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  • 1. TDC 1Pedagogical GrammarClass 16
  • 2. Noun Clauses What are the most common functions of a noun in a sentence? Jim studies business in Boston.Subject Direct Object Object of a Preposition Jack decided to give his sister a new car.Subject Indirect Object Direct Object Julia is a great teacher.Subject Subject Complement The same happens to noun clauses. I don’t know whether he is honest. Direct Object What he said is that eveyone should have done it. Subject Subject Complement He will give whoever arrives first a book about what happened. Indirect Object Object of a Preposition
  • 3. Noun Clauses The same happens to noun clauses. I don’t know whether he is honest. Alternative Words What he said is that eveyone should have done it.Question Words “that” He will give whoever arrives first a book about what happened. Question Words Question Words Which one can be omitted? “that” What he said is that everyone should have done it.
  • 4. Noun Clauses – Indirect SpeechReport the sentences below.Jack says, “You write pretty well.”Jack says that I write pretty well..Jack said, “You write pretty well.”Jack said that I wrote pretty well.What can we conclude?If the reporting verb (the main verb of the sentence) is in thesimple past, the verb in the noun clause will usually bebackshifted.
  • 5. Noun Clauses – Indirect SpeechReport the sentences below.Jack said, “I watch TV everyday.”Jack said that he watched TV everyday.Jack said, “I can watch TV with you later.”Jack said that he could watch TV with me later.Jack said, “I shouldn’t watch TV this evening.”Jack said that he shouldn’t watch TV that evening.What can we conclude?“Should” doesn’t change.Are there any other verbs that do not change?“Ought to” and “might.”
  • 6. Noun Clauses – WishComplete the sentences below with the correct form of theverb in parentheses.1. Our classroom doesn’t have any windows. had I wish our classroom _______________ windows.2. I didn’t go shopping. had gone I wish I ______________ shopping.3. She will not tell me. would tell I wsh she _______________ me.What can we conclude?The simple past is used to make a wish about the present.The past perfect is used to make a wish about the past.“Would” is used to make a wish about the future.
  • 7. Noun Clauses – Verbs of UrgencyRewrite the first sentence in each pair below, substituting“this” for the second sentence.1. Frank demanded this. Marta must hand in her assignment on time.Frank demanded that Marta hand in her assignment on time.2. Frank requests this. John should study at home.Frank requests that John study at home.3. Frank will propose this. Mariana cannot visit him on weekdays.Frank will propose that Mariana not visit him on weekdays.What can we conclude?The present subjunctive (=simple form) of the verb is alwaysused in noun clauses after verbs of urgency.
  • 8. Noun Clauses – Adjectives of UrgencyComplete the sentence below with the information given.1. Jack must call his boss. that Jack call his boss. It is urgent _______________________________________2. Beth should start planning her trip. that Beth plan her trip. It’s important _____________________________________3. Junior must not touch his boss’s computer. It’s imperative _____________________________________ that Junior not touch his boss’s computer.What can we conclude?The present subjunctive (=simple form) of the verb is alwaysused in noun clauses after adjectives of urgency.
  • 9. Present Verb Tenses- Not as easy as one might assume. Simple Present1) Actions that happen repeatedly - _________________2) Actions that are happening right now - _____________ Present Progressive3) Actions that began in the past and are still happening now - ________________ Present PerfectTypical ELL Errors- I am in this city for all my adult life.- The solution to my problem isn’t depend on another person.- Is working your uncle at the bank now?- Modern cars are having much better tires than in the past.- Do you have worked at this bank since the last time I saw you?
  • 10. Present Verb TensesVerb Tense Example MeaningSimple I study Chinese every day. a habitual or repeating actionPresentPresent I am studying Chinese today. a current actionProgressivePresent I have studied Chinese since an action that began in the pastPerfect 2006. and continues to be truePresent I have been studying an action that began in the pastPerfect Chinese all morning. and is continuing now (withProgressive emphasis on the fact that it is still happening now. - Simple Present* Present Progressive* Present Perfect Present Perfect Progressive - Present Progressive – Future Meaning* - Present Perfect – Unspecified Past*
  • 11. Simple PresentVerb Tense Example MeaningSimple I study Chinese every day. a habitual or repeating actionPresentPast Now Future X X X X X I X X X X XSingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI walk we walk - -s in the third person singularyou walk you walk - Irregular forms (-ies / -es / has)he/she/it walks they walk Typical ELL Errors - Laura cook scrambled eggs for breakfast every day. - My baby sister crys when she is hungry. - I am walk to school every day.
