auxiliary 1. “___You want to go?”verbs used to form questions or to 2. “I no want to go.”form negative sentences in theSimple Present.
  • 12. Past Verb Tenses- In some languages there are no verb tenses. Time is indicated by the use of adverbials.- In some others, the past verb tenses may have different uses. How many past forms are there? Can you list them?Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- According to the report, dozens of people did not received their tax information.- When I ate dinner last night, my uncle called me.- How many people did you talked to at the party?- By the time I was old enough to vote, I participated in two local campaigns.- Do you have ever flown on a 747 jumbo jet?
  • 13. Past Verb Tenses- Match the different tenses / forms to their corresponding uses. Verb Tense Use1) Simple Past 2 ____ a past action in progress at a specific point in the past2) Past Progressive 4 ____ a past action completed before another past action3) Present Perfect ____ an action beginning before another past 5 action (emphasis on the duration)4) Past Perfect ____ a single past event (definite time) 15) Past Perfect ____ an action happening many times in the 6 Progressive past but no longer being true6) Used To / Would 3 ____ a past action (indefinite time) that could happen again
  • 14. Simple PastVerb Tense Example MeaningSimple Past I ate dinner at 8 PM. a single past event (definite time)Past Now Future 8 PM X ISingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI walked we walkedyou walked you walked - Formation of the past form*he/she/it walked they walked Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - Laura cooks scrambled eggs for breakfast yesterday. - I was walk to school yesterday. - My baby sister cryed last night. - She stoped the car to answer her cell phone.
  • 15. Past Progressive Verb Tense Example Meaning Past I was eating dinner a past action that was happening Progressive when you called. (when it was interrupted by another)Past interruption Now Future X X X X I ISingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI was walking we were walking - was/were + present participleyou were walking you were walking - formation of presenthe/she/it was walking they were walking participles Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - When I got my first job, I was live in Los Angeles. - I cut the onions. Then I was putting them in the soup. - From 2000 to 2007, I was owning two cars.*
  • 16. Present PerfectSingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI have walked we have walked - has / have + past participleyou have walked you have walked - formation of past participles*he/she/it has walked they have walkedUsage 1Verb Tense Example MeaningPresent I have studied Chinese since an action that began in the pastPerfect 2006. and continues to be truePast Now Future X X X X X I Key Words how long for + time since + time
  • 17. Present PerfectUsage 2Verb Tense Example MeaningPresent I have just finished typing my recent past action that isPerfect reports. relevant to the current situationPast Now Future X I Key Words: just alreadyUsage 3Verb Tense Example Meaning VariationsPresent Perfect I have already been there. past experience (indefinite time) - Yet (questions / negatives)Past Now - Superlatives Future ? I - The first, the second... Key Words: ever never many times before already
  • 18. Present PerfectUsage 4Verb Tense Example MeaningPresent I have watched E.T. five times repetition of an action beforePerfect nowPast Now Future X X X X X ... I Key Words: six...so far one...this semester a lot Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - I was born here and will die here. I been here my whole life. - Sarah have already completed all the homework. - I have gone to Mexico several times when I was in college. - I lived in this same apartment since 1996.
  • 19. Past PerfectVerb Tense Example MeaningPast Perfect I had eaten dinner a past action that was completed before before you called. a second past action (or time)Past Now Future X X ISingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI had walked we had walked - context (before, after)you had walked you had walked - formation of pasthe/she/it had walked they had walked participles Typical ELL Errors - I had work for the bus for almost 20 years. - When the company went bankrupt, I worked there for 20 years.
  • 20. Past Perfect ProgressiveVerb Tense Example MeaningPast Perfect I had been eating an action that began in the past beforeProgressive dinner before you a second past action (emphasis in the called. duration of the action)Past Now Future X X X X I ISingular Plural What ELLs ShouldI had been walking we had been walking Know - had + been +you had been walking you had been walking present participlehe/she/it had been walking they had been walking Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - I been waiting for the bus for almost 45 minutes when you arrived. - I was waiting for the bus for almost 45 minutes when you arrived.
