A	
  Research	
  Synthesis	
  of	
  	
  
Social	
  Media	
  in	
  Higher	
  Educa8on	
  
Challenges	
  and	
  Limita8ons	
...
“It	
  would	
  be	
  foolish	
  to	
  ignore	
  the	
  
tremendous	
  opportuni8es	
  the	
  Social	
  Web	
  
offers	
  t...
 	
  	
  	
  “…	
  how	
  is	
  social	
  media	
  actually	
  being	
  
used	
  beyond	
  the	
  world	
  of	
  academic	...
“Before	
  stepping	
  into	
  the	
  piVall	
  of	
  
discussing	
  the	
  educaEonal	
  potenEal	
  of	
  the	
  
next	
...
 	
  	
  	
  “Before	
  stepping	
  into	
  the	
  piVall	
  of	
  
discussing	
  the	
  educaEonal	
  potenEal	
  of	
  t...
Agenda	
  	
  
clarifying	
  the	
  objecEve	
  
	
  
methods	
  and	
  limitaEons	
  
	
  
preliminary	
  results	
  
	
 ...
clarifying	
  the	
  objec8ve	
  1	
  
creaEng	
  a	
  clear	
  picture	
  ...	
  
creaEng	
  a	
  clear	
  picture	
  ...	
  
...	
  of	
  the	
  actual	
  use	
  of	
  social	
  media	
  in	
  higher	
  ...
„A	
  class	
  of	
  web	
  applica8ons	
  that	
  supports	
  
group	
  interacta8ons,	
  especially	
  produc8ve	
  
and...
„systemaEc	
  review“	
  
(Cooper	
  &	
  Hedges	
  2009,	
  p.	
  6)	
  
„[...]	
  primary	
  focus	
  and	
  goal:	
  re...
„systemaEc	
  reviews“	
  
„[...]	
  have	
  specific	
  characteris8cs:	
  an	
  
explicit	
  study	
  protocol,	
  addres...
 	
  	
  	
  “The	
  study	
  is	
  categorized	
  into	
  six	
  secEons:	
  [1]	
  
Facebook	
  users;	
  [2]	
  reasons...
“The	
  study	
  is	
  categorized	
  into	
  six	
  secEons:	
  [1]	
  
Facebook	
  users;	
  [2]	
  reasons	
  people	
 ...
methods	
  and	
  limita8ons	
  2	
  
key	
  characterisEcs/stages	
  
searching	
  strategy	
  
	
  
data	
  appraisal/assessment	
  	
  
	
  
data	
  analysis...
 	
  	
  	
  “A	
  review	
  of	
  literature	
  was	
  undertaken	
  in	
  
September	
  and	
  October	
  of	
  2012.	
 ...
“A	
  review	
  of	
  literature	
  was	
  undertaken	
  in	
  
September	
  and	
  October	
  of	
  2012.	
  I	
  system-...
  	
  reproducible	
  strategy?	
  
Screenshot	
  -­‐	
  hep://eric.ed.gov	
  (29.08.2013)	
  	
  
A	
  
A	
  	
   	
  „some”	
  databases	
  len?	
  
Screenshots	
  -­‐	
  hep://eric.ed.gov,	
  hep://www.tandfonline.com,	
  he...
A	
  	
   	
  open	
  issues	
  
How	
  much	
  research?	
  
Which	
  databases	
  to	
  choose?	
  
Screenshots	
  -­‐	
...
  	
  my	
  approach	
  
•  Focus	
  on	
  relevant	
  journals	
  
–  relevant	
  scope	
  &	
  peer	
  reviewed	
  	
  
...
  	
  my	
  approach	
  
•  relevant	
  journals	
  	
  
–  ScienceDirect:	
  16	
  journals	
  (out	
  of	
  54	
  journa...
 	
