Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
  • Save
A Research Synthesis of Social Media in Higher Education. Challenges and Limitations
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

A Research Synthesis of Social Media in Higher Education. Challenges and Limitations

  • 671 views
Published

ECER 2013, 21. Emerging Researchers' Group (for presentation at Emerging Researchers' Conference), Session: ERG SES C 02

ECER 2013, 21. Emerging Researchers' Group (for presentation at Emerging Researchers' Conference), Session: ERG SES C 02

Published in Education , Business , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
671
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. A  Research  Synthesis  of     Social  Media  in  Higher  Educa8on   Challenges  and  Limita8ons   Franco  Rau,  Faculty  of  Human  Sciences   Technische  Universität  Darmstadt,  Germany   ECER  2013,  ERG  SES  C  02:  ICT  in  EducaEon,  09.09.2013  
  • 2. “It  would  be  foolish  to  ignore  the   tremendous  opportuni8es  the  Social  Web   offers  to  educa8on.”         (Wheeler  2009,  p.  4)  
  • 3.        “…  how  is  social  media  actually  being   used  beyond  the  world  of  academic  ed-­‐ tech  conferences,  journals  and  discussions   forums?“      (Selwyn  2010,  p.  3)  
  • 4. “Before  stepping  into  the  piVall  of   discussing  the  educaEonal  potenEal  of  the   next  ‘big  thing’  in  educaEonal  technology,   […]  ,it  is  necessary  to  thoroughly  and   rigorously  evaluate  and  assess  the   implementa8on  of  Web  2.0  tools  so  far.”         (GouseE  2010,  p.  354)  
  • 5.        “Before  stepping  into  the  piVall  of   discussing  the  educaEonal  potenEal  of  the   next  ‘big  thing’  in  educaEonal  technology,   […]  ,it  is  necessary  to  thoroughly  and   rigorously  evaluate  and  assess  the   implementa8on  of  Web  2.0  tools  so  far.”         (GouseE  2010,  p.  354)   Objective: carry out a systematic review Today: Focus on methodical challenges and limitations
  • 6. Agenda     clarifying  the  objecEve     methods  and  limitaEons     preliminary  results     1   2   3  
  • 7. clarifying  the  objec8ve  1  
  • 8. creaEng  a  clear  picture  ...  
  • 9. creaEng  a  clear  picture  ...   ...  of  the  actual  use  of  social  media  in  higher  educaEon  seZngs   focussing  on  aspects  of  interacEon  and  parEcipaEon       by  conducEng  a  systema8c  review.            
  • 10. „A  class  of  web  applica8ons  that  supports   group  interacta8ons,  especially  produc8ve   and  (semi-­‐)public  interacta8ons.“     „social  media“   (Rau  2012,  p.  13)  
  • 11. „systemaEc  review“   (Cooper  &  Hedges  2009,  p.  6)   „[...]  primary  focus  and  goal:  research   synthesis  aKempt  to  integrate  empirical   research  for  the  purpose  of  crea8ng   generaliza8ons.“    
  • 12. „systemaEc  reviews“   „[...]  have  specific  characteris8cs:  an   explicit  study  protocol,  addressing  a  pre-­‐ specified,  highly  focused  quesEon(s);  explicit   methods  for  searching  for  studies;   appraisal  of  studies  to  determine  their   scienEfic  quality;  and  explicit  methods  for   combining  the  findings“   (Dixon-­‐Woods,  Booth  &  Sueon  2007,  p.  375-­‐376)  
  • 13.        “The  study  is  categorized  into  six  secEons:  [1]   Facebook  users;  [2]  reasons  people  use   Facebook;  [3]  harmful  effects  of  Facebook;  [4]   Facebook  as  an  educaEonal  environment;  [5]   Facebook‘  effect  on  culture,  language  and   educaEon;  and  [5]  the  relaEonship  between   Facebook  und  subject  variables.“         (Tess  2013,  p.  A60)   Example: Aydin (2012): A review of research on Facebook as an educational environment Educational Technology Research and Development Volume 60, Issue 6 , 1093-1106
  • 14. “The  study  is  categorized  into  six  secEons:  [1]   Facebook  users;  [2]  reasons  people  use   Facebook;  [3]  harmful  effects  of  Facebook;  [4]   Facebook  as  an  educaEonal  environment;  [5]   Facebook‘  effect  on  culture,  language  and   educaEon;  and  [6]  the  relaEonship  between   Facebook  und  subject  variables.“         (Aydin  2012,  p.  1093)   What‘s  missing?  
