ELL Grammar Key 3 – Past- Difficult for some ELLs, as some languages do not have verb tenses.- We need to help ELLs to figure out which verb form is most appropriate for the situation.Typical ELL Errors- According to the report, dozens of people did not received their tax information.- When I ate dinner last night, my uncle called me.- How many people did you talked to at the party?- By the time I was old enough to vote, I participated in two local campaigns.- Do you have ever flown on a 747 jumbo jet?
Verb Tense / Expression Example Meaning Simple Past I ate dinner at 8 PM. A single past event. Past Progressive I was eating dinner when you A past action that was (Continuous) called. happening (when it was interrupted by another) Present Perfect I have eaten at that restaurant. A past action (indefinite time that could happen again) Past Perfect I had eaten dinner before you A past action that was called. completed before a second past actionPast Perfect Progressive I had been eating dinner before An action that began in the past you called before a second past action (with emphasis on duration of the action) Used to and Would When I was still single, I used to Used to: an action that eat dinner in front of the TV. I happened many times in the would put my food on a plate past but is no longer true. and then take it to the small Frequently opens a past table in front of the TV. Then I’d narrative. eat dinner while I was watching TV. Now that I’m married, Would: smaller actions that things have changed and we happened repeatedly in a past eat at the dining room table. narrative but are no longer true
Simple Past Tense An action that was completed in the past. Form: VERB+ed Problematic spelling; For verbs: - that end in -e already, just add the -d (live – lived) - that end in consonant +y, you change the -y to -i and add -ed (study – studied) - that end in vowel +y, just add -ed (play – played) - CVC - for verbs of one syllable that end in consonant + vowel + consonant, you double the last consonant and then add -ed. - for verbs of two syllables, double the last consonant before adding –ed, if the stress is on the second syllable (commit – commited) . - if the stress is on the first syllable we DO NOT double the final consonant (visit – visited)Singular Plural Past Now FutureI walked we walkedyou walked you walkedhe/she/it walked they walked
Common ELLs Mistakes: What your ELLs should know.1- Don’t use VERB or VERB + -s in the past tense. Don’t forget to use –ed.Wrong: Laura cooks scrambled eggs for breakfast yesterday.Correct: Laura cooked scrambled eggs for breakfast yesterday.2- Do not use was/were with verbs (other than to be) in simple past tense.Wrong: I was walk to school yesterday.Correct: I walked to school yesterday.3- Don’t forget to change –y to –i and add –edWrong: My baby sister cryed last night.Correct: My baby sister cried last night.4- If a verb ends in consonant – vowel – consonant (C-V-C) (in its stressed syllable),don’t forget to double the consonant before adding –ed.Wrong: She stoped the car to answer her cell phone.Correct: She stopped the car to answer her cell phone.
Past Progressive TenseAn action that was happening when another action interrupted it.Form: was/were + VERB + -ing.The –ing form is called the present participle .Use was or were according to the subject Past Now Future Singular Plural I was walking we were walking you were walking you were walking he/she/it was walking they were walking
Common ELLs Mistakes: What your ELLs should know.1-Do not use was/were and a verb without –ing. The –ing to indicate pastprogressive tense.Wrong: When I got my first job I was live in Los Angeles.Correct: When I got my first job I was living in Los Angeles.2- Don’t mix up past progressive tense and simple past tense.Wrong: I cut the onions. Then I was putting them in the soup.Correct: I cut the onions. Then I put them in the soup.3- Be careful with the spelling of the present participle.Wrong: cuting, siting, planing, eatting, helpping, openning.Correct: cutting, sitting, planning, eating, helping, opening4-Do not use past progressive if the verb does not show an action (as opposed to astate of being). Examples of verbs that are rarely in progressive tenses are: own,possess, like, loved, need, want, have, seem, feel, be, prefer, remember, forget andbelieve.Wrong: From 2000 to 2007, I was owning two carsCorrect: From 2000 to 2007, I owned two cars.