  	
  “First,	
  they	
  must	
  be	
  experiment	
  in	
  design	
  
including	
  two	
  groups	
  with	
  random	
  s...
“First,	
  they	
  must	
  be	
  experiment	
  in	
  design	
  
including	
  two	
  groups	
  with	
  random	
  selecEon,	...
“First,	
  they	
  must	
  be	
  experiment	
  in	
  design	
  
including	
  two	
  groups	
  with	
  random	
  selecEon,	...
 	
  	
  “First,	
  they	
  must	
  be	
  experiment	
  in	
  design	
  
including	
  two	
  groups	
  with	
  random	
  s...
  	
  my	
  approach	
  
•  reading	
  abstracts	
  (full-­‐text	
  if	
  needed)	
  
•  inclusion	
  criteria:	
  	
  
– ...
  	
  my	
  approach	
  
Screenshots	
  -­‐	
  hep://www.tandfonline.com,	
  hep://www.sciencedirect.com	
  (12.08.2013)	
...
“The	
  basic	
  unit	
  of	
  analysis	
  was	
  each	
  
individual	
  empirical	
  ar8cle.	
  Using	
  the	
  
constant...
“The	
  basic	
  unit	
  of	
  analysis	
  was	
  each	
  
individual	
  empirical	
  ar8cle.	
  Using	
  the	
  
constant...
•  constant-­‐compara8ve	
  method	
  
–  wriEng	
  memos	
  
–  started	
  with	
  „open	
  coding“	
  
	
   	
  my	
  ap...
preliminary	
  results	
  3	
  
•  ...	
  using	
  social	
  media	
  for	
  
peer	
  feedback	
  &	
  	
  
assessment	
  
	
  
preliminary	
  codes	
  
•  ...	
  using	
  social	
  media	
  for	
  
peer	
  feedback	
  &	
  	
  
assessment	
  	
  
–  “To	
  foster	
  the	
  ...
•  ...	
  using	
  social	
  media	
  to	
  	
  
increase	
  the	
  transparency	
  	
  
of	
  students	
  workflow/collabo...
•  ...	
  using	
  social	
  media	
  to	
  	
  
increase	
  the	
  transparency	
  	
  
of	
  students	
  workflow/collabo...
 
	
  
	
   	
  Franco	
  Rau,	
  M.Ed.	
  
	
   	
  f.rau@apaed.tu-­‐darmstadt.de	
  
	
  
	
   	
  @FrancoRau	
  
	
   	...
[1]	
  Aydin,	
  S.	
  (2012):	
  A	
  Review	
  of	
  Research	
  on	
  Facebook	
  as	
  an	
  
EducaEonal	
  Environmen...
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A Research Synthesis of Social Media in Higher Education. Challenges and Limitations

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ECER 2013, 21. Emerging Researchers' Group (for presentation at Emerging Researchers' Conference), Session: ERG SES C 02

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A Research Synthesis of Social Media in Higher Education. Challenges and Limitations

