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Exercise 1a. simple present: verb or verbsb. present progressive: am/is/are verbingc. present perfect: has/have verbedd. present perfect progressive: has/have been verbinge. simple past: verbedf. past progressive: was/were verbingg. past perfect: had verbedh. past perfect progressive: had been verbingi. simple future: will verb or am/is/are going to verbj. future progressive: will be verbing or am/is/are going to be verbingk. future perfect: will have verbedl. future perfect progressive: will have been verbing
Exercise 2a. simple present X present perfectSP – a fact that is true now, a recurring event, state orcondition, a planned future action (with a future time word)PP – an action that happened at an unspecified time in thepast, a recent action that is important to the current situationor conversation, an action that began in the past butcontinues in the present, repetition of an action before now
Exercise 2b. simple past X past perfectSP – a completed action, an activity that took place regularlyin the past, a completed conditionPP – a past action that occurred before another pastevent, action or time
Exercise 2c. tenses to express future timeSimple Future (will or am/is/are going to)Future Progressive (will be –ing)Future Perfect (will have –ed)Future Perfect Progressive (will have been –ing)Present Simple (planned future with a future time word)Present Progressive (an action with a future time word)
Exercise 2d. simple future X future perfectFS – a prediction about a future event, a decision at the timeof speaking (not planned in advance), an agreement to dosomethingFP – a future action that will occur before another particularfuture action or time
Exercise 2e. “to be”It is the most frequently used verb, and it allows students andteachers to practice a lot of new vocabulary.f. “to be”: 8 formsbe, am, is, are, was, were, being, been
Exercise 2g. order of present tensessimple present – present progressive – present perfect –present perfect progressiveOR (according to some L2 researchers)present progressive – simple present – present perfect –present perfect progressive
Exercise 2h. present participlesmost verbs: + ingmost verbs ending in e: - e + ingverbs ending in cvc: + last c + ing* no doubling of consonants take place if the stressed syllable in not thelast one.
Exercise 2i. typical errors :nouns – omission of plural –s, unnecessary plural –s, wrongnoun ending, plural for non-count nouns, no article withcount nouns, the with abstract nouns, no capitalizing propernounsconjunctions – lack of conjunction, lack ofpunctuation, double conjunction, fragmentprepositions – confusion of at/on/in, lack of preposition, extrapreposition, wrong preposition
Exercise 3Every day I am work here.Every day I work here. (ELLs sometimes use the verb to be whenwriting/saying statements in the present because they have learned thepresent forms of the verb well.)A: Is it the phone ringing?B: Yes, I am going to answer it.B: Yes, I will answer it. ( Ells are usually first taught that ‘will’ is usedto express future time. However, when they learn ´be going to’, they tendto overuse it, even in times when it is not possible.)
Exercise 3I am having a car.I have a car. (Ells tend to overuse the present progressive when theylearn it, even in cases when it is not correct, such as this, in which the verb‘to have’ means ‘to possess’, not an action verb. )Before I moved to New York, I would have a car.Before I moved to New Your, I used to have a car. ( Ells have ahard time to understand that ‘would’ to express a repeated past actioncan be used only with action verbs. )
Exercise 3I live here since 1995.I have lived here since 1995. ( Because Portuguese and some otherlanguages do not require that the present perfect be used when one istalking about actions that started in the past and continue in thepresent, ELLs tend to use the Present Simple to do it. )Before you will arrive, I will finish my homework.Before you arrive, I will finish my homework. ( ELLs have somedifficulty understanding that future tenses are not used in adverbial timeclauses that talk about the future. )
Exercise 4noun: Communication abstract noun: knowledgeadjective: natural transitive verb: includesadverb: mainly intransitive verb: workverb: is linking verb: ispreposition: of base form of a verb: beconjunction: but past form of a verb: NGnoun phrase: grammar of our past participle form of a verb:mother tongue neglectedverb phrase: study grammar present participle form of a verb:prepositional phrase: of usinggrammaradjectival phrase: an invisibleadverbial phrase: in a clearerand more effective mannerconcrete noun: language
Exercise 5a. Simple:Communication is the heart and soul of the human experience.b. Compound:Not Givenc. Complex:It is a natural phenomenon that we start speaking what everybody speaksaround us.d. Compound-Complex:We dont study grammar of our own mother tongue to use it for dailyspeaking, but when we need to polish our own mother tongue, we haveto study its grammar and we usually do that.
Exercise 6(a) [I put my teacup there,]SVOA(b) “*Grand Auntie’s present is in the laundry room+.”SVA(c) [I see it.]....SVO(d) [It is the altar]SVC(e) “Oh, *we call this the Kitchen God+.SVOC(f) [he is not too important],SVC(g)[He is not Santa Claus.]SVC(h)[And he does not give you gifts],SVIO
Exercise 6(i) [you have to show him respect]SVIO(j)[You are hoping]SV(k) [This family has been good],SVC(12)[Please give them good luck]VIO
Homework• Study for the test• Read Grammar Key 4: Verb Tenses - Future(pages 138 -151)