TDC1 - Adverb Clauses and Reductions

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  • 1. TDC 1Pedagogical GrammarAdverb Clauses
  • 2. Adverb ClausesAdverb clauses are subordinate clauses that show relationshipsbetween ideas related to time, cause and effect, contrast andcondition.What type of adverb clause do the subordinating conjunctionsbelow start?after before when whileas since until tillas soon as once as long as so long aswhenever every time the first time the last timethe next time by the time
  • 3. Adverb Clauses of TimeMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of time.A) I will go to Hawaii.B) I’m going to visit the world’s largest active volcano.
  • 4. Adverb Clauses of TimeA) I will go to Hawaii.B) I’m going to visit the world’s largest active volcano. I’m going to visit the world’s largest active volcano when I go to Hawaii. OR When I go to Hawaii, I’m going to visit the world’s largest active volcano. What is the difference in terms of punctuation between the first and the second complex sentences? What causes this difference?
  • 5. Adverb Clauses of TimeI’m going to visit the world’s largest active volcano when I goto Hawaii.ORWhen I go to Hawaii, I’m going to visit the world’s largestactive volcano.Adverb clauses can come either before or afterthe main clause. However, adverb clauses thatbegin a sentence are always set off from themain clause by a comma.
  • 6. Adverb Clauses of TimeMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of time. Use the subordinating conjunction “when”.A) I arrived home.B) My sister cooked dinner.
  • 7. Adverb Clauses of TimeA) I arrived home.B) My sister cooked dinner. When I arrived home, my sister cooked dinner. OR When I arrived home, my sister was cooking dinner. OR When I arrived home, my sister had cooked dinner. What is the difference in meaning among these three complex sentences?
  • 8. Adverb Clauses of TimeWhen I arrived home, my sister cooked dinner.The use of the simple past in the main clause indicates that theaction described in it happened after the action described inthe adverb clause.When I arrived home, my sister was cooking dinner.The use of the past continuous in the main clause indicatesthat the action described in it happened at the same time asthe action described in the adverb clause.When I arrived home, my sister had cooked dinner.The use of the past perfect in the main clause indicates thatthe action described in it happened before the actiondescribed in the adverb clause.
  • 9. Adverb ClausesWhat type of adverb clause do the subordinating conjunctionsbelow start?because now that since
  • 10. Adverb Clauses ofCause and EffectMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of cause and effect.A) We can go swimming every day.B) The weather is warm.
  • 11. Adverb Clauses ofCause and EffectMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of cause and effect.A) We can go swimming every day.B) The weather is warm. We can go swimming every day because the weather is warm. Because the weather is warm, we can go swimming every day.
  • 12. Adverb Clauses ofCause and EffectSince Monday is a holiday, we do not have to go to work.Since I moved here, I have worked for the same company.What is the difference between the subordinating conjunction“since” in these two sentence?
  • 13. Adverb Clauses ofCause and EffectSince Monday is a holiday, we do not have to go to work.In this first sentence, “since” means “because.”It is a subordinating conjunction showing a cause and effectrelationship.Since I moved here, I have worked for the same company.In this second sentence, “since” means “from that time to thepresent”.It is a subordinating conjunction showing a time relationship.
  • 14. Adverb ClausesWhat type of adverb clause do the subordinating conjunctionsbelow start?even though although though
  • 15. Adverb Clauses of ContrastMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of contrast.A) I went swimming.B) The weather was cold.
  • 16. Adverb Clauses of ContrastMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of contrast.A) I went swimming.B) The weather was cold. Although the weather was cold, I went swimming. I went swimming although the weather was cold.
  • 17. Adverb Clauses of ContrastAlthough the weather was cold, I went swimming.Though the weather was cold, I went swimming.Even though the weather was cold, I went swimming.Which of the following functions do the subordinatingconjuntions above idicate?1) Unexpected Result2) Direct Opposition
  • 18. Adverb Clauses of ContrastAlthough the weather was cold, I went swimming.Though the weather was cold, I went swimming.Even though the weather was cold, I went swimming.The subordinating conjunctions “although”, “though” and“even though” indicate unexpected result.
  • 19. Adverb ClausesWhat type of adverb clause do the subordinating conjunctionsbelow start?whereas while
  • 20. Adverb Clauses of ContrastMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of contrast.A) Some people are tall.B) Others are short.
  • 21. Adverb Clauses of ContrastMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of contrast.A) Some people are tall.B) Others are short. While some people are tall, others are short. Some people are tall, while others are short.