  1. 1. A  Research  Synthesis  of     Social  Media  in  Higher  Educa8on   Challenges  and  Limita8ons   Franco  Rau,  Faculty  of  Human  Sciences   Technische  Universität  Darmstadt,  Germany   ECER  2013,  ERG  SES  C  02:  ICT  in  EducaEon,  09.09.2013  
  2. 2. “It  would  be  foolish  to  ignore  the   tremendous  opportuni8es  the  Social  Web   offers  to  educa8on.”         (Wheeler  2009,  p.  4)  
  3. 3.        “…  how  is  social  media  actually  being   used  beyond  the  world  of  academic  ed-­‐ tech  conferences,  journals  and  discussions   forums?“      (Selwyn  2010,  p.  3)  
  4. 4. “Before  stepping  into  the  piVall  of   discussing  the  educaEonal  potenEal  of  the   next  ‘big  thing’  in  educaEonal  technology,   […]  ,it  is  necessary  to  thoroughly  and   rigorously  evaluate  and  assess  the   implementa8on  of  Web  2.0  tools  so  far.”         (GouseE  2010,  p.  354)  
  5. 5.        “Before  stepping  into  the  piVall  of   discussing  the  educaEonal  potenEal  of  the   next  ‘big  thing’  in  educaEonal  technology,   […]  ,it  is  necessary  to  thoroughly  and   rigorously  evaluate  and  assess  the   implementa8on  of  Web  2.0  tools  so  far.”         (GouseE  2010,  p.  354)   Objective: carry out a systematic review Today: Focus on methodical challenges and limitations
  6. 6. Agenda     clarifying  the  objecEve     methods  and  limitaEons     preliminary  results     1   2   3  
  7. 7. clarifying  the  objec8ve  1  
  8. 8. creaEng  a  clear  picture  ...  
  9. 9. creaEng  a  clear  picture  ...   ...  of  the  actual  use  of  social  media  in  higher  educaEon  seZngs   focussing  on  aspects  of  interacEon  and  parEcipaEon       by  conducEng  a  systema8c  review.            
  10. 10. „A  class  of  web  applica8ons  that  supports   group  interacta8ons,  especially  produc8ve   and  (semi-­‐)public  interacta8ons.“     „social  media“   (Rau  2012,  p.  13)  
  11. 11. „systemaEc  review“   (Cooper  &  Hedges  2009,  p.  6)   „[...]  primary  focus  and  goal:  research   synthesis  aKempt  to  integrate  empirical   research  for  the  purpose  of  crea8ng   generaliza8ons.“    
  12. 12. „systemaEc  reviews“   „[...]  have  specific  characteris8cs:  an   explicit  study  protocol,  addressing  a  pre-­‐ specified,  highly  focused  quesEon(s);  explicit   methods  for  searching  for  studies;   appraisal  of  studies  to  determine  their   scienEfic  quality;  and  explicit  methods  for   combining  the  findings“   (Dixon-­‐Woods,  Booth  &  Sueon  2007,  p.  375-­‐376)  
  13. 13.        “The  study  is  categorized  into  six  secEons:  [1]   Facebook  users;  [2]  reasons  people  use   Facebook;  [3]  harmful  effects  of  Facebook;  [4]   Facebook  as  an  educaEonal  environment;  [5]   Facebook‘  effect  on  culture,  language  and   educaEon;  and  [5]  the  relaEonship  between   Facebook  und  subject  variables.“         (Tess  2013,  p.  A60)   Example: Aydin (2012): A review of research on Facebook as an educational environment Educational Technology Research and Development Volume 60, Issue 6 , 1093-1106
  14. 14. “The  study  is  categorized  into  six  secEons:  [1]   Facebook  users;  [2]  reasons  people  use   Facebook;  [3]  harmful  effects  of  Facebook;  [4]   Facebook  as  an  educaEonal  environment;  [5]   Facebook‘  effect  on  culture,  language  and   educaEon;  and  [6]  the  relaEonship  between   Facebook  und  subject  variables.“         (Aydin  2012,  p.  1093)   What‘s  missing?  
  15. 15. methods  and  limita8ons  2  
  16. 16. key  characterisEcs/stages   searching  strategy     data  appraisal/assessment       data  analysis     A   B   C   Cooper  &  Hedges  (2009,  p.  9),  Dixon-­‐Woods  et  al.  (2007,  p.  376-­‐377),     Hannes  &  MacaiEs  (2012,  p.  403-­‐405)  