  • 15. methods  and  limita8ons  2  
  • 16. key  characterisEcs/stages   searching  strategy     data  appraisal/assessment       data  analysis     A   B   C   Cooper  &  Hedges  (2009,  p.  9),  Dixon-­‐Woods  et  al.  (2007,  p.  376-­‐377),     Hannes  &  MacaiEs  (2012,  p.  403-­‐405)  
  • 17.        “A  review  of  literature  was  undertaken  in   September  and  October  of  2012.  I  system-­‐ a8cally  searched  the  following  specialized   database  sources:  Web  of    Science,  EBSCOhost   and  ERIC.  AddiEonally  Google  Scholar  searches   were  performed.  Search  words  and  phrases   included  Facebook,  Higher  EducaEon,  Social   Media,  […]”     (Tess  2013,  p.  A60)      searching  strategy  A   Example #A: Tess (2013): The Role of social media in higher education classes (real and virtual) – A literature review Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 29, Issue 5, A60-A68
  • 18. “A  review  of  literature  was  undertaken  in   September  and  October  of  2012.  I  system-­‐ a8cally  searched  the  following  specialized   database  sources:  Web  of    Science,  EBSCOhost   and  ERIC.  AddiEonally  Google  Scholar  searches   were  performed.  Search  words  and  phrases   included  Facebook,  Higher  EducaEon,  Social   Media,  […]”     (Tess  2013,  p.  A60)      transparent  strategy?  A  
  • 19.    reproducible  strategy?   Screenshot  -­‐  hep://eric.ed.gov  (29.08.2013)     A  
  • 20. A      „some”  databases  len?   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://eric.ed.gov,  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com,   hep://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/psycinfo/index.aspx    (12.08.2013)    
  • 21. A      open  issues   How  much  research?   Which  databases  to  choose?   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://eric.ed.gov,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com,   hep://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/psycinfo/index.aspx    (12.08.2013)    
  • 22.    my  approach   •  Focus  on  relevant  journals   –  relevant  scope  &  peer  reviewed     –  at  least  >  10  ar8cles  that  match  the  following     search  criteria   •  PublicaEon  date:  2008-­‐2012   •  Fulltextsearch  via  “Taylor  &  Francis  Online”  and   “ScienceDirect”  (with  the  aim  /  neccessity  to  limit  the  data  base)   •  Use  a  combina8on  of  3  Keywords:     –  “web”  AND  “learning”  AND    “higher  educaEon”   –  “social”  AND  “learning”  AND    “higher  educaEon”     A   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com  (12.08.2013)    
  • 23.    my  approach   •  relevant  journals     –  ScienceDirect:  16  journals  (out  of  54  journals  found  in  EducaEon,     Media  and  Technology,  EducaEonal  Psychology)   –  Taylor  &  Francis:  38  journals  (out  of  235  journals  found  in  EducaEon)   •  poten8ally  eligible  studies  (including  duplicates  between  keyword  combinaEons)   –  “web”  AND  “learning”  AND    “higher  educaEon”   •  ScienceDirect:  1396  ar8cles  (out  of  16  journals)   •  Taylor  &  Francis:  872  ar8cles  (out  of  38  journals)   –  “social”  AND  “learning”  AND    “higher  educaEon”   •  ScienceDirect:  2352  ar8cles  (out  of  16  journals)   •  Taylor  &  Francis:  3263  ar8cles  (out  of  38  journals)   A   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com  (12.08.2013)    
  • 24.      “First,  they  must  be  experiment  in  design   including  two  groups  with  random  selecEon,   one-­‐group  pretest  and  poseest,  or  two  groups   without  random  selecEon.”             (Hew  &  Cheung  2013,  p.  50)      data  appraisal/assessment    B   Example #B: Hew & Cheung (2013): Use of Web 2.0 technologies in K-12 and higher education: The search for evidence-based practice Educational Research Review, Volume 9, 47-64
  • 25. “First,  they  must  be  experiment  in  design   including  two  groups  with  random  selecEon,   one-­‐group  pretest  and  poseest,  or  two  groups   without  random  selecEon.”             (Hew  &  Cheung  2013,  p.  50)      inclusion  criteria  B  
  • 26. “First,  they  must  be  experiment  in  design   including  two  groups  with  random  selecEon,   one-­‐group  pretest  and  poseest,  or  two  groups   without  random  selecEon.”     “[…]  studies  that  relied  on  student  self-­‐report   data  such  as  student  quesEonnaire  survey  and   interview  were  excluded.”         (Hew  &  Cheung  2013,  p.  50)      excluding  qualitaEve  data?  B  
  • 27.      “First,  they  must  be  experiment  in  design   including  two  groups  with  random  selecEon,   one-­‐group  pretest  and  poseest,  or  two  groups   without  random  selecEon.”          “[…]  studies  that  relied  on  student  self-­‐report   data  such  as  student  quesEonnaire  survey  and   interview  were  excluded.”         (Hew  &  Cheung  2013,  p.  50)      open  issues  B   Which  inclusion  and  exclusion  criteria  to  choose?   How  to  judge  the  quality  of  a  publicaEon?  