  • 22. Adverb Clauses of ContrastWhile some people are tall, others are short.Some people are tall, while others are short.Which of the following functions do the subordinatingconjuntions above idicate?1) Unexpected Result2) Direct Opposition
  • 23. Adverb Clauses of ContrastWhile some people are tall, others are short.Some people are tall, while others are short.Whereas some people are tall, others are short.Some people are tall, whereas others are short.The subordinating conjunctions “while” and “whereas”indicate direct opposition.What is special about the punctuation in thesesentences?
  • 24. Adverb Clauses of ContrastWhile some people are tall, others are short.Some people are tall, while others are short.Whereas some people are tall, others are short.Some people are tall, whereas others are short.Adverb clauses of direct opposition are always separatedfrom the main clause by a comma.
  • 25. Adverb Clauses of ContrastJohn is really poor, while Mary is extremelly rich.The phone rang about five times while I was studying.What is the difference between the subordinating conjunction“while” in these two sentence?
  • 26. Adverb Clauses of ContrastJohn is really poor, while Mary is extremely rich.In this first sentence, “while” means “this is the opposite ofthat.”It is a subordinating conjunction showing a direct contrastrelationship.The phone rang about five times while I was studying.In this second sentence, “while” means “during that time”.It is a subordinating conjunction showing a time relationship.
  • 27. Adverb ClausesWhat type of adverb clause do the subordinating conjunctionsbelow start?if unless only if whether or noteven if in case
  • 28. Adverb Clauses of ConditionMatch the subordinating conjunctions of condition on the leftwith their corresponding meanings on the right.Subordinating MeaningConjunction1) if ___ neither this condition nor its opposite matters2) even if ___ except with this condition3) in case ___ only with this condition4) unless ___ because it’s possible that this condition happens5) only if ___ with this condition6) whether or not ___ = whether or not
  • 29. Adverb Clauses of ConditionMatch the subordinating conjunctions of condition on the leftwith their corresponding meanings on the right.Subordinating MeaningConjunction1) if ___ neither this condition nor its opposite matters 62) even if ___ except with this condition 43) in case ___ only with this condition 54) unless ___ because it’s possible that this condition happens 35) only if ___ with this condition 16) whether or not ___ = whether or not 2
  • 30. Adverb Clauses of ConditionMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of condition.A) It will rain tomorrow.B) I will arrive late.
  • 31. Adverb Clauses of ConditionA) It will rain tomorrow.B) I will arrive late. If it rains tomorrow, I will arrive late. I will arrive late if it rains tomorrow.
  • 32. Adverb Clauses of Conditionwhether or not = Neither this condition nor its oppositeeven if matters. The result will be the same.Match the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of condition.A) It may be cold tomorrow, but I don’t care.B) I will go swimming tomorrow.
  • 33. Adverb Clauses of Conditionwhether or not = Neither this condition nor its oppositeeven if matters. The result will be the same.A) It may be cold tomorrow, but I don’t care.B) I will go swimming tomorrow. Whether or not it is cold tomorrow, I will go swimming. Even if it is cold tomorrow, I will go swimming.
  • 34. Adverb Clauses of Conditionin case = This condition probably won’t happen, but it might. (if by chance this happens...)Match the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of condition.A) You probably won’t need to get in touch with me, but maybe you will.B) I will give you my phone number.
  • 35. Adverb Clauses of Conditionin case = This condition probably won’t happen, but it might. (if by chance this happens...)A) You probably won’t need to get in touch with me, but maybe you will.B) I will give you my phone number. In case you need to get in touch with me, I will give you my number.
  • 36. Adverb Clauses of ConditionIn case you need to get in touch with me, I will give you mynumber.If you need to get in touch with me, I will give you my number.What is the difference in meaning between the sentencesabove?
  • 37. Adverb Clauses of ConditionIn case you need to get in touch with me, I will give you mynumber.In this sentence, there is the possibility that you will need toget in touch with me. Anyhow, I will give you my number.If you need to get in touch with me, I will give you my number.In this sentence, I will give you my number only when it iscertain that you will need to get in touch with me.
  • 38. Adverb Clauses of Conditionunless = if ... notMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of condition.A) It will probably be cold tomorrow.B) I will go swimming tomorrow.
  • 39. Adverb Clauses of Conditionunless = if ... notA) It will probably be cold tomorrow.B) I will go swimming tomorrow. Unless it is cold tomorrow, I’ll go swimming. Observe the difference...If it is NOT cold tomorrow, I’ll go swimming.