  • 21. Used to and Would Used To What ELLs Should KnowSingular Plural 1. past action happeningI used to walk we used to walk repeatedly, but noyou used to walk you used to walk longer truehe/she/it used to walk they used to walk 2. past fact no longer true WouldSingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI would walk we would walk 1. past action happeningyou would walk you would walk repeatedly, but nohe/she/it would walk they would walk longer trueWhat’s the difference? “Would” is only used to decribe actions, while “used to” can be used to describe both actions and facts (or states).
  • 22. Negative FormsTense Negative FormSimple Past subject + did + not + verbPast I / he / she / it was + not + present participleProgressive you/we/they + were+ not + present participlePast Perfect subject + had + not + past participlePast Perfect subject + had + not + been + present participleProgressiveUsed to subject + did + not + use to + verbWould subject + would + not + verbWhat ELLs Should Know- Most difficult – Past Simple / Used to
  • 23. Negative FormsTypical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- I not understand the directions well.- The man was not like the food because it was too salty.- The man did not liked the food because it was too salty.- We don’t have eaten at that restaurant yet.- When we met you, we didn’t have lived in this house for vey long.- I didn’t used to like animals, so my parents did not get any pets for me.
  • 24. ContractionsTense Affirmative NegativeSimple Past ----- did not – didn’tPresent Perfect I/you/we/they have – have not – haven’t I’ve/you’ve/we’ve/they’ve has not – hasn’t (he’s not...) he/she/it has – he’s/she’s/it’sPast Perfect + I/you/he/she/it/we/they had – had not – hadn’tPast Perfect I’d/you’d/he’d/she’d/it’d*/we’dProgressive /they’dUsed to ----- did not – didn’tWould I/you/he/she/it/we/they would would not – wouldn’t – I’d/you’d/he’d/she’d/it’d*/ we’d /they’dWhat ELLs Should Know- “´d” can mean “had” or “would”- How can we tell the difference?
  • 25. Forming QuestionsTense Negative FormSimple Past did + subject + verbPast Progressive was + I/he/she/it + present participle were + you/we/they + present participlePresent Perfect have + I/you/we/they + past participle has + he / she / it + past participlePast Perfect had + subject + past participlePast Perfect Progressive had + subject + been + present participleUsed to did + subject + use to + verbWould would + subject + verbTypical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- Did Valerie attended class yesterday? // Was Mary own a sports car?- Did you wearing a new tie when you met your new boss yesterday?- How many international trips did you have taken in your life?- Did you have finished the project before your boss called?- How many children did families used to have a century ago?
  • 26. Past TensesPortuguese Interference Common ErrorsEnglish Present Perfect tense can 1. “I live here all my life.”be rendered in Portuguese by the 2. “I already watched this film.”present form or the past form.In Portuguese, the ending of verbschange according to the subject.Students might get confused.In Portuguese, there are no 1. “___You wanted to go?”auxiliary verbs used to form 2. “I no wanted to go.”questions or to form negativesentences in the Simple Past.Portuguese-speaking ELLs have 1. “I had a car.” “I hadn’t a car.”difficulty understanding the 2. “I had studied.” “I didn’t havedifference in negating the verb studied.”“have” in simple past tense and averb in the past perfect thense.
  • 27. Future Verb Tenses- The first future tense ELLs learn (will + verb) is among the least used ones.- Some present verb tenses (Simple Present, Present Progressive) can also be used to refer to the future time.Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- If you don’t have received an e-mail from my boss by tomorrow afternoon, call me and I will talk to him personally.- Tomorrow, we go to the beach with some friends.- I promise to call you just as soon as I will get home tonight.- Several of my friends going to help me.- I will write a letter to my grandparents, and I want to mail it right away.
  • 28. Future Verb Tenses- Match the different tenses / forms to their corresponding uses. Verb Tense Use1) Be going to 2 ____ an action in the future describing a decision made at the time of speaking2) Simple Future 4 ____ an action finished by a specified time in the future3) Future Progressive ____ how long an action has been happening 5 at a future point (focus on the duration)4) Future Perfect ____ an event in the future, especially one 1 already planned5) Future Perfect ____ an action taking place at some point in 3 Progressive the future
  • 29. Be going toVerb Tense Example MeaningBe going to We are going to fly to New an event in the future, especially York tomorrow. one already plannedPast Now Future I XSingular Plural What ELLs ShouldI am going to walk we are going to walk Knowyou are going to walk you are going to walk - also for predictionshe/she/it is going to they are going to walk based on concretewalk evidence Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - Laura going to cook scrambled eggs for breakfast tomorrow. - Our boss is going miss work tomorrow. - I believe that Olga’s going to studies with me.
