TDC1 - Class 3
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TDC1 - Class 3 TDC1 - Class 3 Presentation Transcript

  • TDC 1Pedagogical GrammarClass 3
  • Parts of Speech - ReviewIn pairs, list the eight parts of speechwe have talked about, define each andgive an example.Pre-Test 3 – Page 41
  • Exercises• Nouns - Workbook Page 39 (Exercise 2.25) Page 40 (Exercise 2.27)• Pronouns – Workbook Page 48 (Exercise 2.36)• Adjectives – Workbook Page 49 (Exercise 2.38) Page 50 (Exercise 2.40)• Verbs – Workbook Page 42 (Exercise 2.30) Page 45 (Exercise 2.33)
  • Exercises• Adverbs – Workbook Page 52 (Exercise 2.44) Page 53 (Exercise 2.45)• Prepositions – Workbook Page 58 (Exercise 2.51)• Conjunctions – Workbook Page 55 (Exercise 2.47) Page 56 (Exercise 2.48)
  • Count / Non-Count NounsCompare your answers in groups of 3.
  • Parts of Speech - Uses Nouns – Subject / Direct Object / Indirect Object / Subject or Object Complement / Object of Preposition Pronouns – Subject / Direct Object / Indirect Object / Subject or Object Complement / Object of Preposition Adjectives – Modifying Noun or Pronoun/ Subject Complement / Object Complement Verbs – Predicate Adverbs – Modifying Verb/ Modifying Adjective / Modifying Adverb / Modifying Passages Prepositions – Introducing Prepositional Phrases Conjunctions – Coordinating: Joining Words, Phrases or Clauses of Equal Rank / Subordinating: Joining Clauses Interjections – Showing Emotion
  • Phrases, Clauses and Sentences• A phrase is a group of words (or sometimes a single word) that form a constituent and so function as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence.• A clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.• A sentence is a grammatical unit expressing an independent statement , question, request, etc, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses.
  • Phrases• A phrase is a group of words (or sometimes a single word) that form a constituent and so function as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence.Noun The title of the course thatVerb the beautiful young girl wasAdjective looking for at schoolAdverb yesterday morning wasPreposition Woodland Ecology.
  • Clauses • A clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition. INDEPENDENT x DEPENDENTNoun: I don’t know who wrote it.Adjective: She’s the girl who sent him that weird e-mail.Adverb: The package arrived before Mark had the chance to leave.
  • Sentences • A sentence is a grammatical unit expressing an independent statement , question, request, etc, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses. 4 _____ Washington died before Lincoln1. Simple was born, so these two famous2. Compound citizens never met each other.3. Complex 2 _____ Washington died in 1799, and4. Compound- Lincoln was born in 1809. complex 3 _____ Washington died before Lincoln was born. 1 _____ Washington was the first U.S. president.
  • Sentences1) A simple sentence... ... has one independent clause.2) A compound sentence... ... contains two independent clauses.3) A complex sentence... ... has one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.4) A compound-complex sentence... ... contains two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
  • Adjective ClausesAdjective Pronouns - SubjectMatch the pronouns and their corresponding uses.Pronouns Uses 31. who _____ used for both people and things 1 _____ used for people2. which 2 _____ used for things3. that
  • Adjective ClausesAdjective Pronouns - SubjectJoin the sentences, using the second of them as anadjective clause.1) We helped the man.2) He was lost in the woods.We helped the man who / that was lost in the woods.1) The new computer is fast.2) It is in my officeThe new computer which / that is in my office is fast.
  • Adjective ClausesAdjective Pronouns - ObjectMatch the pronouns and their corresponding uses.Pronouns Uses 21. who(m) _____ used for things 3 _____ used for both people and things2. which 1 _____ used for people3. that
  • Adjective ClausesAdjective Pronouns - ObjectJoin the sentences, using the second of them as anadjective clause.1) The man was Mr. Jones.2) I saw the man yesterday.The man who(m) / that I saw yesterday was Mr. Jones.1) The movie wasn’t very good.2) We saw the movies yesterday.The movie which / that we saw yesterday wasn’t verygood.
  • Adjective ClausesAdjective Pronouns – Object of thePrepositionMatch the pronouns and their corresponding uses.Pronouns Uses 1 _____ used for people1. who(m) 2 _____ used for both things2. which 3 _____ used for both people and things3. that
  • Adjective ClausesAdjective Pronouns – Object of thePrepositionJoin the sentences, using the second of them as anadjective clause.1) She is the woman.2) I told you about her.She is the woman who(m) / that I told you about.Is there any other possibility?She is the woman about whom I told you.
  • Adjective ClausesAdjective Pronouns – Object of thePreposition1) The music was good.2) We listened to the music last night.The music which / that we listened to last night was good.Is there any other possibility?The music to which we listened last night was good.
