TDC 1KEY 15 – CONDITIONALS (IFCLAUSES) AND WISHPolliana de Paula
Typical ELL Errors: Noticing the gap1. *If I suddenly have a million dollars, the first thing that I would do is to quit my job today.2. *We wish we can go to the concert tomorrow, but we already have something else that we have to do.3. *If you had studied this chapter more thoroughly, you won’t be so confused by this sentence.4. *If we would have bought them online, we could have gotten our concert tickets for half-price.5. I’m confused about this grammar. *I wish I have understood the rules for making sentences with wish.
What is a conditional sentence? It expresses the idea that the action in the main clause (the result clause) can only happen if a certain condition (the clause that begins with if) is fulfilled. Condition Result If I were you, I wouldn’t buy that car. It is possible to reverse the order of the clauses without altering its meaning. Result Condition I wouldn’t buy that car if I were you.
In actual communication, the if clause is often understood even if it is not mentioned. Result Unstated Condition I wouldn’t buy that car. (If I were you.) We must use a comma after an introductory if clause.Condition, result. If you study more, you will pass the test.Result condition. You will pass the test if you study more.
Types of Conditional Sentences There are four types of conditional sentences:1. zero (that is not a true conditional, but it is considered so because of the use of the word if)2. first3. second4. third
Zero Conditional This type of conditional sentences express facts or situations that are always true in the present or were always true in the past. We can substitute when or whenever for if and not change the meaning of the sentence. Condition Result If + simple present tense Simple present tense If it rains, I stay home. If + simple past tense Simple past tense If I had any questions about I called my good friend Arabic while I was living in Ahmed in Washington, DC. Saudi Arabia,
First Conditional First conditional sentences express an action that is likely to happen.Condition (Future Time) Result (Future Time)If + simple present tenseIf it rains,If + present progressive tenseIf it is raining, Future tense. I will stay home.If + present perfect tenseIf it has rained,If + present perfect progressivetenseIf it has been raining,
Second ConditionalUnreal (not true or not possible) Second conditionals express something that is not true or not possible. Condition Result (Present or Future Time) ( Present or Future Time) If + simple past tense If it rained, Would + VERB If + past progressive tense I would stay home. If it were raining, Although the verb form used looks like simple past tense, it is actually subjunctive mood. If I were you, I wouldn’t buy that car. If today were her birthday, she would organize a party.
Third Conditional Third Conditionals express an action that did not happen. Condition Result (Past Time) ( Past Time) If + past perfect tense If it had rained, Would have + PAST PARTICIPLE I would have stayed home. If + past perfect progressive tense If it had been raining,
Mixed Conditional Sentences This type of sentence is used to talk about conditions from the past that affect a result in the present or future, and sometimes also to talk about conditions of the present (facts) that would have affected a certain result in the past. These mixed sentences are quite common in real communication.
Mixed ConditionalsCondition ResultIf he were rich, (present time) he would have bought that BMW yesterday. (past time)If he had become a citizen, (past he would vote in tomorrow’stime) election . (future time)If I weren’t taking my car to the I would have lent you my car. (pastshop tomorrow, (future time) time)If you were giving a big speech you’d be busy planning it right now.tomorrow, (future time) (present time)
Omission of If With conditional clauses that contain were, had or should, we can omit the word if and then invert the subject and the verb.If he were here, he would lead the discussion skillfully.Were he here,I f they had known about the fundraiser, they would have made a donation.Had they known about the fundraiser,If you should find an electronic please, let me know. I’ve lost mine.dictionary,Should you find an electronic dictionary,
ContractionsTeacher has to help student notice thesound of would when it’s contracted usingdirect instruction. ELLs can hardly hear thissound, so they are not likely to acquire it.If you’d told me, I could have helped you.(you’d = you had)If the course were easier, you’d be able tomake a better grade.(you’d = you would)
WishWish sentences are similar in meaning tounreal conditions in the present, future, orpast. The situation is not true, does notexist, is unlikely to happen, or did nothappen. It expresses you want the oppositeof the real situation to be true.The verb wish is usually in a tense that isone time earlier than the actual time of theaction.
WishSituation Change SentenceI didn’t study last night. Past time > past perfect I wish I had studied last tense night.I don’t study much. Present time > past My dad wishes I tense studied more.I won’t study tonight. will > would My dad wishes I would study tonight.I can’t go tomorrow. can > could I wish I could go tomorrow.
What ELLs should know: Commonmistakes1. Don’t use past tense to talk about past conditions.Wrong: If I studied more last week, I would have passed yesterday’s exam.Correct: If I had studied more last week, I would have passed yesterday’s exam2. Don’t use present tense to talk about present conditionsWrong: If I know Spanish, I would translate this letter for you right now.Correct: If I knew Spanish, I would translate this letter for you right now.3. When the verb to be is used to talk about unreal conditions, use were instead of was for all persons.Wrong: If I was you, I would memorize this rule about unreal conditions.Correct: If I were you, I would memorize this rule about unreal conditions.4. Don’t get confused by the contracted forms used with conditionals.If I’d had more time last month, I’d have finished reading that novel. (had had) ( I would have finished)5. Wish sentences follow the same pattern for if clauses. The tense used is always one before the time being spoken.Wrong: Who is that girl? I wish I know her name.Correct: Who is that girl? I wish I knew her name.
Lesson PlanSecond Conditional Hand each pair of students a paper containing a situation, e.g. “I’ve got a great girlfriend and we’ve been together for about six months. It was getting pretty serious but now I’m not so sure. You see, I saw my ex-girlfriend again at a party last Saturday and I think she feels we made a big mistake and that she wants us to start going out together again! I think I feel the same. What do I do? How do I tell my girlfriend that I think we should break up?” Barry, 21 Students discuss the situations in pairs. What would they say to this person?
Lesson PlanSecond Conditional Then I would put on a table a set of psychologist’s advice, and then students would come, pick the piece of advice that fits the description, read it in pairs and comment. Was their previous comment similar to the psychologist comment? If not, do you agree with her comments? Would you consider her opinions to solve this problem if you were her?
Lesson PlanSecond Conditional Psychologist advice “Are you really sure about your ex-girlfriend’s feelings for you? Don’t you think you might be making another mistake? If I were you, I would talk to her a bit more before you say anything to your girlfriend.” Then I would call their attention to the use of If I were/ did/ etc. (Use of second conditional) in the sentences. They would exchange opinions as a whole group using the structure learned. Practice: Hand students slips of paper and they have to discuss in pairs what they would do if A friend lied to him/her You had a crush on someone You felt unhappy about a relationship Your parents didn’t approve of your friends Your partner wanted to stay home all the time
HomeworkGolden Book (pages 198-200) 3.15.15 3.15.19 3.15.20