  • 30. Simple Future TenseVerb Tense Example MeaningSimple Don’t worry. I will an action in the future describing aFuture answer the phone. decision made at the time of speakingPast Now Future I XSingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI will walk we will walk - Also for predictions andyou will walk you will walk requestshe/she/it will walk they will walk Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - Andrea will to study more if she has more free time. - Shawn will helps Jim with the work. - Sorry, but I can’t help you tomorrow. I will visit my aunt at the hospital.
  • 31. Future Progressive Verb Tense Example Meaning Future I will be eating dinner a action that will be in progress at a Progressive when you call. specific time in the futurePast Now Future I X X XIX XSingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI will be walking we will be walking - will be + presentyou will be walking you will be walking participlehe/she/it will be they will be walking - formation of presentwalking participles Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - When you call tomorrow, I will studying for my test. - If you will be needing help tomorrow, I will assist you.
  • 32. Future PerfectVerb Tense Example MeaningFuture By this time tomorrow, I will an action finished by a specificPerfect have finished studying. time in the futurePast Now Future I X XSingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI will have walked we will have walked - will have + pastyou will have walked you will have walked participlehe/she/it will have they will have walked - formation of pastwalked participles* Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - I will have taken my driver’s license test. - By the time that you will have completed this task, it will be almost midnight.
  • 33. Future Perfect ProgressiveVerb Tense Example MeaningFuture I had been eating how long an action has beenPerfect dinner before you happening at a future point (emphasisProgressive called. in the duration of the action)Past Now Future I X X X X ISingular Plural What ELLs ShouldI will have been walking we will have been walking Knowyou will have been you will have been - will havewalking walking + been + presenthe/she/it will have been they will have been participlewalking walking Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - As of next Friday, I will be working here for 20 years.
  • 34. Present Simple / Present ProgressiveVerb Tense Example MeaningSimple The plane departs at 7 pm events on a definite schedule orPresent tomorrow. timetable What ELLs Should Know 1. Also in time clauses in the futureVerb Tense Example MeaningPresent I are watching the new Star a scheduled event or definiteProgressive Wars movie tomorrow. intention What ELLs Should Know 1. Future time expressions Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?) - Tomorrow we cooking red beans and rice. - I leave for Miami. - As soon as you will arrive, please call me and I’ll pick you up.
  • 35. Negative FormsTense Negative Form I am not + going to + verbBe going to you/we/they are not + going to + verb he/she/it is not + going to + verbSimple Future subject + will not + verbFuture Progressive subject + will not be + present participleFuture Perfect subject + will have not + past participleFuture Perfect Progressive subject + will have not + been + present participleContractionsTense Affirmative NegativeBe going to I am going – I’m going I am not – ------- he/she/it is going – he/she/it is not going – he’s/she’s/it’s going he/she/it isn’t going you/we/they are going – you/we/they are not going you’re/we´re/they’re going – you/we/they aren’t going
  • 36. ContractionsTense Affirmative NegativeSimple Future I/you/he/she/it/we/they will – will not –Future Progressive I’ll/you’ll/he’ll/she’l/it’ll/we’ll/they’ll won’tFuture PerfectFuture Perfect ProgressiveForming QuestionsTense QuestionsBe going to am + I + going to + verb is + he/she/it + going to + verb are + you/we/they + going to + verbSimple Future will+ subject + verbFuture Progressive will + subject + be + present participleFuture Perfect will + subject + have + past participleFuture Perfect will + subject + have + been + present participleProgressive
  • 37. Future TensesPortuguese Interference Common ErrorsPortuguese does not have a single 1. “He will arrives tomorrow.”word for “will”. Instead, word 2. “I go watch this film tomorrow.”endings on the verbs indicate thefuture tense. “Go” conjugated inthe present also serves as anindication of future.In Portuguese, the ending of verbschange according to the subject.Students might get confused.In Portuguese, there are no 1. “___You will go with us?”auxiliary verbs used to form 2. “I no will go.”questions or to form negativesentences in the Simple Past.