  • Adjective ClausesAdjective Pronouns - OmitionIn which of the sentences below is it possible to omit therelative pronoun?We helped the man who was lost in the woods. (Not Possible)The man whom I Isaw yesterday was Mr. Jones. ______ saw yesterday was Mr. Jones.The music that we we listened lastlast night was good. ______ listened to to night was good.The music to which we listened last night was good.(Not Possible)
  • Adjective ClausesRestrictive X Non-restrictiveObserve the sentences below and discuss why one ofthem have a punctuated adjective clause.That is the man who sent us the invitation to the party.The noun ‘man’ is not definite. We need the informationin the adjective clause ‘who sent us...’ to identify whichman is meant.That is John, who sent us the invitation to the party.Here, we already know which man is being referred to. Hehas a name. The adjective clause simply gives additionalinformation.
  • Adjective ClausesAdjective Pronouns – whose / where / whenMatch the pronouns and their corresponding uses.Pronouns Uses 3 _____ used to modify a noun of time1. whose 1 _____ used to show possession2. where 2 _____ used to modify a noun of place3. when
  • Adjective ClauseswhoseJoin the sentences, using the second of them as anadjective clause.1) The student writes well.2) I read her composition.The student whose composition I read writes well.Can whose ever be ommited?The student _____ NEVER I read writes well. composition
  • Adjective ClauseswhereJoin the sentences, using the second of them as anadjective clause.1) The building is very old.2) He lives in the building.The building where he lives is very old.Is there any other possibility?The building ___ / that / which he lives in is very old.The building in which he lives is very old.
  • Adjective ClauseswhenJoin the sentences, using the second of them as anadjective clause.1) I’ll never forget the day.2) I met you on this day.I’ll never forget the day when I met you.Is there any other possibility?I’ll never forget the day ___ / that / which I met you on.I’ll never forget the day on which I met you.
  • Adjective ClauseswhyJoin the sentences, using the second of them as anadjective clause.1) Do you know the reason?2) I did it for this reason.Do you know the reason why I did it?Is there any other possibility?Do you know the reason ___ / that / which I did it for?Do you know the reason for which I did it?
  • Adjective ClausesModifiers before Relative Pronouns (I)Join the sentences, using the second of them as anadjective clause.1) Rembrand’s “Windmill” is my favorite painting.2) The original of Rembrand’s “Windmill” is at the Metropolitan Museum.Rembrand’s “Windmill,” the original of which is at theMetropolitan Museum, is my favorite painting.1) The students were called back by the professor.2) Some of the students had already started to leave the classroom.The students, some of whom had already started to leavethe classroom, were called back by the professor.
  • Adjective ClausesModifiers before Relative Pronouns (II)Join the sentences, using the second of them as anadjective clause.1) She owns several diamond rings.2) The least expensive of them is worth a fortune.She owns several diamond rings, the least expensive ofwhich is worth a fortune.1) The agency sent us several applicants.2) The most qualified of them was the first one.The agency sent us several applicants, the most qualifiedof whom was the first one.
  • Adjective Clauses - Reduction1. (Clause) – The girl who is sitting next to me is Mai.2. (Phrase) – The girl sitting next to me is Mai.3. (Clause) – Thegirl who(m) I saw is Mai.4. (Phrase) – NOT POSSIBLEWhat can we conclude?Only adjective clauses that have a subjectpronoun – who, which or that – are possible to bereduced into adjective phrases.
  • Adjective Clauses - Reduction1. (Clause - Phrase) –The girl who is sitting next to me is Mai.2. (Clause - Phrase) –The man that was responsible for the error is here.What can we conclude?If the adjective clause contains the be form of averb, omit the relative pronoun – who, which orthat – and the be form.
  • Adjective Clauses - Reduction1. (Clause - Phrase) –Anyone who wanted to come with us was wantingwelcome.2. (Clause - Phrase) –English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters. consisting What can we conclude? If there is no be form of a verb in the adjective clause, omit the relative pronoun and change the verb to its present participle form.
  • Adjective Clauses - Reduction1. (Clause - Phrase) –The English alphabet, which consists of 26 letters, consitingis really easy for ELLs to learn.2. (Clause - Phrase) –Paris, which is the capital of France, is anexciting city. What can we conclude? If the adjective clause requires commas, the adjective phrase also requires commas. Which one is called an appositive? The one which is a noun phrase.
  • Adjective Clauses - Reduction1. Do you know the man who is coming toward us?2. We visited Barcelona, which is a city in northern Spain.3. The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.4. A myth is a story that expresses traditional beliefs.5. Johnson’s ideas, which refuted the principle we are studying, were presented in his first book.
  • HomeworkBook:- Pages 193 – 200 (Self-study) “Adjective Clauses and Reductions”Workbook:- Pages 162 – 165 (Self-study) “Adjctive Clauses and Reductions”
  • Moodle Week1) Grammar Key 9 3) Graded Exercise• Adjective Clauses and • Parts of Speech Reductions • Verb Tenses • Phrases2) Basic GrammarLabels for SentenceStructure• Subject, Predicate• Verb Transitivity• Objects