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Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
Plants for exposed and coastal sites
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Plants for exposed and coastal sites

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How to design a garden on exposed seaside or inland, plants to use, 3 stage defence. Uk, USA and Australia. …

How to design a garden on exposed seaside or inland, plants to use, 3 stage defence. Uk, USA and Australia.
If you want a copy/download pls contact e directly to tell me what it would be used for :)

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  • 1. Plants for exposed and coastal sites Françoise Murat July 2010
  • 2. Coastal sites and exposed sites: UK
    • Salt: induces plasmosis (death of vital plant part)
    • Wind: shreds leaves, dry, most abrasive
    • Sandy soil/ poor soil: little nutrition
    • Wet/Dry condition: too much of one, too much of the other
      • Positive: frost is usually absent, several degrees warmer than inland
      • Positive: right plant right place, very little maintenance
      • Interesting and unusual plants, natives planted in swathes is so attractive
  • 3. Solution to coastal and exposed sites
    • Coastal:
    • Wind break is imperative if you want to build a garden with a modicum of plants and flowers unless you want a total shingle beach garden like Derek Jarman’s or pure sand
    • Exposed sites:
    • Nothing much will grow if no shelter is provided – uninteresting garden!
  • 4. Taken from http://www.shorttermmemoryloss.com/words/2006/08/08/the-last-of-england , on 19.11.07 Derek Jarman’s Prospect Cottage Dungeness
  • 5. Plants to choose: look carefully at…
    • Vigour: height and spread, smaller leaves better if fully exposed
    • Soil: you will need to feed it if you want plants which are not endemic to the conditions
    • Condition: windy, wet, dry
    • Dispersal – seed/wind
    • Maintenance: keep sand at bay?
    • Different species: will they thrive?
    • Grey foliage will do better (has small hairs to trap moisture and even perspiration) Senecio laxifolius
    • Waxy coating, Dianthus
    • Dispense of leaves, Gorse, Tamarisk
    • Tough outer layers, Quercus ilex, Hippophae rhamnoides
    • Doubling of the epidermis, Hebe (shrubby species)
    • Young leaves which protect the apical bud
  • 6. All kinds of soils in coastal areas
    • Light sands of Hampshire
    • Silty clays of parts of Essex
    • Alkaline chalk from Brighton to Dover
    • Acid soils Western and South West coast
        • Right plant, right place still applies!
        • Look at what grows locally, sow “en masse” to get the effect
  • 7. 3 Lines of defence
    • Best NOT to have a solid wall: wind sweeps down the wall in swirls, intense turbulence
    • Semi-permeable, best if plant based. Will reduce wind speed up to 1/5 and 4 x the height of the barrier and provide shelter up to 40 x its own height
          • E.g. 2m high x 40 = 80m!
    • 40% aperture and 60% solid good balance, gives shelter and little turbulence
  • 8. The 3 zones!
    • Zone 1
      • 1 st line of defence
      • Toughest plants/trees, deciduous and evergreens
      • Width if you have the space should be 30ft
      • Close planting
      • Will not attain much height
    • Zone 2
      • 2-3 rows of tree
      • Local species, height important, mixed deciduous and evergreen
      • 12-18inches apart
      • Thin later
      • Encourage growth at ground level
    • Zone 3
      • Basic planting
      • Best trees and shrubs
  • 9. The 3 zones
    • Taken from: http://www.wi.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/solutions/windbreaks.html
  • 10. Zone 1 plants
    • Hippophae rhamnoides – Sea Buckthorn
      • Very hardy
      • Deciduous shrub
      • Local
      • Thickets on fixed dunes
      • H: 6m , W: 2.5m medium rate growth
      • It is in flower in April, seeds ripen from September to October.
      • Soil: Light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
      • It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
    • Uses in Garden Design: can look sparse but plant it in clumps and can look attractive with orange berries. Good for sandy soils.
  • 11. Zone 1
    • Prunus spinosa – Blackthorn, Sloe
      • Tough
      • Hedging
      • A deciduous Shrub
      • H: 3m W: 1.2-1.4m, medium rate growth
      • Flowers from March to April, seeds ripen in October.
      • It is noted for attracting wildlife
      • Soil: prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
      • Can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
    Uses: mostly functional but can look stunning with berries planted in large swathes.
  • 12. Zone 1
    • Salix alba, best is Salix caprea – Goat Willow
      • A deciduous tree
      • H:10m W: 8m at a fast rate.
      • It is hardy to zone and is not frost tender.
      • Flowers from March to April, and the seeds ripen in May. Flowers are either male or female, so both need to be planted if seed is required).
      • Pollinated by Bees.
      • Soil: prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
      • Can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. Requires dry moist or wet soil.
      • It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
    Uses: mostly functional but effective planted in large numbers.
  • 13. Zone 1
    • Sambucus nigra – Elder
      • Quick grower, large leaves
      • Deciduous shrub
      • H: 6mW: 6m at a fast rate.