  • 28.    my  approach   •  reading  abstracts  (full-­‐text  if  needed)   •  inclusion  criteria:     –  empirical  study  (case  study,     experimental,  etc.)   –  study  focus  on  a  natural  seZng   in  higher  educaEon   –  use  of  social  media  to  support     learning   •  exclusion  criteria:   –  online  course/distance  educaEon   B   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com  (12.08.2013)    
  • 29.    my  approach   Screenshots  -­‐  hep://www.tandfonline.com,  hep://www.sciencedirect.com  (12.08.2013)     •  InteracEve  Learning  Environments:     –  9  ar8cles  (out  of  55)   •  Studies  in  Higher  EducaEon   –  5  ar8cles  (out  of  54)   B  
  • 30. “The  basic  unit  of  analysis  was  each   individual  empirical  ar8cle.  Using  the   constant-­‐compara8ve  method  espoused   by  Lincoln  and  Guba  (1985),  the  coding  scheme   was  not  predetermined  prior  to  our  analysis   but  emerged  inducEvely  from  the  data.  […]  “   (Sim  &  Hew  2010,  p.  153)      data  analysis  C   Example #C: Sim & Hew (2010): The use of weblogs in higher education settings: A review of empirical research Educational Research Review, Volume 5, Issue 2, 151-163
  • 31. “The  basic  unit  of  analysis  was  each   individual  empirical  ar8cle.  Using  the   constant-­‐compara8ve  method  espoused   by  Lincoln  and  Guba  (1985),  the  coding  scheme   was  not  predetermined  prior  to  our  analysis   but  emerged  inducEvely  from  the  data.  […]  “   (Sim  &  Hew  2010,  p.  153)      basic  unit  of  analysis  C  
  • 32. •  constant-­‐compara8ve  method   –  wriEng  memos   –  started  with  „open  coding“      my  approach  C  
  • 33. preliminary  results  3  
  • 34. •  ...  using  social  media  for   peer  feedback  &     assessment     preliminary  codes  
  • 35. •  ...  using  social  media  for   peer  feedback  &     assessment     –  “To  foster  the  social  learning  culture,  we  also  asked  students  to  check   into  their  classmates’  blogs  to  see  what  other  people  have  wrieen.  […]   students  are  encouraged  to  read  others’  posEngs  and  then  write   comments  to  some  of  those  posEngs.”  (Chang  and  Chang  2011,  p.  4)     –  “InstrucEonal  acEvity:  The  class  acEvity  was  essenEally  comprised  of   one  student  (author)  providing  a  proposal  to  a  second  student  (peer   reviewer)  who  would  then  review  the  proposal  and  criEque  the   proposal  that  was  then  returned  back  to  the  author  to  review  the   criEque.”  (Mendenhall  &  Johnson  2010,  p.  268)   preliminary  codes  
  • 36. •  ...  using  social  media  to     increase  the  transparency     of  students  workflow/collabora8on     preliminary  codes  
  • 37. •  ...  using  social  media  to     increase  the  transparency     of  students  workflow/collabora8on   –  In  addiEon,  the  facilitator  regularly  viewed  every  student’s  space  and   provided  feedback  on  student  work.  (Lu  and  Churchill  2012,  pp.  5)   –  Content  evoluEon            Day  of  week  acEvity  in   by  ...                    WikiHaskell                        (Palomo-­‐Duarte  et  al.  2012,  pp.  10-­‐12)     preliminary  codes  
  • 38.        Franco  Rau,  M.Ed.      f.rau@apaed.tu-­‐darmstadt.de        @FrancoRau      hep://de.slideshare.net/FrancoRau/     Thank  you!  