  17. 17.        “A  review  of  literature  was  undertaken  in   September  and  October  of  2012.  I  system-­‐ a8cally  searched  the  following  specialized   database  sources:  Web  of    Science,  EBSCOhost   and  ERIC.  AddiEonally  Google  Scholar  searches   were  performed.  Search  words  and  phrases   included  Facebook,  Higher  EducaEon,  Social   Media,  […]”     (Tess  2013,  p.  A60)      searching  strategy  A   Example #A: Tess (2013): The Role of social media in higher education classes (real and virtual) – A literature review Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 29, Issue 5, A60-A68
  18. 18. “A  review  of  literature  was  undertaken  in   September  and  October  of  2012.  I  system-­‐ a8cally  searched  the  following  specialized   database  sources:  Web  of    Science,  EBSCOhost   and  ERIC.  AddiEonally  Google  Scholar  searches   were  performed.  Search  words  and  phrases   included  Facebook,  Higher  EducaEon,  Social   Media,  […]”     (Tess  2013,  p.  A60)      transparent  strategy?  A  
  19. 19.    reproducible  strategy?   Screenshot  -­‐  hep://eric.ed.gov  (29.08.2013)     A  
  20. 20. A      „some”  databases  len?   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://eric.ed.gov,  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com,   hep://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/psycinfo/index.aspx    (12.08.2013)    
  21. 21. A      open  issues   How  much  research?   Which  databases  to  choose?   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://eric.ed.gov,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com,   hep://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/psycinfo/index.aspx    (12.08.2013)    
  22. 22.    my  approach   •  Focus  on  relevant  journals   –  relevant  scope  &  peer  reviewed     –  at  least  >  10  ar8cles  that  match  the  following     search  criteria   •  PublicaEon  date:  2008-­‐2012   •  Fulltextsearch  via  “Taylor  &  Francis  Online”  and   “ScienceDirect”  (with  the  aim  /  neccessity  to  limit  the  data  base)   •  Use  a  combina8on  of  3  Keywords:     –  “web”  AND  “learning”  AND    “higher  educaEon”   –  “social”  AND  “learning”  AND    “higher  educaEon”     A   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com  (12.08.2013)    
  23. 23.    my  approach   •  relevant  journals     –  ScienceDirect:  16  journals  (out  of  54  journals  found  in  EducaEon,     Media  and  Technology,  EducaEonal  Psychology)   –  Taylor  &  Francis:  38  journals  (out  of  235  journals  found  in  EducaEon)   •  poten8ally  eligible  studies  (including  duplicates  between  keyword  combinaEons)   –  “web”  AND  “learning”  AND    “higher  educaEon”   •  ScienceDirect:  1396  ar8cles  (out  of  16  journals)   •  Taylor  &  Francis:  872  ar8cles  (out  of  38  journals)   –  “social”  AND  “learning”  AND    “higher  educaEon”   •  ScienceDirect:  2352  ar8cles  (out  of  16  journals)   •  Taylor  &  Francis:  3263  ar8cles  (out  of  38  journals)   A   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com  (12.08.2013)    
  24. 24.      “First,  they  must  be  experiment  in  design   including  two  groups  with  random  selecEon,   one-­‐group  pretest  and  poseest,  or  two  groups   without  random  selecEon.”             (Hew  &  Cheung  2013,  p.  50)      data  appraisal/assessment    B   Example #B: Hew & Cheung (2013): Use of Web 2.0 technologies in K-12 and higher education: The search for evidence-based practice Educational Research Review, Volume 9, 47-64
  25. 25. “First,  they  must  be  experiment  in  design   including  two  groups  with  random  selecEon,   one-­‐group  pretest  and  poseest,  or  two  groups   without  random  selecEon.”             (Hew  &  Cheung  2013,  p.  50)      inclusion  criteria  B  
  26. 26. “First,  they  must  be  experiment  in  design   including  two  groups  with  random  selecEon,   one-­‐group  pretest  and  poseest,  or  two  groups   without  random  selecEon.”     “[…]  studies  that  relied  on  student  self-­‐report   data  such  as  student  quesEonnaire  survey  and   interview  were  excluded.”         (Hew  &  Cheung  2013,  p.  50)      excluding  qualitaEve  data?  B  
