Sec 2 History - Chapter 2

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Sec 2 History - Chapter 2

  1. 1. history Singapore: From Settlement to Nation Pre - 1819 to 1971
  2. 2. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? Sir Stamford Raffles? William Farquhar? Dr. John Crawfurd? Pioneers of Singapore?
  3. 3. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? What do you understand by the term “ founded ”?
  4. 4. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? What do you understand by the term “ founded ”? a founder is someone who formulates the basis of something.
  5. 5. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? What are these?
  6. 6. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? The Advent of Colonial Powers in SEA Since the 16 th century, European powers began to arrive in Asia in search of spices and other goods such as silk and precious stones. Began with the Portuguese, followed by the Dutch and British.
  7. 7. Spice Trade before 1500
  8. 8. The fight for 'spice' <ul><li>Europeans tried to establish a foothold on the spice trade in India and Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Spain and Portugal spent much of the 16th century fighting over cloves, while England and the Dutch dueled over nutmeg in Indonesia. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? <ul><li>The British East India Company </li></ul><ul><li>Formed in 1601 with the specific objective of trading with Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Very different from most companies today. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own armies and navies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled territories. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? Sir Stamford Raffles Raffles started working as a clerk in London for the British East India Company in 1795, at the age of fourteen. I know Bahasa Melayu!
  11. 11. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? <ul><li>Dutch and British Rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch control of Malacca and Java meant that the British were at a disadvantage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of major ports: Forced to trade at Batavia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High fees and taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not allowed to trade with locals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This form of control is also known as a trade monopoly . </li></ul><ul><li>British had only Penang and Bencoolen. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Locations Batavia (Jakarta) Bencoolen (Bengkulu) Penang Melaka Where the action is!
  13. 13. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? “ The Dutch possess the only routes through which ships must sail into the Malay Archipelago, the Straits of Sunda and Melaka and the British have now not an inch of ground to stand upon between India and China, nor a friendly port at which they obtain water and obtain refreshment” Read textbook, page 24.
  14. 14. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? With ports that are in geographically poor locations, what would be a logical move for the British?
  15. 15. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? <ul><li>Singapore chosen by the British </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch monopoly in the Malay Archipelago. </li></ul><ul><li>British were searching for a suitable trading settlement with a good geographical location. </li></ul><ul><li>(Textbook Pg. 23) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? <ul><li>The Problems The British Faced </li></ul><ul><li>The Johor-Riau Sultanate, the ruler being Sultan Abdul Rahman, was controlled by the Dutch. </li></ul><ul><li>British did not want to antagonise the Dutch as it was a strong buffer state. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? What Raffles did to solve the problems Secretly but formally recognising Tengku Hussein as the rightful Sultan, and obtaining his permission to start a settlement. In return, Tengku Hussein would receive $5000 a year and the Temenggong $3000.
  18. 18. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? What Raffles did to solve the problems 6 February 1819 , Raffles, Tengku Hussein and the Temenggong signed a treaty allowing the British to build a settlement in the Southern part of the island. But Singapore was still under Sultan Hussein, NOT officially a British colony yet.
  19. 19. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? What do you think the Dutch would have felt?
  20. 20. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? The Dutch Response The Dutch made official protests to the British
  21. 21. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? <ul><li>The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of March, 1824 </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides had nothing to gain from a war. British needed a buffer state out of Holland and Holland’s economy was extremely weak at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>After the treaty, the Malay Peninsula, the port of Melaka and Singapore came under the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and the port of Bencoolen in Sumatra came under the Dutch. </li></ul><ul><li>British had three ports in the Straits of Melaka: Singapore, Melaka and Penang. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? <ul><li>The Infant Years of the New Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>William Farquhar was Resident (local governor) of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>He cleared large areas of forest to build houses and solved many problems such as fortifying Singapore, making it popular to traders, ensuring that there was sufficient food to sustain the growing population, policing crime and exterminating pests . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? The Infant Years of the New Settlement Large influx of traders, laborers, settlers. Attracted by policy of free trade and low taxes.
  24. 24. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? The Infant Years of the New Settlement Bustling trading port
  25. 25. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? The Infant Years of the New Settlement Abundant crime
  26. 26. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? The Infant Years of the New Settlement Exterminating pests
  27. 27. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? Of opium, gambling and slavery.
  28. 28. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? The Infant Years of the New Settlement What would these problems result in??
  29. 29. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? When did Singapore become an official British colony?
  30. 30. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? Dr John Crawfurd Singapore officially became a British colony only in August 1824 with Dr John Crawfurd as second Resident. A treaty signed with Sultan Hussein handed the entire island to the British East India Company .
  31. 31. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? <ul><li>Dr John Crawfurd </li></ul><ul><li>As resident of Singapore, Crawfurd focused on increasing government revenue and promoting free trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Using convict labour, roads were widened and leveled and bridges built. </li></ul><ul><li>His administration ensured Singapore’s progress as a trading port . </li></ul>
  32. 32. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? So… who was the founder of Singapore???
  33. 33. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? Sir Stamford Raffles “ Singapore, a child of my own”
  34. 34. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? William Farquhar “ Singapore…he founded”
  35. 35. Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore? John Crawfurd “ John Crawfurd to be the real founder”
  36. 36. Summary <ul><li>The Dutch and British competed for colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the British choose Singapore and how did they obtain it? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems did Singapore face in the beginning? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you understand by the term “founded”? </li></ul><ul><li>Who do you think founded Singapore? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Summary <ul><li>Important dates to remember </li></ul><ul><li>6 February 1819, initial treaty signed between Raffles and Sultan Hussein. </li></ul><ul><li>17 March 1824, Anglo-Dutch Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>2 August 1824, Dr John Crawfurd signs the treaty that made Singapore an official British colony. </li></ul>

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