Definite1. When talking about something specific: The umbrella next to the door is not mine.2. When the speaker and the listener are talkingabout the same specific item: William, don´t forget to close the refrigerator.
Definite3. For the second and all other references tothe same noun: We bought a new computer last month. The computer lets us access the internet really quickly.4. With the superlative form of an adjective,which means with the word most or with the endest: Murilo is the best student in class.
Definite5. The names of countries that look plural,including countries that end in s or have thewords united, union, republic or kingdom: Neiriberto won the bet on this rule, now Carol has to go to the Bahamas.6. For the parts of something: (In general, we do not use the for body parts) Mary´s kitchen is beautiful: the refrigerator is silver, the stove is black...
Definite7. Use the with most bodies of water exceptindividual lakes: the San Francisco River.8. Use the, with geographic parts of the globeand geographic areas, deserts, and peninsulas: the equator.
Indefinite1. Use a before a noun or an adjective (+ noun)that begins with a consonant sound: a star, a golden star, a university, a European2. Use an before a noun or an adjective (+ noun)that begins with a vowel sound: an idea, an absurd idea, an hour, an honest child
Indefinite3. Use an before abbreviations said as individual letters thatbegin with A, E, F, H, I, L, M, N, O, R, S, X: an FBI agent, an SOS
Null Article1. When talking about a category or group in general: Teachers are God´s special little people.2. Before abstract nouns such as feelings orideas: Patience is a virtue.
In planning a class on articles, it´simportant to know how articles are usedwithin the native language of your student.Some languages have no article whileothers have articles that appear to beequivalent to English but the usages donot overlap.