  • 40. Adverb Clauses of Conditiononly if = There is only one condition.Match the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of condition.A) The picnic will be canceled with one condition only.B) The condition is a rainy weather.
  • 41. Adverb Clauses of Conditiononly if = There is only one condition.A) The picnic will be canceled with one condition only.B) The condition is a rainy weather. Only if it rains, the picnic will be canceled.
  • 42. Adverb ClausesWhat type of adverb clause do the subordinating conjunctionsbelow start?so... that such a/an... that
  • 43. Adverb Clauses of Cause andEffectMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of cause and effect.A) Mary is patient.B) She can spend hours taking care of young children .A) Mary is a patient woman.B) She can spend hours taking care of young children .
  • 44. Adverb Clauses of Cause andEffectA) Mary is patient.B) She can spend hours taking care of young children . Mary is so patient that she can spend hours taking care of young children.A) Mary is a patient woman.B) She can spend hours taking care of young children . Mary is such a patient woman that she can spend hours taking care of young children. What can we conclude?
  • 45. Adverb Clauses of Cause andEffectMary is so patient that she can spend hours taking care ofyoung children.Mary is such a patient woman that she can spend hours takingcare of young children.“So ... that” is used with adjectives or adverbs.“Such ... that” is used with noun phrases.Are there any exceptions to this rule?
  • 46. Adverb Clauses of Cause andEffectMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of cause and effect.A) Mary has a lot of patience.B) She can spend hours taking care of young children .
  • 47. Adverb Clauses of Cause andEffectMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of cause and effect.A) Mary has a lot of patience.B) She can spend hours taking care of young children .Mary has so much patience that she can spend hours takingcare of young children.What can we conclude?
  • 48. Adverb Clauses of Cause andEffectMary is so patient that she can spend hours taking care ofyoung children.Mary is such a patient woman that she can spend hours takingcare of young children.Mary has so much patience that she can spend hours takingcare of young children.With, much/many or few/little, we use so ... that .
  • 49. Adverb ClausesWhat type of adverb clause does the subordinatingconjunction below start?so (that)
  • 50. Adverb Clauses of PurposeMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of contrast.A) I turned the TV off.B) My roomate wanted to be able to study.
  • 51. Adverb Clauses of PurposeMatch the clauses below, turning one of them into an adverbclause of contrast.A) I turned the TV off.B) My roomate wanted to be able to study. I turned the TV off so that my roomate could study. Normally, “can”(present and future meaning) and “could” (past meaning) are used in the adverb clause of purpose.
  • 52. Adverb Clauses of PurposeWhat’s the difference between the sentences below?I turned the TV off so (that) my roomate could study.Mary grounded her son, so he didn’t talk to her for weeks.
  • 53. Adverb Clauses of PurposeI turned the TV off so (that) my roomate could study.In this first sentence, the purpose of my turning the TV off was tomake it possible for my roomate to study.We do not use commas to mark the beggining of the adverb clause ofpurpose.Mary grounded her son, so he didn’t talk to her for weeks.In the second sentence, Mary didn’t punish her son with the purposeof making it possible for him not to talk to her. This was just a resultof her decision to ground him.We do use commas to mark the beggining of the independent clause.
  • 54. Adverb Clauses - Reduction1. (Clause) – While I was walking to class, I ran into an old friend.2. (Phrase) – While walking to class, I ran into an old friend.1. (Clause) – While the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.2. (Phrase) – NOT POSSIBLEWhat can we conclude?
  • 55. Adverb Clauses - Reduction1. (Clause) – While I was walking to class, I ran into an old friend.2. (Phrase) – While walking to class, I ran into an old friend.1. (Clause) – While the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.2. (Phrase) – NOT POSSIBLEWe can reduce adverb clauses into phrases only when thesubject of the adverb clause and the subject of the mainclause are the same.
  • 56. Adverb Clauses - Reduction1. (Clause)While I was sitting at my desk, I fell asleep.2. (Phrase)While sitting at my desk, I fell asleep1. (Clause)Before I went into the theater, I turned off my cell phone.2. (Phrase)Before going into the theater, I turned off my cell phone.What can we conclude?
  • 57. Adverb Clauses - Reduction1. (Clause)While I was sitting at my desk, I fell asleep.2. (Phrase)While sitting at my desk, I fell asleep1. (Clause)Before I went into the theater, I turned off my cell phone.2. (Phrase)Before going into the theater, I turned off my cell phone.If the adverb clause contains the be form of a verb, omit thesubject and and the be form. If there is no be form of a verb inthe adverb clause, omit the subject and change the verb to itspresent participle form.