Present Perfect TensePast action that is important to the present situation.Form: have/has + PAST PARTICIPLE. (auxiliary verb according to subject)Past Participle for regular verbs: Same as past tense form. Add –ed to the base formof the verb according to the spelling rules.Past Participle for irregular verbs:- Common endings include –en, -ne or –n (chosen, done, and torn) but there are other possibilities:- Some are the same for present, past and past participles (cut-cut-cut, put-put-put)- Another pattern is different internal vowels (sing-sang-sung, ring-rang-rung)- Students must memorize the irregular forms that are most commonly used. Singular Plural I have walked we have walked you have walked you have walked he/she/it has walked they have walked
Present Perfect – Usage #1Past action or situation that continues now. (affirmative or negative)Example Key WordsJose: How long have you worked at Carpet World? How LongSara: I’ve been there for 18 years. In fact, I’ve worked there for + timelonger than any of my supervisors!Jose: What do you do there?Sara: I used to work on the assembly line, but since 1995, since + timeI’ve been with the sales force in the front office. Past Now Future
Present Perfect – Usage #2Recent past action that is important to the situation.Example Key WordsAmber: It’s hot in here. Why don’t you turn on the airconditioner?James: Actually, I’ve jut turned it on. We have to give it a Justfew minutes to feel it. Can I help you with the reports?Amber: Thanks, but I’ve already finished them. Here they alreadyare. Past Now Future
Present Perfect – Usage #3Past Experience, Indefinite Past TimeExample Key WordsKatie: Susan’s just gotten back from China. She told me shehad a great time.Sean: That’s wonderful news. She must be tired. That was areally long trip.Katie: I wonder how many hours it is from here to China. EverHave you even gone there?Sean : No I’ve never gone there, but my uncle had traveled Neverthere many times. In fact, he went there last month. He had Many timesto go there on business. Past Now Future
Present Perfect – Usage #4With yet.Example Key WordsMike: We don’t have much time. Are you almost ready?Kent: Give me a few more minutes, Mike.Mike: What about the travel report and the salary sheets? Yet (in aHave you finished them yet? question)Kent: I’ve already finished the salary sheets, but I haven’t Yet (in afinished the travel report yet. I only need a few more negative)minutes, okay? Past Now Future
Present Perfect – Usage #5With a superlative (Indicates Past Indefinite Action).Example Key WordsSaleh: How was the movie you went to see last night?Marcos: Don’t waste your money! That was the worst The worst evermovie that I have ever seen in my life.Saleh: Wow, I’m surprised. You know its the most expensive The mostmovie that anyone in Hollywood has ever made. expensive ever Past Now Future Past Now Future Past Now Future
Present Perfect – Usage #6The First…The Third…. (Refers to a past indefinite time)Connects the past event and the present time or a present event.Example Key WordsMother: Is that the third paper that you have had to write The third...for that class this semester?Bernadette: Yes, but it’s the first paper that the teacher has The first...asked for Past Now Future
Present Perfect – Usage #7Repetition of an action before now. (Exact time is not important)Example Key WordsWeiping: Can you believe it? There’s another test nextMonday!Paolo: It’s crazy! We’ve had six tests so far this month. Six so farWeiping: You know, my biology teacher has given only one One thistest this semester. semesterPaolo: I know the feeling I’ve had a lot of classes like that A lothere. Past Now Future
Common ELLs Mistakes: What your ELLs should know.1-Do not forget to use have or has with the past participle.Wrong: I was born here and will die here. I been here my whole life.Correct: I was born here and will die here. I have been here my whole life.2- Don’t use have or has with the wrong subjectWrong: Sarah have already completed all the homework.Correct: Sarah has already completed all the homework.3- Do not use be here with present perfect tense.Wrong: Sarah is already completed all the homework.Correct: Sarah has already completed all the homework.4-Do not use present perfect with any specific past tense time words.Wrong: I have gone to Mexico several times when I was in college.Correct: I went to Mexico several times when I was in college.5-Do not use simple past tense with actions that are still continuing.Wrong: I lived in this same apartment since 1996.Correct: I’ve lived in this same apartment since 1996.
Past Perfect TensePast actions that occurred before another past event, action or time.Form: had + PAST PARTICIPLE Ex: I had walked along the beach before the sun set. Past Now Future Singular Plural I had walked we had walked you had walked you hadwalked he/she/it had walked they had walked
Common ELLs Mistakes: What your ELLs should know.1-Do not forget to use the past participle after had.Wrong: I had work for the bus for almost 20 years.Correct: I had worked for the bus for almost 20 years.2- Do not use past tense when past perfect is required.Wrong: When the company went bankrupt, I worked there 20 years.Correct: When the company went bankrupt, I had worked there for 20 years.
Past Perfect Progressive TenseAn action that began in the past and continued until another time in the past.Form: had + been + VERB+ - ingExample: I had been walking on the trail for almost an hour when the rain started. Past Now Future Singular Plural I walked we walked you walked you walked he/she/it walked they walked
Used to and Would Used to express certain actions in the past.. Used to: The idea that a past action happened repeatedly but is no longer (usually) done now. A past fact that is no longer true. Would: A past action that happened repeatedly but it is no longer (usually) done now.Used to Used to Would WouldSingular Plural Singular PluralI used to walk We used to walk I would walk We would walkYou used to walk You used to walk You would walk You would walkHe/she/it used to They used to walk He/she/it would walk They would walkwalk
Tense Example Simple Past SUBJ +did+not+VERB Present Perfect I/you/we/they + have +not +PAST PARTICIPLE He/she/it + has + not+ PAST PARTICIPLE Past Progressive I/he/she/it + was +not+ VERB + –ing You/we/they + were + not+ VERB + -ing Past Perfect SUBJ + had + not + been + VERB + -ingPast Perfect Progressive SUBJ + had + not + been + VERB + -ing Used to SUBJ + did + not + use to + VERB Would SUBJ + would + not + VERB
Past Continuous – Lesson PlanObjective - Have students recognize when the use of the the Past Continuous isneeded, and be able to use it correctly.Steps1. The students will be given strips of paper with actions written in thepast continuous. They will be asked to mimic and act out the actionsthey have been given. Teacher will walk over to the door, let them act itout for a few seconds and then turn off the light. When T turns on thelight SS will be asked to complete the following sentence “I was ______ when the teacher turned off the lights”Class will go over it orally. Students will be asked to say what theyweredoing when the Teacher turned off the light.2. Then, the class will go over orally what their classmates were doing. “ ’Fulan@’ was ______ when the teacher turned off the light”3. Students will be paired off and asked to ask each other questionsabout what they were doing and what their classmates were doingwhen the teacher turned off the light.4. They will then be asked to write sentences individually, on what theywere doing and what their classmates were doing.