  • 39. [1]  Aydin,  S.  (2012):  A  Review  of  Research  on  Facebook  as  an   EducaEonal  Environment.  Educa&onal  Technology  Research  and   Development.  60  (6):  1093–1106   [2]  Chang,  Y.J.  &  Chang,  Y.S.  (2011):  Assessing  peer  support  and   usability  of  blogging  in  hybrid  learning  environments.  Interac&ve   Learning  Environments;   hep://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2011.619889     [3]  Cooper,  H.  &  Hedges,  L.V.  (2009):  Research  Synthesis  as  a  ScienEfic   Process.  In:  Cooper,  Hedges  &  ValenEn  (eds.):  The  Handbook  of   Research  Synthesis  and  Meta-­‐Analysis.  Russel  Sage  FoundaEon,  New   York,  3—18     [4]  Dixon-­‐Woods,  M.  et  al.  (2007):  Synthesizing  qualitaEve  research:  a   review  of  published  reports.  Qualita&ve  Research  2007;  7;   hep://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468794107078517   [5]  GouseE,  A.  (2010):  Web  2.0  and  educaEon:  not  just  another  case  of   hype,  hope  and  disappointment?  Learning,  Media  and  Technology   35(3):  351—356   [6]  Hannes,  K.  &  MacaiEs,  K.  (2012):  A  move  to  more  systemaEc  and   transparent  approaches  in  qualitaEve  evidence  synthesis:  update  on  a   review  of  published  papers.  Qualita&ve  Research  2012;  12;   hep://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468794111432992   [7]  Hew,  K.F.  &  Cheung,  W.S.  (2013):  Use  of  Web  2.0  technologies  in   K-­‐12  and  higher  educaEon:  The  search  for  evidence-­‐based  pracEce.   Educa&onal  Research  Review;  9:  47–64;   hep://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2012.08.001   [8]  Lu,  J.  &  Churchill,  D.  (2012):  The  effect  of  social  interacEon  on   learning  engagement  in  a  social  networking  environment,  Interac&ve   Learning  Environments,   hep://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2012.680966     [9]  Mendenhall,  A  .  &  Johnson,  T.  E.  (2010):  Fostering  the  development   of  criEcal  thinking  skills,  and  reading  comprehension  of  undergraduates   using  a  Web  2.0  tool  coupled  with  a  learning  system,  Interac&ve   Learning  Environments,  18:3,  263—276;   hep://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2010.500537   [10]  Palomo-­‐Duarte  et  al.  (2012):  Assessment  of  collaboraEve  learning   experiences  by  graphical  analysis  of  wiki  contribuEons,  Interac&ve   Learning  Environments,   hep://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2012.680969   [11]  Peled,  Y.  et  al.  (2012):  CharacterisaEon  of  pre-­‐  service  teachers'   aZtude  to  feedback  in  a  wiki-­‐environment  framework,  Interac&ve   Learning  Environments,     hep://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2012.731002   [12]  Wheeler,  S.  (2009).  Learning  Space  Mashups:  Combining  Web  2.0   Tools  to  Create  CollaboraEve  and  ReflecEve  Learning  Spaces.  Future   Internet,  1(1),  3-­‐13.   [13]  Rau,  F.  (2012):  Social  Sonware  in  der  Hochschullehre.  KriEsche   Analyse  didakEscher  Szenarien.  Master  Thesis,  urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-­‐ opus-­‐63145     [14]  Selwyn,  N.  (2010).  The  educaEonal  significance  of  social  media  –  a   criEcal  perspecEve.  Keynote  at  Ed-­‐Media  Conference  2010;  hep:// www.scribd.com/doc/33693537/  The-­‐educaEonal-­‐significance-­‐of-­‐social-­‐ media-­‐a-­‐criEcal-­‐perspecEve   [15]  Sim,  J.W.S.  &  Hew,  K.F.  (2010):  The  use  of  weblogs  in  higher   educaEon  seZngs:  A  review  of  empirical  research.  Educa&onal  Research   Review,  5(2):  151—163;   hep://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2010.01.001     [16]  Tess,  P.A.  (2013):  The  Role  of  social  media  in  higher  educaEon   classes  (real  and  virtual)  –  A  literature  review.  Computers  in  Human   Behavior,  29  (5):  A60-­‐A68         references