  • 12. Present Progressive Verb Tense Example Meaning Present I am studying Chinese today. a current action ProgressivePast Now Future X IXSingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI am walking we are walking - am/is/are + present participleyou are walking you are walking - Formation of presenthe/she/it is walking they are walking participles* Typical ELL Errors - We study very hard for tomorrow’s test. - The earth is going around the sun once a year. - My baby brother crying now. - He is siting on the table. - I am having two cars.*
  • 13. Present Perfect Verb Tense Example Meaning Present I have studied Chinese since an action that began in the past Perfect 2006. and continues to be truePast Now Future X X X X X ISingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI have walked we have walked - has / have + past participleyou have walked you have walked - Formation of pasthe/she/it has walked they have walked participles* Typical ELL Errors - I lived here my whole life. - Sarah have rented the same apartment since 2005. - Sarah has already complete all the homework. - Macy has putted the book on the teacher’s table.
  • 14. Present Perfect ProgressiveVerb Tense Example MeaningPresent I have been studying an action that began in the past and isPerfect Chinese all morning. continuing now (with emphasis on theProgressive fact that it is still happening now.*Past Now Future X X X X X ISingular Plural What ELLs Should KnowI have been walking we have been walking - has / have + beenyou have been walking you have been walking + present participlehe/she/it has been walking they have been walking Typical ELL Errors - I been waiting for the bus for almost 45 minutes. - I am waiting for the bus for almos 45 minutes.
  • 15. Negative FormsTense Negative FormSimple I/you/we/they + do + not + verbPresent he / she / it + does + not + verbPresent I am + not + present participleProgressive you/we/they + are + not + present participle he / she / it + is + not + present participlePresent I/you/we/they + have+ not + past participlePerfect he / she / it + has + not + past participlePresent I/you/we/they + have+ not + been + present participlePerfect he / she / it + has + not + been + present participleProgressiveWhat ELLs Should Know- Most difficult – Present Simple*Typical ELL Errors- I no speak French well. // The soup doesn’t smells good.- The man is not like this food. // We don’t have eaten yet.
  • 16. ContractionsTense Affirmative NegativeSimple Present ----- do not – don’t does not – doesn’tPresent I am – I’m am not - ---Progressive he/she/it is – he’s/she’s/ it’s is not – isn’t (he’s not...) you/we/they are – you’re, are not – aren’t (you’re not...) we’re, they’rePresent Perfect I/you/we/they have – I’ve / I/you/we/they have not –+ Present you’ve / we’ve / they’ve haven’t (I’ve not...)Perfect he / she / it has – he’s / he / she / it has not – hasn’tProgressive she’s / it’s* (he’s not...)Typical ELL Errors- I amn’t from northern India.- Linda’s bought a new car. It’s an amazing sound system.
  • 17. Forming QuestionsTense Negative FormSimple Present do + I/you/we/they + verb does + he / she / it + verbPresent am + I + present participleProgressive are + you/we/they + present participle is + he / she / it + present participlePresent Perfect have + I/you/we/they + past participle has + he / she / it + past participlePresent Perfect have + I/you/we/they + been + present participleProgressive has + he / she / it + been + present participleWhat ELLs Should Know- Most difficult – Present Simple*Typical ELL Errors- Do Luke like hockey? // Does Valery goes to class every day?- Is Mary have a sports car? // Do you wearing a new tie today?- How many international trips did you have taken in your life?
  • 18. Present TensesPortuguese Interference Common ErrorsEnglish Present Perfect tense can be 1. “I live here all my life.”rendered in Portuguese by the 2. “I already watched this film.”present form or the past form.Portuguese speakers frequently use 1. “If you need a ride to thethe simple present to talk about the store, I take you.”future. 2. “In a little while, I cook dinner.”In Portuguese, the ending of verbschange according to the subject.Students might get confused.In Portuguse, there are no auxiliary 1. “___You want to go?”verbs used to form questions or to 2. “I no want to go.”form negative sentences in theSimple Present.
  • 19. Homework• Read Grammar Key 3: to be (pages 114 -132)• Workbook – Pages 95 - 107