      • It is hardy
      • In leaf from March to November, in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen from August to September.
      • Noted for attracting wildlife.
      • Soil: prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
      • Can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
      • It requires moist soil.
      • It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
    Uses: mostly functional but is stunning with either the berries or flowers and it is edible of course!
  • 14. Zone 1
    • Ulex europaeus – Gorse
      • A deciduous shrub
      • Vicious spines give the appearance of an evergreen
      • H:1.5m W: 1.5m at a fast rate.
      • It is hardy to zone and is not frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower all year, and the seeds ripen all year.
      • The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles.
      • It can fix Nitrogen.
      • Noted for attracting wildlife.
      • Prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
      • Prefers acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
    Uses: functional but can look stunning with flowers in full bloom
  • 15. Other plants/trees for Zone 1 which are deciduous and evergreen
    • Privet
    • Sycamore
    • Tamarisk
    • Box Thorn
    • Euonymus japonicus
  • 16. Zone 2 or Middle
    • Crataegus laevigata – Midland Hawthorn
      • A deciduous shrub
      • H:6m W: 6m and grows at medium rate.
      • Hardy, not frost tender.
      • Flower from April to May, seeds ripen from September to November.
      • Noted for attracting wildlife.
      • Soil: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
      • Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
      • Can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
      • Moist or wet soil, can tolerate drought.
      • Can tolerates strong winds, not maritime exposure & atmospheric pollution.
    Uses: many varieties, pink, white and magenta flowers. Great for wildlife with berries and nesting. Looks like firecrackers when in bloom!
  • 17. Zone 2
    • Acer pseudoplatanus – Plane tree
      • A deciduous tree
      • H: 30m W: 15m at a fast rate.
      • It is hardy
      • It is in flower from April to June, and the seeds ripen from September to October.
      • Soil: prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils.
      • Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
      • It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
    Uses: love this for its elegant leaves and form.
  • 18. Zone 2
    • Quercus ilex ballota – Holm Oak
      • Evergreen tree
      • H: 25m W: 20m at a slow rate.
      • It is hardy
      • It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from September to October.
      • Soil: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
      • Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
      • It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
    Uses: Lovely dark green colour, good form and fruit
  • 19. Zone 2
    • Cupressus macrocarpa- Monterey cypress
      • Evergreen tree
      • H: 25m W:25m at a fast rate.
      • It is hardy to
      • In leaf all year, in flower from April to June.
      • Soil: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
      • Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade.
      • Dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
    Uses: present in most parks and garden of the south of England. Elegant form, good as canopy, lovely sound in the wind.
  • 20. Zone 2
    • Ulmus glabra – Wych Elm
      • A deciduous tree
      • H: 30m W:25m grows at a fast rate
      • Hardy and not frost tender.
      • It is in flower from February to March, and the seeds ripen from May to June.
      • Attracts wildlife.
      • Soil: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil.
      • Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
      • Can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
      • It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
    Uses: most wonderful textured leaves.
  • 21. Zone 2
    • Populus nigra- Black Italian Poplar
      • A deciduous tree
      • H: to 30m W: 20m grows at a fast rate.
      • Hardy
      • In flower in April, and the seeds ripen in June.
      • Only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by wind
      • The plant is not self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.
      • Prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
      • Cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
    Uses: fabulous rustling leaves, this one has autumnal colour with Bordeaux and gold tinges
  • 22. Zone 2
    • Sorbus intermedia – Swedish Whitebeam
      • Deciduous tree
      • H:12m W:12m grows at a medium rate
      • Hardy and not frost tender.
      • Flowers in May, seeds ripen from September to October.
      • Noted for attracting wildlife.
      • Soil: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
      • Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
      • It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
      • It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
    Uses: fantastic colour in Autumn, can be a show stopper. Berries are great for wildlife. Not too dense, therefore good to see through.
  • 23. Zone 2
    • Fraxinus excelsior – Ash (except on chalk)
      • A deciduous tree
      • H:30m W: 20m grows at a fast rate.
      • It is hardy to zone frost tender.
      • In leaf from May to October, in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from September to January.
      • One sex on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required, pollinated by Wind.
      • Noted for attracting wildlife.
      • Soil: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
      • Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soil.
      • It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist or wet soil.
      • It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
    Uses: I like them!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Different texture, form is compact and solid
  • 24. Other plants/trees for Zone 2 which are deciduous and evergreen
    • Pinus radiata , the Monterey Pine - milder coastal areas, bright green densely leaved
    • Pinus muricata , Bishop’s Pine, milder areas again, dense flat head, blue-green foliage
    • Pinus pinaster , much planted in Bournemouth for example, reliable, but a little ungainly
    • Pinus austriaca , the Austrian Pine is a good all-rounder. Broad-headed, densely branched, dark foliage leaves. Thrives on chalky soil, bleak exposure
  • 25. Zone 3 – inner zone, plant in 3-5s, they will interlock, dense bushes, protection
    • Callistemon citrinus – Bottle Brush
      • Sea breeze filters through
      • H: 2.4m and W: 2,5m
      • Give it an occasional chop, to keep tidy
      • Evergreen foliage, small and narrow. Citrus smell when leaves crushed. Two flowerings per year if right condition (dry and sun)
      • Large cylindrical shaped flowers
      • Full sun- does not like water logged!
