TDC 1 - Class 25
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,006
On Slideshare
1,987
From Embeds
19
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
104
Comments
0
Likes
2

Embeds 19

http://online.thomas.org.br 19

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. TDC 1Pedagogical GrammarReview Class
  • 2. Review – Count and Non-count NounsQuestions1. Why don’t ELLs whose first language are Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, etc normally omit a and an with count nouns in the singular?2. What is the difference between the sentences “I like chickens” and “I like chicken”?3. How can we teach ELLs the difference between little and a little, and few and a few?4. When we teach quantifiers, why is it better to focus on many and much initially?
  • 3. Review – Count and Non-count NounsQuestions1. Why don’t ELLs whose first language are Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, etc normally omit a and an with count nouns in the singular?Because they do not have indefinite articles intheir languages.2. What is the difference between the sentences “I like chickens” and “I like chicken”?“I like chickens” refers to the animal (countnoun), while “I like chicken” refers to the food(non-count noun).
  • 4. Review – Count and Non-count NounsQuestions3. How can we teach ELLs the difference between little and a little, and few and a few?a few / a little – positive connotationA person who has a few friends is lucky, and a personwith a little time may be able to help you when youneed.few / little – negative connotationA person who has few friends is unlucky orunbearable, and a person with little time may be toobusy to help you if you need.
  • 5. Review – Count and Non-count NounsQuestions4. When we teach quantifiers, why is it better to focus on many and much initially?Because many and much occur a lot more oftenthan a few and a little.
  • 6. Review – PrepositionsQuestions1. What is a preposition and what is a prepositional phrase?2. Where can we normally place a prepositional phrase in a sentence?3. What are the types of prepositions that beginning students normally learn? What about intermediate and advanced students?4. How can we explain the use of at, on and in as prepositions of time and place?5. What is one of the five pairs of problem prepositions? How can we explain them to ELLs?6. How can ELLs learn preposition combinations?
  • 7. Review – PrepositionsQuestions1. What is a preposition and what is a prepositional phrase?Prepositions are words that show the relationshipbetween a noun (or pronoun) and the rest of the wordsin a sentence.Prepositional phrases are the combination of apreposition and the noun phrase working as its object.2. Where can we normally place a prepositional phrase in a sentence?At the beginning, the middle or the end of a sentence.
  • 8. Review – PrepositionsQuestions3. What are the types of prepositions that beginning students normally learn? What about intermediate and advanced students?Beginning students – prepositions withconcrete, non-idiomatic meanings (prepositionsof place and time)Intermediate students – confusion pairs ofprepositionsAdvanced students – combination of verbs andprepositions and common idioms
  • 9. Review – Prepositions Questions 4. How can we explain the use of at, on and in as prepositions of time and place?smaller PLACE TIME smaller at MacDonald’s at at 5:00 PM on Green Street on on Monday in San Francisco in July in California in the summer in the United in in 1996 States
  • 10. Review – PrepositionsQuestions5. What is one of the five pairs of problem prepositions? How can we explain them to ELLs?For vs. SinceBefore vs. AgoIn vs. AfterFor vs. During6. How can ELLs learn preposition combinations?By rote memorization, direct teacher instructionfollowed by practice, and/or massive exposurethrough extensive reading.
  • 11. Review – ArticlesTrue or False F___ 1. We use a/an for the sencond and all otherreferences to the same noun. T___ 2. We use the for the parts of something, withthe exception of body parts. F___ 3. Normally, ELLs first learn to use the for morespecific usages and then a/an for singular countnouns . F___ 4. We use the with all bodies of water, like theAmazon River. T___ 5. We use no article before abstract nouns andbefore general categories or groups. F___ 6. We use an for all words starting with a vowel.
  • 12. Review – Pronunciation of –s and –edQuestions1. How many different ways to pronounce –s in verbs and in plural nouns and –ed in verbs and past participles do we have?2. When do we use each of them?3. What are the three possible ways in which variations of sounds are produced?4. What is a minimal pair? Give examples.5. How can we make it easier for ELLs to notice the final sound of a word?
  • 13. Review – Pronunciation of –s and –edQuestions1. How many different ways to pronounce –s in verbs and in plural nouns and –ed in verbs and past participles do we have?-s - /s/; /z/; /Əz/-ed - /d/; /t/; /Əd/2. When do we use each of them?After voiced sounds: /z/ and /d/.After voiceless sounds: /s/ and /t/.After /d/and /t/: /Əd/After sibilants: /Əz/
  • 14. Review – Pronunciation of –s and –edQuestions3. What are the three possible ways in which variations of sounds are produced?a. By altering the place where the sound is made (beat X but)b. By altering the manner in which the sound is made (/f/ - friction of the air X /b/ - stopping the air)c. By altering voicing (/s/ - voiceless X /z/ - voiced)
  • 15. Review – Pronunciation of –s and –edQuestions4. What is a minimal pair? Give examples.A minimal pair is two words that differ in only onesound, as for example, cap and cab, or have and half.5. How can we make it easier for ELLs to notice the final sound of a word?To put an example word in a phrase in which the nextword begins with a vowel.He bagged all of the cans.He backed all of my ideas.
  • 16. Review – ClausesExercise1. Identify the dependent clauses in the paragraph below and classify them into adjective, adverb or noun clauses. In grammar, a clause is what we call the smallest grammaticalunit that can express a complete proposition. In some languages, itmay be a pair or group of words that consists of a subject and apredicate, although in other languages, in certain clauses, thesubject may not appear explicitly as a noun phrase, being insteadmarked on the verb. The most basic kind of sentence consists of asingle clause. More complex sentences may contain multipleclauses. Clauses may be independent or dependent. Independentclauses are those that could stand as a sentence bythemselves, although they may be used connected with otherclauses in a longer sentence. Dependent clauses are those thatwould be awkward or nonsensical if they are used alone, and theymust be used in a sentence that also contains an independentclause.
  • 17. Review – ClausesExercise2. Underline the noun clauses below and write their nominal/sentential function.a) That he decided to stay is certainly a problem.b) We didnt know where the cats were.c) He told whoever wanted to hear that he was not coming.d) Whether a pet has a good home is really important.e) This is what everybody wants.f) It’s terrible that he left.
  • 18. Review – ClausesExercise3. Combine the sentences in each item into one sentence with an adjective clause.a) The French language is different from the Latin language, which was once spoken throughout language. Latin was once spoken throughout Europe.b) Can you looking the reason why tell me the reason? You are tell me upset. Can you you are looking upset?c) He had several plans for making money quickly, all of He had several plans for making money quickly. All of them have failed. which have failed.d) The landlord, was proud of his strength. Heof his The landlord who despised the weakness despised tenants, was proud of his strength. the weakness of his tenants.e) This is the village where born here. This is the village. I was I was born.f) Show me the place where you Show me the place. f) You put the keys somewhere. put the keys.