  27. 27.      “First,  they  must  be  experiment  in  design   including  two  groups  with  random  selecEon,   one-­‐group  pretest  and  poseest,  or  two  groups   without  random  selecEon.”          “[…]  studies  that  relied  on  student  self-­‐report   data  such  as  student  quesEonnaire  survey  and   interview  were  excluded.”         (Hew  &  Cheung  2013,  p.  50)      open  issues  B   Which  inclusion  and  exclusion  criteria  to  choose?   How  to  judge  the  quality  of  a  publicaEon?  
  28. 28.    my  approach   •  reading  abstracts  (full-­‐text  if  needed)   •  inclusion  criteria:     –  empirical  study  (case  study,     experimental,  etc.)   –  study  focus  on  a  natural  seZng   in  higher  educaEon   –  use  of  social  media  to  support     learning   •  exclusion  criteria:   –  online  course/distance  educaEon   B   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com  (12.08.2013)    
  29. 29.    my  approach   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com  (12.08.2013)     •  InteracEve  Learning  Environments:     –  9  ar8cles  (out  of  55)   •  Studies  in  Higher  EducaEon   –  5  ar8cles  (out  of  54)   B  
  30. 30. “The  basic  unit  of  analysis  was  each   individual  empirical  ar8cle.  Using  the   constant-­‐compara8ve  method  espoused   by  Lincoln  and  Guba  (1985),  the  coding  scheme   was  not  predetermined  prior  to  our  analysis   but  emerged  inducEvely  from  the  data.  […]  “   (Sim  &  Hew  2010,  p.  153)      data  analysis  C   Example #C: Sim & Hew (2010): The use of weblogs in higher education settings: A review of empirical research Educational Research Review, Volume 5, Issue 2, 151-163
  31. 31. “The  basic  unit  of  analysis  was  each   individual  empirical  ar8cle.  Using  the   constant-­‐compara8ve  method  espoused   by  Lincoln  and  Guba  (1985),  the  coding  scheme   was  not  predetermined  prior  to  our  analysis   but  emerged  inducEvely  from  the  data.  […]  “   (Sim  &  Hew  2010,  p.  153)      basic  unit  of  analysis  C  
  32. 32. •  constant-­‐compara8ve  method   –  wriEng  memos   –  started  with  „open  coding“      my  approach  C  
  33. 33. preliminary  results  3  
  34. 34. •  ...  using  social  media  for   peer  feedback  &     assessment     preliminary  codes  
  35. 35. •  ...  using  social  media  for   peer  feedback  &     assessment     –  “To  foster  the  social  learning  culture,  we  also  asked  students  to  check   into  their  classmates’  blogs  to  see  what  other  people  have  wrieen.  […]   students  are  encouraged  to  read  others’  posEngs  and  then  write   comments  to  some  of  those  posEngs.”  (Chang  and  Chang  2011,  p.  4)     –  “InstrucEonal  acEvity:  The  class  acEvity  was  essenEally  comprised  of   one  student  (author)  providing  a  proposal  to  a  second  student  (peer   reviewer)  who  would  then  review  the  proposal  and  criEque  the   proposal  that  was  then  returned  back  to  the  author  to  review  the   criEque.”  (Mendenhall  &  Johnson  2010,  p.  268)   preliminary  codes  
  36. 36. •  ...  using  social  media  to     increase  the  transparency     of  students  workflow/collabora8on     preliminary  codes  
  37. 37. •  ...  using  social  media  to     increase  the  transparency     of  students  workflow/collabora8on   –  In  addiEon,  the  facilitator  regularly  viewed  every  student’s  space  and   provided  feedback  on  student  work.  (Lu  and  Churchill  2012,  pp.  5)   –  Content  evoluEon            Day  of  week  acEvity  in   by  ...                    WikiHaskell                        (Palomo-­‐Duarte  et  al.  2012,  pp.  10-­‐12)     preliminary  codes  
  38. 38.        Franco  Rau,  M.Ed.      f.rau@apaed.tu-­‐darmstadt.de        @FrancoRau      hep://de.slideshare.net/FrancoRau/     Thank  you!  
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