      • Soil: peat, loam, clay and acid to neutral! No on chalky soil though.
      • Uses: Looks good as a single specimen or many for a softer look, good to contrast with large leaved architectural plants like Mahonias
  • 26. Zone 3
    • Cistus lusitanicus “Decumbens”
      • Mounds of fuzzy grey-green
      • Foliage gives off pungent aroma in sunny hot weather
      • Delicate white flowers with maroon-red sport/blotches and yellow centres
      • Last only a few hours but has so many that it last for weeks
      • Full sun
      • Poor dry conditions
      • Need sharp drainage
      • Uses: Fluffy contrast to cacti-like companions
  • 27. Zone 3
    • Corokia x virgata – Wire netting bush
      • Evergreen shrub
      • Good wire netting form, to hold ground
      • From New Zealand
      • H: to 3m W: 3.5m
      • Tiny leaves, dark green with metallic bronzy sheen on upper leaves and powdery white underneath
      • Flowers in May.
      • Soil: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
      • Acid to neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
      • Can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not direct maritime exposure.
    Uses: yellow and orange-reds can take the direct light of the beach, great combination.
  • 28. Zone 3
    • Helianthus tuberosus -Jerusalem artichoke
      • Perennial
      • Edible
      • H: 2.4m W: 0.6m,fast rate.
      • Hardy and is not frost tender.
      • It is in flower in October, and the seeds ripen in November.
      • Pollinated by Bees and flies.
      • Soil: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
      • Prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
      • Cannot grow in the shade.
      • Requires dry or moist soil.
      • The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure (direct)
    Uses: Pretty, colourful, edible and tall not dense, adds foliage with flowers
  • 29. Zone 3
    • Cytisus battandieri – Pineapple Broom
      • Full sun
      • Hardy Soil: Well-drained/light, sandy soil
      • H:4m W: 4m
      • Best grown with some shelter from cold winds and in full sun
      • makes an excellent wall shrub
      • silky grey-green foliage
      • The golden pea-shaped flowers are gathered in large upright cones, and have a strong scent of pineapples.
      • AGM
      • Can thrive on poor soil
      • Plant needs a system of regular renewal pruning to keep the growth robust, otherwise it tends to sulk.
      • New growth appears readily from the base and flowers more freely on the older wood
    Uses: great bush with fabulous smell, some people are allergic though!
  • 30. Zone 3
    • Crambe cordifolia – Sea Kale
      • Perennial
      • H: 2m W: 1.2m.
      • Hardy and not frost tender.
      • Flower in June, and the seeds ripen in August.
      • Soil: prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
      • Neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
      • It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
      • It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
    Uses: versatile, tall but see-through. Fluffy form is good contrast to the sometimes stiff maritime plants.
  • 31. Coastal & exposed sites: USA
    • Different sites, different conditions
    • Salt
    • Wind
    • Soil: sand, loam, gravel
    • Hot and dry, wet and cold: extremes
    • Look for local plants, indigenous is better!
  • 32. Coastal & exposed sites: Southern Hemisphere (Sth Africa and Australia)
    • Desert condition: extremes of hot and cold at night
    • Salt
    • Wind
    • Poor soil
    • Look for local plants, indigenous do better!
  • 33. Bibliography
    • Evison, R.B., gardening by the Sea, Pam Books Ltd, London, 1969
    • Kelway, C., Seaside Gardening, Collingridge Ltd, London, 1962
    • Slatcher, J., Coastal Gardening, The Crowood Press, Marlborough, 2005
    • Colborn, N., Getting the Best from Exposed Gardens, London, 1989
    • Brickell, C., New Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers, Dorling Kindersley, London, 1989, The Royal Horticultural Society
    • http://www.rhs.org.uk/rhsplantselector/index.aspx , accessed 11.10.07
    • http://www.shorttermmemoryloss.com/words/2006/08/08/the-last-of-england , accessed 19.11.07
    • http://www.burncoose.co.uk/site/category.cfm?cat_id=20016 , accessed 10.10.07
    • http://www.coastalplants.co.uk/ , accessed 10.10.07
    • http://www.gardeninghelpuk.com/plants_for_exposed_sites.htm , accessed 11.10.07
    • http://www.greenfingers.com/articledisplay.asp?id=509 , accessed 12.10.07
    • http://www.blueworldgardener.co.uk/articles/exposed_plants.htm , accessed 12.10.07
    • http://www.pfaf.org/links/linksOldBib.php , accessed 19.11.07

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